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Abdulwahab Telmesani FRCPC, FAAP Associate Prof. of Pediatrics Umm Al-Qura University INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE IN CHILDREN.

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Presentation on theme: "Abdulwahab Telmesani FRCPC, FAAP Associate Prof. of Pediatrics Umm Al-Qura University INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE IN CHILDREN."— Presentation transcript:





5 Abdulwahab Telmesani FRCPC, FAAP Associate Prof. of Pediatrics Umm Al-Qura University INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE IN CHILDREN


7 1/3 of the incidence of IBD occurs in < 20 years of Age INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE IN CHILDREN

8 Highest in Scandinavian Western European North American Jews > Non Jews Urban > Rural Lowest in Asian African South American INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE IN CHILDREN

9 10-25% in first degree relatives 7% in siblings Linkage with chromosome 16, 12, 14, 19, 6 & 1 STRONG GENETIC PREDISPOSITION

10 IBD IN SAUDI ARABIA Not Uncommon Adult > Children UC > CD Milder than the west

11 Proinflammatory Cytokines & Eicosanoids Active inflammation Increase permeability & vasodilatation Symptoms & Signs Cont.# PATHOPHYSILOLOGY

12 SYMPTOMS / SIGNS: Diarrhea Abdominal pain Protein Loss Bleeding Electrolyte Loss Stricture Formation PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

13 CROHN’S DISEASE 90% of patients have small bowel affected Classically terminal ileum 10-15% Only colon affected 60% Ileocolitis 20% have perirectal disease Cont.# EXPRESSION & DISTRIBUTION

14 Trans mural inflammation Fistulas arise when inflammation extends through the serosa (Bladder, Vagina, Perineum) Granuloma is the Hallmark of Chron’s disease, found in 30% of all cases. EXPRESSION & DISTRIBUTION



17 ULCERATIVE COLITIS 5% Proctitis 10-15% proctosigmoiditis 30-40% up to splenic flexure 50% pancolitis Almost always starts at the rectum Pathology limited to the mucosa Crypt abscesses, distorted architecture & goblet cell depletion, are typical EXPRESSION & DISTRIBUTION

18 ULCERATIVE COLITIS Commonly Bloody mucoid diarrhea frequent loose stool lower abdominal pain more with defecation PRESENTATION Fulminant disease (10-15% of PT’s) > 6 Bloody stools per day Abdominal tenderness Fever, tachycardia Anemia Hypoalbuminemia Cont.#

19 Constipation in proctitis Colonic carcinoma 1% by 10 years 1-2%per year thereafter Anorexia &Weight loss < Crohn’s Disease PRESENTATION{CONTD}




23 PRESENTATION CROHN’S DISEASE Abdominal pain ( awakens patient from sleep) Site of disease dictates the nature & site of pain Ileum RT quadrant pain Gastroduodinal dyspeptic pain Diarrhea & Rectal Bleeding may resemble U.C. Cont.#

24 PRESENTATION Perianal disease(Fissures, fistulas & skin tags) Intestinal obstruction is common Abscesses (Interloop, intramesentric, retroperitoneal, iliopsoas or subdiaphragmatic) Carcinoma (Crohn’s Colitis)




28 EXTRAINTESTINAL MANIFESTATIONS SYSTEMICLOCALISED Fever Eyes {C.D. > U.C. } Joints MalaiseSkin Anorexia + wt lossLiver {C.D. 40% > U.C. 10%}Bone Delayed Growth & Kidneys Sexual Development Vascular {C.D. > U.C.}Hematological Heart

29 EXTRAINTESTINAL MANIFESTATIONS EYE Uveitis, Episcleritis, Keratitis, RetinalVasculitis LIVER Sclerosing cholangitis U.C.>C.D. SKIN Erythema nodosum C.D.>U.C. Pyoderma gangrenosum U.C.> C.D.

30 EXTRAINTESTINAL MANIFESTATIONS - JOINTS Arthralgia or Arthritis, Knees > Ankles > Hips> Wrists> Elbow Most common localised manifestations {ankylosing spondylitis, sacroilitis}U.C.>C.D. - BONE Demineralization {Steroid+Rest+Vit D def,Decreased Protein} - KIDNEYS Ca oxalate,Ca phosphate,Uric acid. Inflammation

31 EXTRAINTESTINAL MANIFESTATIONS -VASCULAR Thrombocytosis Thrombophlebitis Activation of clotting cascade - HEMATOLOGICAL Anemia {B12 +Folic Acid def.} Effect of chemotherapy - HEART Perimyocarditis (good prognosis)



34 DIAGNOSIS Hx & P/E: Stool Analysis + C/S WBC N or slightly elevated ESR Elevated 70 % Thrombocytosis 60% Albumin

35 DIAGNOSIS Endoscopy Vs Radiology

36 ENDOSCOPY Sigmoidoscopy Colonoscopy Ileum Upper endoscopy

37 ULCERATIVE COLITIS Mucosa: Erythematus Granular Friable Loss of normal vascular


39 CROHN’S Aphus Lesions Psudopolyps Patchy Distribution Bx normal mucosa


41 RADIOLOGY -Upper G.I. Series Irrigular nodular and thickend bowel loops stenosis, ulcers & fistulas -Abdominal U/S & C.T. for complication of Crohn’s Disease

42 TREATMENT AIM: Relief of symptoms Improve quality of life Improve growth

43 TREATMENT Pharmacotherapy Nutrition Surgery

44 TREATMENT Pharmacotherapy: 5- Aminosalicylate (P.O. Knema) Sulfasalzine

45 TREATMENT Corticosteroids: Prednisone Budesonide

46 TREATMENT Antibiotics: Metronidazol Ciprofloxacin

47 TREATMENT Immunomodulators: 6- mercaptopurine Asathioprine Cyclosporine

48 TREATMENT Anti-tumer necrosis factor -Alpha Infliximab CDP571 Thalidomide Others

49 TREATMENT Clonidine (better than Sulfasulazine) Na chromoglycate (No favorable effect)

50 ANTIDIARRHEAL DRUGS Loperamide : Frequency of Diarrhea Contraindicated in sever colitis

51 SURGERY Indications: Intractability Hemorrhage Perforations Obstructions Carcinoma

52 SURGERY 10-25% of U.C. will need colectomy with in 5 years of diagnosis. 50-75% of Crohn’s Disease will require Sx with in 10-15 years of diagnosis.

53 NUTRITION - Elemental diet alone may in duce remission in Crohn’s disease - May need N.G. feeding - Caloric intake growth catch-up

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