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INTRODUCTION Focuses on most common gastrointestinal disorders such as foreign bodies in G.I.T system,thrush stomatitis,vomiting, colic, constipation,diarrhea.

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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION Focuses on most common gastrointestinal disorders such as foreign bodies in G.I.T system,thrush stomatitis,vomiting, colic, constipation,diarrhea."— Presentation transcript:

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4 INTRODUCTION Focuses on most common gastrointestinal disorders such as foreign bodies in G.I.T system,thrush stomatitis,vomiting, colic, constipation,diarrhea and dehydration,major nursing diagnostic and nursing intervention related to recognition and management of the child.

5 By the end of this lecture the student will be able to discuss Disorders of Digestive System By the end of this lecture the student will be able to discuss Disorders of Digestive System

6 Specific objectives: By the end of this lecture the student nurse will be able to:: Define the common gastrointestinal disorders (ingestion of foreign bodies, stomatitis, vomiting, colic, constipation, diarrhea and dehydration). Define the common gastrointestinal disorders (ingestion of foreign bodies, stomatitis, vomiting, colic, constipation, diarrhea and dehydration). Mention the etiology and causative organisms of these disorders. Mention the etiology and causative organisms of these disorders. Apply the nursing process to different gastrointestinal disorders. Apply the nursing process to different gastrointestinal disorders. Provide health education to parents regarding the management and prevention of common gastrointestinal disorders. Provide health education to parents regarding the management and prevention of common gastrointestinal disorders.

7 Introduction. Introduction. Foreign body in G.I.T. Foreign body in G.I.T. Stomatitis. Stomatitis. Vomiting. Vomiting. Colic. Colic. Constipation. Constipation. Diarrhea. Diarrhea. Dehydration. Dehydration. Nursing intervention. Nursing intervention. Prevention of diarrhea. Prevention of diarrhea.

8 A- Foreign bodies in G.I.T Etiology The infant during the oral phase of development enjoys putting objects into his mouth, as he sucks upon a small object lie may swallow it. Objects may lodge at any part in the stomach or pass through the intestinal tract or it may perforate the intestine. The infant during the oral phase of development enjoys putting objects into his mouth, as he sucks upon a small object lie may swallow it. Objects may lodge at any part in the stomach or pass through the intestinal tract or it may perforate the intestine.Assessment: Observation for sign of perforation, which are: nausea vomiting, blood in stools, tenderness of the abdomen, evidence of pain. Observation for sign of perforation, which are: nausea vomiting, blood in stools, tenderness of the abdomen, evidence of pain.

9 Nursing diagnosis: High risk for intestinal perforation related to swallowing of foreign bodies. High risk for intestinal perforation related to swallowing of foreign bodies.Goal: The infant/child will experience no signs of perforation. The infant/child will experience no signs of perforation.

10 Intervention and treatment: No specific nursing care other than close observation of the child's stools and signs of perforation. Stool must be placed in a fine mashed sieve and water run with force upon it until the fecal matter disintegrates and object if present is clearly seen. No specific nursing care other than close observation of the child's stools and signs of perforation. Stool must be placed in a fine mashed sieve and water run with force upon it until the fecal matter disintegrates and object if present is clearly seen. Outcome criteria: The infant/child will experience normal bowel movement. The infant/child will experience normal bowel movement.

11 B- Stomatitis Definition: Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth. It may be due to local lesion in the mouth or a feature of a systemic disease e.g. measles. Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth. It may be due to local lesion in the mouth or a feature of a systemic disease e.g. measles.

12 Causes of stomatitis: Infection: Infection: Viruses: measles, primary herpes simplex, coxsackie A. Viruses: measles, primary herpes simplex, coxsackie A. Bacteria: streptococcus, diphtheria. Bacteria: streptococcus, diphtheria. Fungus: monilia coral thrush. Fungus: monilia coral thrush. Eruption stomatitis: associated with eruption of teeth. Eruption stomatitis: associated with eruption of teeth. Traumatic: cheek biters. Traumatic: cheek biters. Local reactions: due to sensitivity to contact substances from toys and foods. Local reactions: due to sensitivity to contact substances from toys and foods. Immunological impairment: in leukemias. Immunological impairment: in leukemias. Drugs and poisons: phenytoin, salicylates, corrosives. Drugs and poisons: phenytoin, salicylates, corrosives.

13 Types of Stomatitis: Catarrhal stomatitis. Catarrhal stomatitis. Herpetic stomatitis. Herpetic stomatitis. Thrush stomatitis. Thrush stomatitis.

14 Thrush stomatitis: Definition It is a "fungus infection" of the skin and mucous membrane of the mouth characterized by white patches, resembling milk curds. It is a "fungus infection" of the skin and mucous membrane of the mouth characterized by white patches, resembling milk curds.Etiology Candida albicans infection is due to inadequate sterilization of teats and bottles or from mother's breast of the attendant's hand. Newborns are infected during passage in birth canal. Candida albicans infection is due to inadequate sterilization of teats and bottles or from mother's breast of the attendant's hand. Newborns are infected during passage in birth canal.

