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Y1.U2.2 The Microworld. Objectives Identify factors that affect the growth of foodborne pathogens (FAT TOM)Identify factors that affect the growth of.

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Presentation on theme: "Y1.U2.2 The Microworld. Objectives Identify factors that affect the growth of foodborne pathogens (FAT TOM)Identify factors that affect the growth of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Y1.U2.2 The Microworld

2 Objectives Identify factors that affect the growth of foodborne pathogens (FAT TOM)Identify factors that affect the growth of foodborne pathogens (FAT TOM) Differentiate between foodborne intoxication, infections, and toxin-mediated infections.Differentiate between foodborne intoxication, infections, and toxin-mediated infections.

3 Objectives Identify major foodborne illness and their symptoms.Identify major foodborne illness and their symptoms. Identify major characteristics of major foodborne pathogens including sources, foods involved in outbreaks, and methods of prevention. Identify major characteristics of major foodborne pathogens including sources, foods involved in outbreaks, and methods of prevention.

4 Key Terms MicroorganismsSpore PathogensVirus ToxinsParasite BacteriaFungi FAT TOMMold Temperature danger zoneYeast Water activity (A w )

5 Microbial Contaminants Microorganisms: small living beings that can be seen only with a microscope, some cause disease, they are called pathogens, some pathogens produce toxinsMicroorganisms: small living beings that can be seen only with a microscope, some cause disease, they are called pathogens, some pathogens produce toxins

6 How Contamination Occurs Person to personPerson to person Sneezing or vomiting on food or food contact surfacesSneezing or vomiting on food or food contact surfaces Touching dirty food contact surfaces or equipment and then touching foodTouching dirty food contact surfaces or equipment and then touching food

7 Symptoms of a Foodborne Illness DiarrheaDiarrhea VomitingVomiting NauseaNausea Abdominal crampsAbdominal cramps JaundiceJaundice

8 Microbial Contaminants The big 5The big 5 –Shigella spp. –Salmonella Typhi –Enterohemorrhagic and shiga producing E.Coli –Hepatitis A –Norovirus

9 Microbial Contaminants 4 Types Bacteria Virus Parasite Fungi

10 Bacteria characteristics Living single celled organismsLiving single celled organisms Carried by food, water, humans, insectsCarried by food, water, humans, insects Can reproduce rapidlyCan reproduce rapidly Can survive freezingCan survive freezing Some sporeSome spore

11 Bacteria characteristics Cause food spoilage and/or illnessCause food spoilage and/or illness Can produce toxins that cause illnessCan produce toxins that cause illness

12 Bacterial Growth 4 stages Lag: numbers are stable preparing for growthLag: numbers are stable preparing for growth

13 Bacterial Growth 4 stages Log: grows very fastLog: grows very fast

14 Bacterial Growth 4 stages Growth of Salmonella at different temperaturesGrowth of Salmonella at different temperatures 50°F. 44°F.

15 Bacterial Growth 4 stages Stationary: as many grow as dieStationary: as many grow as die Death: more dying than growingDeath: more dying than growing Vegetative stages and spore formation: some bacteria form thick walled spores that protectVegetative stages and spore formation: some bacteria form thick walled spores that protect

16 Bacterial Growth Conditions-Fat Tom

17 Food: need nutrients, specifically proteins and carbohydrates (potentially hazardous foods)Food: need nutrients, specifically proteins and carbohydrates (potentially hazardous foods) Acidity: grow best in neutral to slightly acidic pHAcidity: grow best in neutral to slightly acidic pH

18

19 Bacterial Growth Conditions-Fat Tom Temperature: between 41 and 135 degrees F.Temperature: between 41 and 135 degrees F. –Temperature danger zone –Keeping foods out of danger zone slows growth –Cooking to proper temperature kills (except spores)

20 Bacterial Growth Conditions-Fat Tom Time: cumulative, food in danger zone 4 hours or more bacteria growth is high enough to make someone illTime: cumulative, food in danger zone 4 hours or more bacteria growth is high enough to make someone ill 70°F.-125°F is bacteria Mardi Gras70°F.-125°F is bacteria Mardi Gras

21 Bacterial Growth Conditions-Fat Tom OxygenOxygen –Aerobic: require oxygen to grow –Anaerobic: can grow in absence of oxygen –Facultative: either, most organisms that cause foodborne illness (vacuum packaging)

22 Bacterial Growth Conditions-Fat Tom Moisture: need waterMoisture: need water –Water activity: 0-1.0, grows best.85-.97, available water.

