Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Digestive Disorders: Lower Gastrointestinal Tract Presented by: APS Healthcare Southwestern PA Health Care Quality Unit (HCQU) November 2010 cjp.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Digestive Disorders: Lower Gastrointestinal Tract Presented by: APS Healthcare Southwestern PA Health Care Quality Unit (HCQU) November 2010 cjp."— Presentation transcript:

1 Digestive Disorders: Lower Gastrointestinal Tract Presented by: APS Healthcare Southwestern PA Health Care Quality Unit (HCQU) November 2010 cjp

2 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 2 Disclaimer Information or education provided by the HCQU is not intended to replace medical advice from the consumer’s personal care physician, existing facility policy or federal, state and local regulations/codes within the agency jurisdiction. The information provided is not all inclusive of the topic presented. Certificates for training hours will only be awarded to those who attend a training in its entirety. Attendees are responsible for submitting paperwork to their respective agencies.

3 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 3 Note of Clarification While mental retardation (MR) is still recognized as a clinical diagnosis, in an effort to support the work of self-advocates, the APS SW PA HCQU will be using the terms intellectual and/or developmental disability (ID/DD) to replace mental retardation (MR) when feasible.

4 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 4 Objectives  Recognize signs and symptoms of common lower GI disorders  Identify non-verbal indicators of pain  Name supportive measures for individuals with lower GI disorders

5 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 5 Gastro-intestinal Tract Components  Upper GI tract –Mouth –Esophagus –Stomach  Lower GI tract –Small intestine –Large intestine

6 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 6 Function Of The Lower GI Tract  Digestion  Elimination

7 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 7 Function And Structure Of Small Intestine  Digestion and absorption –Chyme – digested food from the stomach  Duodenum, jejunum, ileum

8 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 8 Function And Structure Of The Large Intestine  Movement of intestinal contents  Absorption  Cecum  Ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon  Rectum

9 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 9 Common Lower GI Tract Disorders Diverticular Disease –Diverticulosis –Diverticulitis  Inflammatory Bowel Disease –Ulcerative Colitis –Crohn’s Disease  Irritable Bowel Syndrome  Viral Gastroenteritis –Norovirus

10 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 10 Disorders Of The Lower GI Tract  Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Colitis –Clostridium difficile (C. diff)  Celiac Disease  Hirschsprung’s Disease  Appendicitis

11 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 11 Diverticular Disease  Diverticulosis  Diverticulitis

12 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 12 Diverticulitis  Common symptoms: –Pain –Change in Bowel Habits –Fever –Nausea and vomiting –Constipation –Diarrhea  Less common symptoms: –Bloating –Rectal Bleeding  Nonverbal signs of pain: –Refusal to eat –Withdrawal –Crying

13 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 13 Diverticular Disease Causes and Risk Factors  Trapped fecal matter  Reduced blood supply  Age  Inadequate fiber intake  Lack of exercise  Obesity

14 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 14 Diagnosing Diverticulitis  Abdominal CT  Ultrasound

15 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 15 Treatment Of Diverticulitis  Depends on severity  Antibiotics  Pain relief  Surgery

16 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 16 Diverticulitis Prevention  Eat fiber  Drink fluids  Don’t delay bowel urges  Exercise regularly

17 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 17 Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)  Ulcerative Colitis  Crohn’s Disease

18 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 18 Ulcerative Colitis Symptoms  Abdominal pain  Abdominal sounds  Diarrhea  Rectal pain  Weight loss  Fever

19 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 19 Ulcerative Colitis Diagnosis And Screening  Colonoscopy with biopsy  American Cancer Society recommends screenings –8 years after first diagnosis of severe disease or when a large part of intestine is involved –12-15 years following a diagnosis where only the left side of the large intestine is involved –Follow-up examinations every 1-2 years

20 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 20 Ulcerative Colitis Treatment  Diet  Medications  Surgery

21 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 21 Crohn’s Disease Symptoms  Abdominal pain / cramping  Diarrhea  Fever  Anemia  Joint inflammation  Weight loss

22 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 22 Crohn’s Disease Diagnosis  Stool culture  Barium enema / x-ray  CT and ultrasound  Colonoscopy  Endoscopy  MRI  Laboratory Tests

23 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 23 Crohn’s Disease Treatment  Diet  Medication  Surgery

24 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 24 Irritable Bowel Syndrome  Unknown cause  Abdominal pain  Diarrhea  Constipation

25 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 25 Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Diagnosis  Symptom based

26 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 26 Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatment  Diet  Reduce stress  Medications

27 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 27 Viral Gastroenteritis  Inflammation  Norovirus

28 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 28 Gastroenteritis Symptoms  Nausea  Vomiting  Diarrhea  Abdominal cramps

29 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 29 Gastroenteritis Transmission  Contaminated food or liquids  Undercooked shellfish  Close contact with infected persons  Seasonal

30 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 30 Gastroenteritis Treatment  Prevent dehydration

31 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 31 Gastroenteritis Prevention  Wash hands frequently  Cook food thoroughly  Bleach-based cleaner  Launder soiled linens

32 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 32 Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea And Colitis  Clostridium difficile

