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Introduction to WASH-related diseases in Emergencies Module 1 – Session 2 Health.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to WASH-related diseases in Emergencies Module 1 – Session 2 Health."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to WASH-related diseases in Emergencies Module 1 – Session 2 Health

2 What is health? World Health Organization defines health as:  “ Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well- being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” WHO constitution also mentions:  “The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social condition”

3 Health in Emergency “Public Health in Emergency”, is a natural disaster that poses a high probability of a large number of deaths or harm to a population.  -Health in Emergencies (deals with health in disasters)  -Health Emergencies (epidemics)

4 Consequences of Disasters  Severe injuries, deaths  Loss/damage to shelters  Loss of properties  Disease outbreaks  Food Shortages  Large population displacement  Load on health infrastructure  Load on water sanitation  Load on nutrition

5 Health Impact of different disasters  Injuries  Disease epidemics (water-borne, food-borne, vector-borne)– Diarrhea, Cholera, Typhoid Fever, Malaria, Tuberculosis…  Population specific health issues in emergencies  < 5 y/o children; elderly; physically challenged  ARI, Measles, Vit.A deficiency, malnutrition, reproductive health, HIV/AIDS  Psychological stress  Others-snake-bites, dog bites, skin diseases

6 Factors contributing to Disaster Severity  Human vulnerability due to poverty and social inequality  Environmental degradation  Rapid population growth especially among the poor  Increasing population density  Increased settlement in high-risks areas  Increased technological hazards and dependency

7 Factors that can increases to Diseases Poor water  -Limited quantity of water for hygiene purposes  -Poor quality water Poor sanitation  -Lack/absence of sufficient or appropriate and well-maintained excreta disposal facilities  -Lack of refuse collection, blocked drainage, standing water  -Inadequate control of vectors (e.g. mosquitoes, flies, fleas, insects & rodents

8 Factors that can increases to Diseases Poor Housing and Drainage  -Poor, over-crowded housing  -Inadequate drainage systems Poor knowledge and practice  -Poor level of hygiene understanding  -Poor hygiene practice (food contamination from soiled hands)

9 Water-borne diseases-  transmitted through drinking water which contains pathogen e.g. cholera, typhoid, diarrheas, dysenteries and infectious hepatitis

10 Water-washed diseases  caused by pathogens whose transmission can be prevented by improving personal hygiene-water quantity rather than water quality Types :- diseases associated with the faecal-oral route-infections of the skin or eyes-infections caused by some vectors

11 Water-based diseases  pathogen spends parts of its lifecycle in the water  usually in a snail or other aquatic animal. -all caused by parasitic worms-pathogens usually enter the water from faeces and  urine of infected persons

12 Food-borne illnesses  result when disease-causing agents enter the body through food;

13 Vector Borne  diseases carried by insects that breed in or near dirty water- transmitted through vectors (e.g. mosquito, fly, lice)

14 The pathogen: the organism causing the infection The host: the infected person or animal carrying the pathogen The exit: the method the pathogen uses to leave in the body of the host Transmission: how the pathogen is transferred from host to susceptible person or animal The environment: the environment in which the transmission of the pathogen takes place The entry: the method the pathogen uses to enter the body of the susceptible person or animal The susceptible person or animal: the potential future host who is receptive to the pathogen Exercise 1: Disease transmission routes

15 Diarrhea  It is usually a symptom of gastrointestinal infection.  Severe diarrhea leads to fluid loss, and may be life-threatening, particularly in young children and people who are malnourished or have impaired immunity. 1.Infection:a host of bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms, most of which are spread by feces-contaminated water. Infection is more common when there is a shortage of clean water for drinking, cooking and cleaning. Rotavirus and Escherichia coli-two most common causes of diarrhea in developing countries. 2. Malnutrition:Children who die from diarrhea often suffer from underlying malnutrition, which makes them more vulnerable to diarrhea.

16 Diarrhea Mode of transmission  Ingestion of contaminated food and water, or from person to person as a result of poor hygiene. Signs and symptoms  Passage of loose or liquid stools at least 3x a day, or more frequently than is normal for the individual.  Excessive thirst  Sunken fontanels

17 Diarrhea  Immediate Treatment  Give Oral Rehydration Solution (ORESOL), rice soup (am) to replace lost body fluid  Continue feeding  Consult a health worker for signs of dehydration  Prevention and control  Improve access to safe drinking water  Improve sanitary conditions  Good personal and food hygiene  Health Education on how infections spread

18 Reduction in diarrhoea morbidity (%)

19 Cholera Causativeagent  Bacteria(VibrioCholera) Modeoftransmission  Eatingoffoodordrinkingwatercontaminatedbyfeacalwastes Signsandsymptoms  Suddenonsetoffrequentpainlesswaterystoolatleast3xaday  Vomiting  Rapiddehydration(sunkeneyeballs,wrinkleddryskin)

20 Cholera Immediate Treatment:  Replace lost body fluid by giving Oral Rehydration Solution (ORESOL)  If symptoms persist, bring the patient to a nearest health facility Prevention and control-  Improve access to safe drinking water. Practice boiling of water if unsure of the source and handling  Do water chlorination  Practice food safety by covering left over foods for future consumption  Wash and cook food properly  Sanitary disposal of human wastes  -Use toilet properly  Keep surroundings free from rubbish to prevent flies and other insects and rodents from breeding  Practice Hand-Washing

21 Typhoid fever Causative Agent  Bacteria (Salmonella Typhi) Mode of transmission  Ingesting contaminated food and/or water Signs and symptoms  Sustained high fever  Headache  Malaise  Anorexia  Diarrhea or constipation and abdominal discomfort

22 Typhoid Prevention and Control  Improve access to safe drinking water. Practice boiling of water if unsure of the source and handling  Do water chlorination  Practice food safety by covering left over foods for future consumption  Wash and cook food properly

23 Leptospirosis Causative Agent  -Bacteria (Leptospira interogans) Mode of transmission  -Contact with water contaminated with bacteria-infected urine Signs and symptoms Early Stages  - Severe headache  -High Fever  -Redness in the eyes  -Muscle Pains (calf and back muscles)  -Fatigue  -Nausea  -Abdominal pain  -Jaundice

24 Leptospirosis Management and treatment  Wide range of antibiotic e.g. doxycycline, penicillin or streptomycin duly prescribed by a physician  Early recognition and treatment within last 2 days of illness to prevent complications of leptospirosis Prevention and Control  Avoidance to direct and indirect contact with animal urine (e.g. wading in flood water)  Use of rubber boots and gloves  In cases of cuts and abrasions on lower extremities, antiseptic ointment or betadine should be applied before and after exposure  Drain potentially contaminated water  Control of rodents  Maintain cleanliness of surroundings


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