23 water water activity activity

24 Control with Fat Tom Make food more acidicMake food more acidic Raise or lower temperatureRaise or lower temperature Lower water activityLower water activity Limit time in danger zoneLimit time in danger zone

25 Salmonella Shingella E.Coli157

26 Bacteria: Bacillus Cereus Illness: Bacillus Cereus Gastroenteritis Linked Food Infection Symptoms 30 min.-15 hrs. Prevention Diarrhea Illness Cooked vegetables Meat products Milk Vomiting Illness Cooked rice dishes, including fried rice and rice pudding -Spore forming -Found in dirt Diarrhea Illness Watery diarrhea No vomiting Vomiting Illness Nausea Vomiting Cook to minimum temperature Hold at proper temperature Cool correctly

27 Bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes Illness: Listeriosis Linked Food Infection Symptoms 1-21 days Prevention Raw Meat Unpasteurized dairy products Ready-to-eat food, such as deli meat, hot dogs and soft cheeses -Found in dirt, water, plants -grows in cool moist environments -high-risk and pregnant women particularly vunerable Pregnant Women Miscarriage Newborns Sepsis Pneumonia Meningitis Discard after expiration date Cook raw meat to minimum internal temperature Prevent cross contamination Avoid unpasteurized dairy products

28 Bacteria: Enteohemorrhagic and shinga producing Escherichia coli Illness: Hemorrhagic colitis Linked Food Toxin-mediated infection Symptoms 12-72 hrs. Prevention Ground beef (raw and undercooked Contaminated produce -often found in a person’s feces weeks after symptoms have ended Diarrhea (eventually becomes bloody) Abdominal cramps Kidney failure (in severe cases) Cook raw meat to minimum internal temperature Approved sources (produce) Prevent cross contamination Exclude staff with diarrhea or hemorrhagic colitis

29 Bacteria: Campylobacter jejuni Illness: Campylobacteriosis Linked Food Infection Symptoms 1-10 days Prevention Poultry Water contaminated with bacteria Meats Stews, gravies Diarrhea (may be watery or bloody) Abdominal cramps Fever Vomiting Headaches Cook food, particularly poultry to minimum internal temperature Prevent cross contamination

30 Bacteria: Clostridium perfringens Illness: Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis Linked Food Toxin-mediated infection Symptoms 6-22 hrs. Prevention Meat Poultry Dishes made from meat and poultry such as stews and gravies -Found in dirt -commercially prepped food is not often involved Diarrhea (may be watery or bloody) Abdominal cramps Fever Vomiting Headaches Cook food, particularly poultry to minimum internal temperature Prevent cross contamination

31 Bacteria: Clostridium botulinum Illness: Botulism Linked Food Intoxication Symptoms 12-36 hrs. Prevention Incorrectly canned food Reduced Oxygen Packaged food (ROP) Temperature-abused foods such as baked Potatoes Untreated garlic-in-oil mixtures -Spore forming -grows without oxygen Initially Nausea and vomiting Later Weakness Double vision Difficulty in speaking and swallowing Hold, cool and reheat food correctly Inspect canned food for damage

32 Bacteria: Samonella spp. Illness: Salmonellosis Linked Food Infection Symptoms 6-72 hrs. Prevention Poultry and eggs Dairy products Produce -often found in a person’s feces weeks after symptoms have ended Diarrhea Abdominal cramps Vomiting Fever Cook poultry and eggs to minimum internal temperature Prevent cross contamination Exclude staff with Salmonellosis

33 Bacteria: Samonella Typhi Illness: Typhoid fever Linked Food Infection Symptoms 1-2 weeks Prevention Ready-to-eat food (RTE) Beverages -often found in a person’s feces weeks after symptoms have ended High fever Weakness Abdominal pain Headache Loss of appetite Rash Exclude staff with Samonella typhi Cook food to minimum internal temperature Wash hands