33 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 33 C Diff Signs and Symptoms  Mild to moderate C. Diff  Severe C. Diff

34 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 34 C. Diff Transmission  Fecal-oral route  Spore forming bacteria

35 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 35 C. Diff treatment  Antibiotics –Flagyl –Vancomycin  Probiotics –Florastor  Drink fluids

36 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 36 C. Diff Prevention  Hand washing  Thorough cleaning  Prudent use of antibiotics

37 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 37 Celiac Disease  Immune system reaction to gluten  Small intestine damage  Autoimmune disease

38 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 38 Celiac Disease Signs And Symptoms  Gastrointestinal symptoms –Intermittent diarrhea –Abdominal pain, bloating –Decreased appetite, weight loss –Constipation –Lactose intolerance –Stools that float  Non-gastrointestinal symptoms –Pale mouth sores –Painful skin rashes –Missed menstrual periods –Anemia –Joint pain, muscle cramps –Dental and bone disorders –Neuropathy

39 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 39 Celiac Disease Causes And Diagnosis  Cause unknown  Blood tests  Biopsy

40 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 40 Celiac Disease Treatment And Prevention  Gluten-free diet  Vitamin and mineral supplements  Dietician referral

41 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 41 Hirschsprung’s Disease  Affects large intestine  Present at birth  Missing colonic nerve cells

42 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 42 Hirschsprung’s Disease Signs And Symptoms  Newborn symptoms –Failure to pass stool –Infrequent, explosive stools –Jaundice –Poor feeding  Adult symptoms –Chronic constipation –Anemia

43 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 43 Hirschsprung’s Disease Causes  Unknown cause  May be genetic

44 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 44 Hirschsprung’s Disease Diagnosis And Treatment  Abdominal x-ray  Anal manometry  Barium enema  Rectal biopsy  Pull-through procedure

45 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 45 Appendicitis  Finger-shaped protrusion  Unknown function

46 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 46 Appendicitis Signs And Symptoms  Abdominal pain  Rebound tenderness  Nausea and vomiting  Loss of appetite  Low-grade fever  Constipation  Inability to pass gas  Diarrhea  Abdominal swelling

47 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 47 Appendicitis Causes  Obstruction  Infection

48 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 48 Appendicitis Diagnosis  Abdominal exam  Urine test  Blood test  Imaging tests

49 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 49 Appendicitis Treatment And Prevention  Appendectomy  Open surgery  Laparoscopic surgery  High fiber diet

50 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 50 Caregivers Make A Difference  Infection control  Dietary recommendations  Prompt reporting of behavioral changes

51 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 51 Suggested Trainings  Digestive Disorders: Upper GI  Bowel Management  Behavioral Manifestations Of Pain

52 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 52 References  Gastrointestinal Disorders, The Merck Manual of Geriatrics, The Merck Manuals Online Medical Library. Retrieved on November 11, 2010 from on =Gastrointestinal%20Disorders  Viral Gastroenteritis, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers For Disease Control, (CDC) Retrieved on November 23, 2010 from  Norovirus Q&A, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers For Disease Control, (CDC). Retrieved on November 2, 2010 from

53 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 53 References  The Lower G.I. Tract, Introduction to Clinical Medicine Gastroenterology, North Carolina State University. Retrieved on November 8, 2010 from  Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Google Health. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from https://health.google.com/health/ref/Irritable+bowel+syndrome  Diverticulitis, by Mayo Clinic Staff, MayoClinic.com. Retrieved on November 7, 2010 from rint  Crohn’s Disease, Google Health. Retrieved November 16, 2010 from https://health.google.com/health/ref/Crohn's+disease

54 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 54 References  Hirschsprung’s Disease, by Mayo Clinic Staff, Mayo Clinic.com. Retrieved on November 16, 2010 from  Hirschsprung’s Disease, MedlinePlus. Retrieved on November 16, 2010 from  Ulcerative Colitis, Google Health. Retrieved on November 16, 2010 from https://health.google.com/health/ref/Crohn's+disease  Remicade, Drug Information Online, Drugs.com, retrieved on November 19, 2010 from

55 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 55 References  Appendicitis, by the Mayo Clinic Staff, Mayo Clinic.com. Retrieved on November 16, 2010 from =print  Appendicitis, Digestive Disorders Health Center, WebMD. Retrieved on November 26, 2010 from appendicitis?page=2&print=true  Celiac Disease, by Mayo Clinic Staff, Mayo Clinic.com, retrieved on November 4, 2010 from ttp://www.mayoclinic.com/health/celiac- disease/DS00319/DSECTION=symptoms

56 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 56 To register for future trainings, or for more information on this or any other physical or behavioral health topic, please visit our website at

57 © 2009 APS Healthcare, Inc. 57

58 Evaluation Please take a few moments to complete the evaluation form found in the back of your packets. Thank You!

59 Test Review There will be a test review after all tests have been completed and turned in to the Instructor.


Download ppt "Digestive Disorders: Lower Gastrointestinal Tract Presented by: APS Healthcare Southwestern PA Health Care Quality Unit (HCQU) November 2010 cjp."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google