Presentation on theme: "Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) Status & Research Update Lisa Becton, DVM, MS, DACVPM Dir. Swine Health Info & Research National Pork Board."— Presentation transcript:
Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) Status & Research Update Lisa Becton, DVM, MS, DACVPM Dir. Swine Health Info & Research National Pork Board
PEDV status world-wide PEDV is currently active and considered endemic in different parts of the world (China, Japan, South Korea, Thailand, Vietnam – Pacific rim countries). – Canada had first positive cases in January 2014 – Different strains identified in the U.K. (1970s) that did not appear as pathogenic as the Chinese strains – Other countries with cases: Germany, Spain, France, Mexico, Colombia; Ecuador, Ukraine, Peru PEDV is considered to be a production disease. Primary management tools within the U.S. = focus on targeted biosecurity efforts. – Killed vaccines are approved for use in the U.S. (two currently approved).
AASV Case Reports
Courtesy of NAHLN
U.S. Swine Health Monitoring Project 752 breeding sites (20 systems) 2.1M sows
As of January 15, 2015
Research for PEDV & PDCoV 2013 ~$1 million for research Funded 14 projects – Basics of disease – Sow immunity (initial work) – Foundation for biosecurity 2014 ~$2 million for research Funded 35 projects – Feed focus – Animal focus – Biosecurity validation – Disease monitoring
PEDV Research Priorities Research Priorities – 2013: Basic Research of PEDV: – Who - What - Where - When - Why - How… – Diagnostic test development – Basics of disease transmission and survivability Sow immunity: (project duration ~ 12 months) Duration of immunity Optimizing feedback protocols Diagnostic tests to assess sow and piglet immunity to PEDV
PEDV/PDCoV Research For 2014 Research priorities – 2014: Feed Focus: – Risk assessment for feed as transmission source – Intervention methods for feed (pelleting/additives) – Post-processing time on virus – Novel bioassay models Biosecurity Validation Animal Focus: – PEDV immunity development – PDCoV = pathogenicity & diagnostic test development
PEDV/PDCoV Research For 2015 Hone in on more specifics of development, duration and optimization of sow immunity (based on 2013/2014 work) Feed interventions (based off of info from 2014) Novel vaccine administration technologies
Basics of virus survival - What have we learned? Survivability of the virus PEDV can survive in many different conditions: – Pits; feed slurry; manure; water – fresh and recycle; feed ingredients – Survive in cold conditions – Survivability in pits can be time dependent – PEDV + PCR found at 4 & 6 months – PEDV bioassay only + for 4 month
Key Messages PEDV survives for extended time in various substances = clean/disinfect for best control For pit/manure management: –Work at farms with longest time since infection first, and farms most recently infected last Communication x 10 with all parties involved!!
Transportation - What have we learned? Transportation management is critical!!! Certain procedures for trucks can kill the virus: – 160˚F for 10 minutes kills PEDV – 68˚F for 7 days kills PEDV – Clean, disinfect and heat (see above) can kill PEDV and other pathogens! Quaternary ammonium/gluteraldehyde Accel – hydrogen peroxide mix Others… (bleach; phenolics etc.)
Key Messages Prevent contamination as much as possible. –Create a “Line of Separation” –Keep clean and dirty equipment separate –Avoid contamination of high risk areas Focus on removal of organic material for effective cleaning and disinfection. Goal = reduce the virus load on equipment
Identify the “Line of Separation”
Examples of the Line of Separation
Feed/Feed Systems - What have we learned? Feed management – Takes a very small amount of virus to infect pigs! – Some potential products can help to eliminate virus in feed Formaldehyde based; medium chain fatty acids; essential oils – Assessment of pelleting and heat treatment may be effective for point-in-time virus control
Immunity - What have we learned? Immunity to the virus We now have many different diagnostic tools to detect PEDV: – Can detect the virus (PCR) – Can detect exposure to the virus (ELISA or IFA) – Can evaluate the level of immunity to the virus (FFN, IFA) Basics of immunity: – Gut immunity is needed for protection – Piglets need to consume milk to be protected against PEDV – The response to PEDV can vary by sow and so can protection passed to piglets
Immunity - What have we learned? Immunity to the virus Sows do respond to feedback and develop antibodies – Oral exposure is best but exposure also causes clinical illness – Vaccines can help, but killed products may not have enough foreign protein to stimulate immunity Sow immunity: – Immunity has been seen for at least 6-7 months – Work being done on cross-protection and some degree of protection may be happening – Will use results of these studies for continuation of work for 2015*
Communication of Research Results Provide producers with “real-time” results Created a PEDV-specific site for all information Research updates available bi-weekly until project completion ; See for biweekly updates
How do we get better prepared for the “next time”?
