Diverticular Disease Description: intestinal disorder characterized by presence of diverticula, bulges that protrude through muscular walls of GI tract Cause: increased pressure in lumen of bowel, which pushes inner lining through muscular layer, especially in weak areas Signs and Symptoms –Diverticulosis: asymptomatic or mild pain, alternating diarrhea and constipation, blood in stools –Diverticulitis: inflammation of diverticula, lower left abdominal pain, excess gas formation, nausea, low-grade fever, irregular bowel movements
Down Syndrome Description: genetic, congenital disorder marked by mental and physical impairments Cause: presence of three instead of two copies of chromosome 21, resulting from defects in way ovum or sperm divide Signs and Symptoms –Mental disability (extent variable) –Slanting, almond-shaped eyes; protruding tongue –Small skull, mouth, and chin; slow development of teeth; flat bridge of nose; small, rounded ears –Short stature, short limbs, small hands, flat feet, poor balance and coordination
Down Syndrome (cont.) Risk Factors: birth of subject when mother is older than 34 or father is older than 42; genetic predisposition from mother or father; exposure to radiation and certain viruses Medical/Surgical Treatment: prevention through genetic screening and counseling Massage Therapy Cautions and Recommendations –Use caution when working around joints, which are lax and hyperflexible. –Seek special training if working with such clients regularly.
Dysmenorrhea Description: abdominal pain during menstruation excessive enough to prevent normal activity and require medication Cause: usually unknown; can be associated with other diseases and increased levels of prostaglandins Signs and Symptoms –Lower abdominal pain 1–2 days before menstruation –Pain may be intermittent –Headache, nausea, vomiting, irritability, dizziness Risk Factors: see Cause
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