34 Bacteria: Shigella spp. Illness: Shigellosis Linked Food Infection Symptoms 12 hrs.-7 days Prevention Food that is easily contaminated by hands, such as salads containing TCS food (potato, tuna, shrimp, pasta, chicken) Food that has made contact with contaminated water (produce) -often found in a person’s feces weeks after symptoms have ended Bloody diarrhea Abdominal pain and cramps Fever (occasionally) Exclude staff with Singella spp., and/or diarrhea Wash hands Control flies, inside and out

35 Bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus Illness: Staphylococcal gastroenteritis Linked Food Intoxication Symptoms 1-6 hrs. Prevention Food that is handled during prepping Salads containing TCS food (Egg, tuna, chicken, mac) Deli meat -Bacteria can produce toxins cooking will not destroy -Preventing bacterial growth is critical Nausea Vomiting and retching Abdominal cramps Wash hands, particularly after touching hair, face body Cover wounds on hands or arms Hold, cool and reheat food correctly

36 Bacteria: Vibrio vulnificus / parahaemolyticus Illness: Vibro gastroenteritis / vulnificus primary septicemia Linked Food Infection Symptoms 12-48 hrs. Prevention Oysters from contaminated water -Grow rapidly at middle of danger zone -Diabetics/cirrhosis may get primary septicemia Diarrhea Abdominal cramps and nausea Vomiting Low-grade fever and chills Cook oysters to minimum internal temperature Approved supplier

37 Cutting Board

38 Viruses - characteristics Leading cause of foodborne illnessLeading cause of foodborne illness Transmit person to person, person to food/food contact surfaceTransmit person to person, person to food/food contact surface Do not reproduce in food, but inside human cell can produce more virusesDo not reproduce in food, but inside human cell can produce more viruses May survive freezingMay survive freezing Classified as infectionClassified as infection

39 Rotavirus

40 Virus: Hepatitis A Illness: Hepatitis A Linked Food Infection Symptoms 5-50 days Prevention RTE Shellfish from contaminated water -Transferred by fingers with infected feces -Infected person can be very contagious without symptoms for weeks -Not destroyed by cooking Fever General weakness Nausea Abdominal pain Jaundice (appears later) Exclude staff with hepatitis A or jaundice Wash hands Avoid bare hand contact with RTE Approved supplier

41 Virus: Norovirus Illness: Norovirus gastroenteritis Linked Food Infection Symptoms 12-48 hrs. Prevention RTE Shellfish from contaminated water -Transferred by fingers with infected feces -Person can be contagious within a few hours after eating it Vomiting Diarrhea Nausea Abdominal cramps Exclude staff with Norovirus or dirrhea Wash hands Avoid bare hand contact with RTE Approved supplier

42 Parasites - characteristics Living organism that need host to surviveLiving organism that need host to survive Grow naturally in many animalsGrow naturally in many animals May be killed by proper cooking and freezingMay be killed by proper cooking and freezing Associated with seafood, wild game, contaminated waterAssociated with seafood, wild game, contaminated water Classified as infectionClassified as infection

43 Trichinella

44 Parasite: Anisakis simplex Illness: Anisakiasis Linked Food Infection Symptoms 1 hr.-2 wks. Prevention Raw and undercooked fish Herring Cod Halibut Mackerel Pacific Salmon Tingling in throat Coughing up worms Cook fish to minimum internal temperatures If serving raw or undercooked fish, purchase sushi-grade fish that has been frozen to the correct time-temperature requirements

45 Parasite: Cryptosporidium parvum Illness: Cryptosporidiosis Linked Food Infection Symptoms 2-10 days Prevention Contaminated water Produce -Transferred by fingers with infected feces -Day-care and medical communities are frequent locations -More severe with weak immune system Watery diarrhea Abdominal cramps Nausea Weight loss Use correctly treated water Exclude staff with diarrhea Wash hands

46 Parasite: Giardia duodenalis Illness: Giardiasis Linked Food Infection Symptoms 1-2 weeks Prevention Contaminated water Produce -Transferred by fingers with infected feces -Day-care and medical communities are frequent locations -More severe with weak immune system Initially Fever Later Diarrhea Abdominal cramps Nausea Use correctly treated water Exclude staff with diarrhea Wash hands

