Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Basic Human Needs Bowel Elimination

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Basic Human Needs Bowel Elimination"— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic Human Needs Bowel Elimination

2 Bowel Elimination GI Tract is a series of hollow mucous membrane lined muscular organs Purpose is to absorb fluids & nutrients, prepare food for absorption & provide storage for feces

3 GI Tract Anatomy Mouth Esophagus Stomach Small Intestine
Large Intestine Rectum



6 Colon 3 Divisions: Ascending, Transverse, Descending
Colon Functions: Absorption, Protection, Secretion, & Elimination (stool and flatus)


8 Flatus Formation Air swallowing
Diffusion of gas from bloodstream into intestines Bacterial action on unabsorbable CHO (Beans) Fermentation of CHO (cabbage, onions Can stimulate peristalsis Adult forms ml of flatus daily

9 Factors Affecting Bowel Elimination
Age Infection Diet Fluid Intake Physical Activity Psychological factors Personal Habits

10 Factors Affecting Bowel Elimination
Position during Defecation Pain Surgery and Anesthesia Medications

11 Common Bowel Elimination Problems
Constipation Impaction Diarrhea Incontinence Flatulence Hemorrhoids

12 Constipation More of a symptom than a disorder
Decrease in frequency of BM Straining & pain on defecation is associated symptoms(Valsalva maneuver) Can be significant heath hazard (increase ICP, IOP, reopen surgical wounds, cause trauma, cardiac arrhythmias)


14 Impaction Results from unrelieved constipation
Collection of hardened feces wedged into rectum Can extend up to sigmoid colon Most at risk: depilated, confused, unconscious (all are at risk for dehydration)

15 Impaction When a continuous ooze of diarrheal stool develops, impaction should be suspected Associated S/S: Loss of appetite, abdominal distention, cramping, rectal pain


17 Diarrhea Increase in number of stools & the passage of liquid, unformed stool Symptom of disorders affecting digestion, absorption, & secretion of GI tract Intestinal contents pass through small & large intestines too quickly to allow for usual absorption of water & nutrients

18 Diarrhea Irritation can result in increased mucus secretion, feces become too watery, unable to control defecation Excess loss of colonic fluid can result in acid-base imbalances or fluid/electrolyte imbalances Can also result in skin breakdown

19 Conditions that cause Diarrhea
Emotional Stress Intestinal Infection (Clostridium difficile) Food Allergies Food Intolerance Tube Feedings (Enteral) Medications Laxatives Colon Disease Surgery


21 Incontinence Inability to control passage of feces and gas from the anus Caused by conditions that create frequent, loose, large volume, watery stools or conditions that impair sphincter control or function

22 Flatulence Gas accumulation in the lumen of intestines
Bowel wall stretches and distends Common cause of abdominal fullness, pain, & cramping Gas escapes through mouth (belching), or anus (flatus)

23 Hemorrhoids Dilated, engorged veins in the lining of the rectum
External (Clearly visible) or Internal Caused by straining, pregnancy, CHF, chronic liver disease

24 Clicker Question 1. A newly admitted client states that he has recently had a change in medications and reports that stools are now dry and hard to pass. This type of bowel pattern is consistent with: A. Abnormal defecation B. Constipation C. Fecal impaction D. Fecal incontinence Answer: B

25 Bowel Diversions Certain diseases cause conditions that prevent normal passage of feces through rectum Creates need for temporary or permanent artificial opening (stoma) in the abdominal wall

26 Bowel Diversions Surgical openings (ostomy) are most commonly formed in the ileum (ileostomy) or the colon (colostomy) Incontinent ostomy- need to wear appliance pouch Continent ostomy- have control through use of ostomy cap





31 Incontinent Ostomy Location of ostomy determines consistency of stool
Ileostomy bypasses the entire large intestine, stools are frequent & watery Ascending colostomy- liquid stool Sigmoid colostomy-most like normal stool