Emerging Diseases of Swine Examples of recent emerging diseases of concern: – Porcine Circovirus Type 2b (China) – PEDV – Porcine kubovirus
NPPC 2014 Resolution NPPC Forum Resolution 2014: A proposed plan of coordination and program execution for the US Swine Industry in the event of the identification/introduction of any new economically significant swine disease (defined as not currently identified in the United States as of March 1, 2014). This shall include all possible non-reportable diseases which may afflict swine
1.Response Plan NPPC is managing in 2015 Coordinated state-federal-industry response 2.Swine Matrix Project = Identifying “What’s next?” AASV is managing in 2015 Will need research and updating 3.Swine disease information sharing NPB is managing in 2015 Swine Health and Information Center Working on Our Preparedness
Response Plan – NPPC Focus Working with industry and government partners to provide input and guidance for an emerging disease response plan Outline clear responsibilities for all parties Have that available to all parties for use Have had several in-person meetings and document is becoming finalized
Swine Disease Matrix project Identify “what’s next”? – Use both US and global surveillance of literature, reports, other info for diseases of potential interest Literature search on targeted diseases – Identify basic knowledge gaps – Focus resource deployment Develop a one pager on prioritized diseases Work with government partners (federal and state) – Determine roles and outcomes – – Define who handles data, confidentiality, disease control measures?
Key Points Focus on global production diseases Establish a mechanism for evaluating disease implications and prioritizing threats Work towards recognizing and filling resource/knowledge gaps Establish a diagnostic/surveillance system that searches for the introduction of emerging diseases
Expert Working Group Patrick Webb - NPB Joe Connor - Practitioner Doug MacDougald – Practitioner (Canada) Kent Schwartz – ISU VDL Eric Bush – USDA Epidemiologist Dick Hesse – KSU Virologist Jane Christopher-Henning – SDSU VDL Mike McIntosh – USDA FADDL Dermott Hayes – Ag Economist Kurt Rossow – MN VDL John Waddell – AASV SHC Chair Harry Snelson – AASV Mark Engle – WG Chair (unable to attend)
Swine Pathogen Matrix Project
Swine Health and Information Center Mission To protect and enhance the health of the US swine herd through targeted research investments that minimize the impact of future disease threats; collection and analysis of swine health data global disease monitoring.
Swine Health and Information Center Operations –Work in synergy with the National Pork Board, the National Pork Producers Council, and the American Association of Swine Veterinarians –Add to and not duplicate the capabilities of the associations Location –Virtual “Center”
Swine Health and Information Center Board of Directors Direction and oversight of programs –Research Selection Task Force –Endemic Swine Disease Task Force –International Swine Disease Task Force Lifespan –5 year lifetime unless it is extended by recommendation of the Center’s Board of Directors and the approval by the NPB
Swine Health and Information Ce nter Scope of Work: Swine Disease Matrix project Swine health data monitoring, management and analysis for disease trends Priority Order: Swine Health Monitoring Project Emerging disease monitoring data Production Animal Disease Risk Assessment Program (PADRAP) Secure Pork Supply database Trade support USDA sanction of data is essential to fulfilling this function
Summary PEDV probably will not be the last emerging disease the industry faces; therefore, an emerging disease plan is essential!! As part of that plan, monitoring of global disease issues is critical and includes pre-emptive plan for key needs for disease Dx and management Cooperation and collaboration between all sectors of industry and government is a must.
This message funded by America’s Pork Checkoff Program. Questions?