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Seafood Products Making Us Sick BC Food Protection Association Conference Embracing a Changing World October 22, 2009, Richmond, BC Dr. Donald E Kramer.

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Presentation on theme: "Seafood Products Making Us Sick BC Food Protection Association Conference Embracing a Changing World October 22, 2009, Richmond, BC Dr. Donald E Kramer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Seafood Products Making Us Sick BC Food Protection Association Conference Embracing a Changing World October 22, 2009, Richmond, BC Dr. Donald E Kramer

2 Outline u The identity and characteristics of –biological, –chemical and –physical safety hazards commonly identified with seafood. u Control measures for hazards in seafood,

3 Bacterial Pathogens u Bacillus cereus u Campylobacter jejuni u Clostridium botulinum u C. perfringens u Pathogenic Escherichia coli (e.g., E coli O157:H7) u Listeria monocytogenes u Salmonella spp. u Shigella spp. u Pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus (e.g., coagulase positive S. aureus) u Vibrio cholerae u V. parahaemolyticus u V. vulnificus u Yersinia enterocolitica

4 Clostridium botulinum u Source: Heat-resistant spores found throughout the environment. Soils, sediments, intestinal tracts of fish/mammals, gills and viscera of crabs and other shellfish u Symptoms: Diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, nausea, weakness, double, blurred vision, dilated, fixed pupils, respiratory paralysis u Transmission: Semi-preserved seafood, improperly canned foods u Control: Proper canning, a w <0.93, pH <4.7

5 Clostridium perfringens u Source: Soil, dust, intestinal tract of animals and humans u Symptoms: Intense abdominal cramps and diarrhea u Transmission: Spores present in raw foods u Control: Proper time/temperature control; preventing cross-contamination of cooked foods

6 Bacillus cereus u Source: Soil, dust, raw foods u Symptoms: 1) profuse watery diarrhea, abdominal pain; 2) vomiting, nausea u Transmission: Spores present in raw foods u Control: time/temperature; reheat cooked foods to >165 o F

7 Campylobacter jejuni u Source: Intestines of poultry, livestock, domestic animals, streams and ponds u Symptoms: Diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, weakness, fever u Transmission: Contaminated foods & water, person to person u Control: Proper cooking, proper hand and equipment washing, sanitary food handling practices

8 Escherichia coli O157:H7 u Source: Intestines of animals and humans u Symptoms: Abdominal cramping, water or bloody diarrhea, fever, nausea, vomiting u Transmission: Sewage pollution of coastal waters, contamination after harvest u Control: Proper cooking, holding chilled foods <40 o F, preventing cross-contamination, preventing ill people from working with food

9 Listeria monocytogenes u Source: Widespread in the environment u Symptoms: Mild flu-like symptoms to meningitis, abortions, septicemia, and death u Transmission: Cross-contamination from raw to cooked food, contaminated raw foods u Control: Proper cooking, preventing cross- contamination

10 Salmonella spp. u Source: Intestine of mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles u Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, fever u Transmission: Sewage pollution of coastal waters, contamination after harvest u Control: Proper cooking, holding chilled foods <40 o F, preventing cross-contamination, preventing ill people or carriers from working with food

11 Shigella spp. u Source: Intestine of humans u Symptoms: Mild diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, severs fluid loss u Transmission: Sewage pollution of coastal waters, contamination after harvest u Control: Preventing human waste contamination of water supplies, preventing ill people or carriers from working with food

12 Staphylococcus aureus u Source: Humans and animals, air, dust, sewage u Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, watery or bloody diarrhea, fever u Transmission: Contamination of food by workers or equipment, growth and toxin production in the food u Control: Minimizing time/temperature abuse of food, especially after cooking, requiring that food handlers engage in proper hygiene

13 Vibrio cholerae u Source: Naturally occurring in estuaries, bays and brackish water u Symptoms: 01: watery diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps; non-01: Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever u Transmission: Cross-contamination from raw to cooked seafood, consumption of raw seafood u Control: Proper cooking of seafood, preventing cross-contamination of cooked seafood.

14 Vibrio parahaemolyticus u Source: Naturally occurring in estuaries and other coastal areas throughout the world u Symptoms: Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headache u Transmission: Cross-contamination from raw to cooked seafood, consumption of raw seafood u Control: Proper cooking of seafood, preventing cross- contamination of cooked seafood

15 Vibrio vulnificus u Source: Naturally occurring marine bacterium u Symptoms: Skin lesions, septic shock, fever, chills, nausea u Transmission: Cross-contamination from raw to cooked seafood, consumption of raw seafood u Control: Proper cooking of seafood, preventing cross- contamination of cooked seafood

16 Yersinia enterocolitica u Source: Soil, water, domesticated and wild animals u Symptoms: Diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever u Transmission: Cross-contamination from raw to cooked seafood, consumption of raw seafood, temperature abuse u Control: Proper cooking of seafood, preventing cross-contamination of cooked seafood, holding seafood <40 o F