33 Incontinent Ostomies Loop colostomy- temporary, usually done on transverse colon 2 openings through stoma, proximal loop for stool, distal loop for mucus End colostomy- one stoma formed from the proximal end of the bowel with the distal portion removed or sewn shut (Hartmann’s Pouch)

34 Incontinent Ostomies End colostomy usually done for colorectal cancer
Ruptured diverticulum- temporary end colostomy with a Hartmanns Pouch Double barrel colostomy- Bowel is surgically severed, 2 ends are brought out onto abdomen with 2 distinct stomas (proximal & distal)





39 Continent Diversions Ileoanal reservoir- restorative proctocolectomy, no outward stoma, no pouch wearing, clients have internal pouch created from the ileum Ileal pouches constructed in various configurations (S,J,W) End of the pouch is sewn or anastamosed to the anus

40 Continent Diversions Ileoanal Reservoir
Several stages to surgery to create pouch May need temporary ostomy to allow time for pouch to heal Kegel exercises to increase pelvic floor muscle tone


42 Continent Diversions Kock Continent Ileostomy-Internal reservoir or pouch is created using piece of small intestine Stoma brought out low on abdomen, end of internal part in pouch is a one way nipple valve to promote continence Valve only allows fecal contents to drain when an external catheter is place in stoma, no pouch required


44 Ostomy Nursing Considerations
Patient Education Care of skin & stoma, appliance selection and use Body Image considerations Support groups (UOA) Enterostomal nursing- specialty within profession


46 Nursing Process Assessment
Nursing History Physical Assessment Lab Tests Fecal characteristics Diagnostic evaluation- Endoscopy, Colonoscopy




50 Nursing Diagnosis Bowel Incontinence Constipation Diarrhea
Impaired Skin Integrity Body Image Disturbance Altered bowel elimination Pain

51 Implementation Promoting Normal Defecation and Acute Care Management
Positioning of patient-squatting Positioning on bedpan Use of cathartics, laxatives Anti-diarrheal agents Enemas Digital removal of stool Ostomy care Fecal Incontinence Devices Fiber & Fluids





56 Common Laxatives & Cathartics
Metamucil-bulk forming Colace, Surfak-emollient or wetting agent Fleets, MOM. Mag Sulfate-saline agent Dulcolax, Ex-Lax, Castor oil- stimulant cathartic Haley’s MO, mineral oil- Lubricant

57 Enemas Cleansing enema Tap water Normal saline
Hypertonic Solutions (Fleet’s enema) Soapsuds Oil Retention Medicated enemas (Kayexalate, Lactulose) Administering a Cleansing enema P&P pg

58 Nasogastric Tubes Decompress GI tract in surgery, infection of GI tract, trauma to GI tract, conditions where peristalsis is absent N/G tube purposes- decompression, feeding, compression, & lavage Pliable tube inserted through nasopharynx into stomach Uncomfortable insertion

59 Nasogastric Tubes Types: Levin – single lumen, different sizes used for feeding or decompression Salem Sump – Most preferable for decompression, dual lumen, one for removal of gastric contents, one as an air vent, hooked to suction to achieve decompression



62 Care of Nasogastric Tubes
Confirm placement after insertion HOB at 30 degrees unless ordered otherwise Mark point where tube exits nose (AACN 2005) Tape tube securely to nose Tube Irrigation Nasal skin care Frequent oral hygeine Assess for abdominal distention Suction settings



65 Restorative Care Bowel training
Maintenance of proper fluid & food intake Promotion of regular exercise Promotion of comfort Maintenance of skin integrity Promotion of self concept

66 Clicker Question 2. To maintain normal elimination patterns in the hospitalized client, you should instruct the client to defecate 1 hour after meals because: A. The presence of food stimulates peristalsis. B. Mass colonic peristalsis occurs at this time. C. Irregularity helps to develop a habitual pattern. D. Neglecting the urge to defecate can cause diarrhea. Answer: B

Download ppt "Basic Human Needs Bowel Elimination"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google