47 Parasite: Cyclospora cayetanensis Illness: Cyclosporiasis Linked Food Infection Symptoms 1-23 days Prevention Incorrectly treated water Produce such as berries, lettuce, basil -Transferred by fingers with infected feces Nausea Abdominal cramps Mild fever Diarrhea alternating with constipation Loss of weight Loss of appetite Approved supplier Exclude staff with diarrhea Wash hands

48 Fungi Molds Spoil foods and sometimes cause illnessSpoil foods and sometimes cause illness Grow under almost any condition but favor sweet, acidic foods with low water activityGrow under almost any condition but favor sweet, acidic foods with low water activity Freezing does not destroyFreezing does not destroy

49 Fungi Molds Some produce toxins called aflatoxins (peanuts, some tree nuts)Some produce toxins called aflatoxins (peanuts, some tree nuts) Can be cut away, 1 inchCan be cut away, 1 inch Yeasts: pink discoloration, slime, bubble, likes same conditions as mold, throw out.

50 Yeast vs Mold

51 Infection v Intoxication Infections: person eats foods containing pathogens, symptoms do not appear immediatelyInfections: person eats foods containing pathogens, symptoms do not appear immediately –Campylobacteriosis, Salmonellosis, Shigellosis, Listeriosis, Vibro parahaemolyticus Gastroenteritis, Vibro vulnificus

52 Infection v Intoxication Intoxication: person eats food containing toxins, symptoms appear within a few hoursIntoxication: person eats food containing toxins, symptoms appear within a few hours –Bacillus cereus Gastroenteritis, Staphylococcal Gastroenteritis, Botulism

53 Infection v Intoxication Toxin-mediated infection: person eats food containing pathogen, which then produce illness toxins in the intestinesToxin-mediated infection: person eats food containing pathogen, which then produce illness toxins in the intestines –Clostridium perfringens Gastroenteritis, Hemorrhagic Colitis

54 Biological Toxins SeafoodSeafood –Cannot be smelled or tasted –Cannot be destroyed by freezing or cooking MushroomMushroom PlantPlant

55 Toxin: Histamine Illness: Scombroid poisoning Linked Food Intoxication Symptoms Immediate-30 min. Prevention Tuna Bonito Mackerel Mahimahi -Bacteria on fish make toxin when time- temperature abused Initially Reddening of face and neck Sweating Headache Burning/tingling in mouth/throat Later Diarrhea Vomiting Prevent time- temperature abuse

56 Toxin: Ciguatoxin Illness: Ciguatera fish poisoning Linked Food Intoxication Symptoms 15 min.-1day Prevention Barracuda Grouper Jacks Snapper -Predatory reef fish eat smaller fish that ate toxic algae -Symptoms may last months or years Reversal of hot/cold sensations Nausea Vomiting Tingling in fingers, lips toes Joint or muscle pain Approved supplier

57 Toxin: Saxitoxin Illness: Paralytic fish poisoning (PSP) Linked Food Intoxication Symptoms 30 min.-3 hrs. Prevention Shellfish found in colder waters of Pacific and New England coasts Clams Oysters Mussels Scallops -From filtering toxic algae Numbness Tingling of the mouth, legs, arms, face Dizziness Vomiting Nausea Diarrhea Approved supplier

58 Toxin: Brevetoxin Illness: Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) Linked Food Intoxication Symptoms 5 min.-3 hrs. Prevention Shellfish found in warmer waters: west coast of Florida, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Clams Oysters Mussels -From filtering toxic algae Tingling of the mouth, lips, tongue, throat Dizziness Reversal of hot/cold sensations Vomiting Diarrhea Approved supplier

59 Toxin: Domoic Acid Illness: Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) Linked Food Intoxication Symptoms 15 min.-38 hrs. Prevention Shellfish found in Pacific Northwest, east coast of Canada Clams Oysters Mussels Scallops -From filtering toxic algae Initially Vomiting Diarrhea Abdominal pain Possibly Later Confusion Memory loss Disorientation Seizure Coma Approved supplier

60 Mushroom Toxins Linked FoodSymptomsPrevention Easy to mistake from non- toxic Not destroyed by cooking or freezing Depends on type Approved supplier

61 Plant Toxins Linked FoodSymptomsPrevention Fool’s parsley Wild turnips Honey from bees harvesting from toxic plants Undercooked kidney beans Depends on type Approved supplier


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