17 Viral Pathogens u Hepatitis A virus u Norwalk virus

18 Hepatitis A Virus u Source: Contaminated coastal waters u Symptoms: Weakness, fever, abdominal pain, jaundice u Transmission: Cross-contamination from raw to cooked seafood, consumption of raw seafood u Control: Proper cooking of seafood, preventing cross- contamination of cooked seafood

19 Norwalk Virus u Source: Contaminated coastal waters, human intestines u Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever u Transmission: Cross-contamination from raw to cooked seafood, consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked seafood, fecal contamination of food or water u Control: Proper cooking of seafood, good sanitation, employee hygiene, preventing cross-contamination of cooked seafood

20 Parasites u Anisakis simplex u Pseudoterranova decipiens u Diphyllobothrium latum

21 Anisakis simplex (Herring Worm) u Nematode: mm x mm u Source: Raw fish (sushi, sashimi, lomi lomi, ceveche, sunomono, Dutch green herring, marinated fish, cold-smoked fish) u Symptoms: Abdominal pain u Transmission: Consumption of raw or undercooked fish u Control: Proper cooking of fish, commercial freezing of fish to be consumed raw

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24 Pseudoterranova decipiens (Codworm) u Nematode: 5-58 mm x mm u Source: Raw fish (sushi, sashimi, lomi lomi, ceveche, sunomono, Dutch green herring, marinated fish, cold- smoked fish, under-cooked fish) u Symptoms: Abdominal pain u Transmission: Consumption of raw or undercooked fish u Control: Proper cooking of fish, Commercial freezing of fish to be consumed raw

25 Diphyllobothrium latum u Tapeworm u Source: Raw freshwater or anadromous fish u Symptoms: Abdominal pain u Transmission: Consumption of raw or undercooked fish u Control: Proper cooking of fish

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27 Marine Toxins u Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) u Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) u Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) u Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) u Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) u Gempylotoxin u Scombroid toxin u Tetrodotoxin

28 Scombroid Toxin u Toxin: Histamine u Source: Improperly handled (time/temperature abuse) mahi mahi, tuna, bluefish, sardines, amberjack, mackerel u Symptoms: Metallic or peppery taste, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, swelling and flushing of face, headache, dizziness, heart palpitations, hives, rapid and weak pulse, thirst, difficulty swallowing u Control: Proper chilling and temperature control

29 Ciguatera Fish Poisoning u Toxin: Ciguatoxin u Source: Certain species of tropical and subtropical fish feeding on algae (Gambierdiscus spp.) u Symptoms: Diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, abnormal or impaired skin sensations, vertigo, lack of muscle coordination, cold/hot sensation reversal, muscular pain and itching u Control: Obtain fish from safe harvest areas

30 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning u Toxin: Saxitoxins (18 types) u Source: Contaminated molluscan shellfish feeding on algae (Alexandrium, Pyrodinium, Gymnodinium spp.) u Symptoms: Numbness and burning or tingling sensation of lips and tongue spreading to face and fingertips, general lack of muscle coordination in arms, legs, neck u Control: Obtain molluscan shellfish from waters that have been approved for harvest

31 Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning u Toxin: Okadaic acid and its derivatives u Source: Contaminated molluscan shellfish feeding on algae (Dinophysis and Prorocentrum spp.) u Symptoms: Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, cramps u Control: Obtain molluscan shellfish from waters that have been approved for harvest

32 Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning u Toxin: Brevetoxins u Source: Contaminated molluscan shellfish feeding on algae (Gymnodinium breve) u Symptoms: Tingling of the face and spreading to other parts of the body, cold/hot sensation reversal dilation of pupils, feeling of inebriation u Control: Obtain molluscan shellfish from waters that have been approved for harvest

33 Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning u Toxin: Domoic acid u Source: Contaminated molluscan shellfish (mussels) feeding on algae (Pseudonitzschia spp.), viscera of Dungeness crab and anchovies u Symptoms: Intestinal distress, facial grimace or chewing motion, short-term memory loss, difficulty breathing u Control: Obtain molluscan shellfish from waters that have been approved for harvest

34 Gempylotoxin u Toxin: Oil contained in the flesh and bones of specific species u Source: Gemplids, escolars or pelagic mackerels (escolar; oilfish, castor oil fish or purgative fish; snek) u Symptoms: Diarrhea, generally without pain or cramping u Control: Avoid specific fish species

35 Tetrodotoxin u Toxin: Tetrodotoxin u Source: Gonads, liver, intestines and skin of pufferfish u Symptoms: Numbness and tingling of the mouth, weakness, paralysis, decreased blood pressure, quickened and weakened pulse. Death can occur within 30 minutes. u Control: Avoid improperly prepared pufferfish

36 Other Chemical and Physical Hazards u Aquaculture drugs u Allergens u Chemical contaminants u Food additives u Glass u Metal fragments

37 Thank You

38 Compendium of Fish and Fishery Product Processes, Hazards, and Controls u Seafood Processes and Controls Chapters 1 – 8 u Biological Hazards and Controls Chapters 9 – 21 u Chemical Hazards and Controls Chapters 22 – 27 u Physical Hazards and Controls Chapter 28 National Seafood HACCP Alliance for Training and Education


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