15 Assessment: Mouth contains white patches, which resembles milk curds (it is difficult to remove and if removed bleeding occurs). Also there discomfort during feeding. Mouth contains white patches, which resembles milk curds (it is difficult to remove and if removed bleeding occurs). Also there discomfort during feeding. Nursing diagnosis Altered oral mucous membrane related to mouth infection. Altered oral mucous membrane related to mouth infection.Goal Prevent and reduce the effects of oral ulceration. Prevent and reduce the effects of oral ulceration.

16 Nursing management

17 –Absolute cleanliness of all articles which enter infants mouth-such as mothers nipple, rubber nipple, pacifiers, teats, or his toys. –Applicators used must be sterile. –Infants must have their own feeding equipment to prevent spread of infection. –Medicine dropper may be used, if nipple irritates the child. –Give infant some sterile water after each feeding to wash the mouth.

18 Expected outcome: –Mouth membrane remains intact. –Ulcers show evidence of healing. Nursing diagnosis Altered nutrition less than body requirements related to loss of appetite. Also discomfort and interference with feeding. Altered nutrition less than body requirements related to loss of appetite. Also discomfort and interference with feeding.Goal: Appetite stimulation. Appetite stimulation.

19 Nursing management: Encourage parents to relax pressure placed on eating. Encourage parents to relax pressure placed on eating. Allow infant any tolerated food; plan to improve quality of food selection when appetite increases. Allow infant any tolerated food; plan to improve quality of food selection when appetite increases. Take advantage of any hungry period, serve small snacks. Take advantage of any hungry period, serve small snacks. Allow child to be involved in food preparation selection. Allow child to be involved in food preparation selection. Outcome criteria The nutritional intake is adequate. The nutritional intake is adequate.

20 Medical treatment: Treatment should be continued for one week after recovery prevent recurrence. Treatment should be continued for one week after recovery prevent recurrence. Cleanliness and sterilization of the feeding bottles and teats. Cleanliness and sterilization of the feeding bottles and teats. The infant's mouth is gently painted three times daily with 1% aqueous solution of gentian violet. The infant's mouth is gently painted three times daily with 1% aqueous solution of gentian violet. This may be combined with nystatine, units by month, 3 – 4 times daily. This may be combined with nystatine, units by month, 3 – 4 times daily. Mother's nipple and areola painted with nystatine ointment between meals. Mother's nipple and areola painted with nystatine ointment between meals.Prognosis: Generally very good, recovery occurs after (3 – 5) days. Generally very good, recovery occurs after (3 – 5) days.

21 في الحالة الطبيعية يمر الطعام بعد خروجه من المعدة إلى الأمعاء الدقيقة التي يتم فيها الاستفادة من محتويات الطعام من خلال امتصاص مكوناته ثم ينتقل الجزء المتبقي إلي الأمعاء الغليظة حيث يتم امتصاص الماء والأملاح وما بقي يتماسك على شكل براز متماسك ورطب يتم طرده إلى خارج الجسم مره إلى ثلاث مرات في اليوم عبر الشرج.

22 في حاله الإسهال فأن النظام يختل إما في الأمعاء الدقيقة حيث يقل امتصاص الغذاء أو في الأمعاء الغليظة حيث يقل بشكل بارز امتصاص الماء أو يكون الخلل في آلية مرور البراز حيث تزداد تقلصات وحركه عضلات الجهاز الهضمي فيؤدي كل ذلك إما إلى زيادة المحتوى المائي للبراز أو إلى زيادة عدد مرات التبرز أو الاثنين معاً.

23 Diarrhea Disorders Definition: It is defined as "An increase in the fluidity, volume and number of stools relative to the usual habits of each individual". It is defined as "An increase in the fluidity, volume and number of stools relative to the usual habits of each individual".

24 Morbidity and Mortality in Egypt: Morbidity: Diarrhea is a leading cause of illness among children in developing countries. In Egypt a child under five years suffers an average three bouts of acute diarrhea yearly; that is to say 10 millions children suffer 30 millions episodes of diarrhea every year. Diarrhea is a leading cause of illness among children in developing countries. In Egypt a child under five years suffers an average three bouts of acute diarrhea yearly; that is to say 10 millions children suffer 30 millions episodes of diarrhea every year.Mortality: Diarrhea accounts for % of deaths among children under five years. It is estimated that Egyptian infants and preschool children die yearly from diarrhea (about 42 deaths every day), 80% of them being in the first two years of life. Diarrhea accounts for % of deaths among children under five years. It is estimated that Egyptian infants and preschool children die yearly from diarrhea (about 42 deaths every day), 80% of them being in the first two years of life.

25 Factors promoting the transmission of enteric pathogens: Failure to breast – feed exclusively for the 1st 4 – 6 months. Failure to breast – feed exclusively for the 1st 4 – 6 months. Using infant feeding bottles (easily contaminated). Using infant feeding bottles (easily contaminated). Inappropriate storing of cooked food. Inappropriate storing of cooked food. Using drinking water contaminated with fecal bacteria. Using drinking water contaminated with fecal bacteria. Failing to dispose of feces hygienically Failing to dispose of feces hygienically

26 Failing to wash hands after defection. Failing to wash hands after defection. Host factors: young age (highest incidence in the age group 6 – 12 months). Host factors: young age (highest incidence in the age group 6 – 12 months).  Malnutrition.  Measles in the previous 4 weeks.  Immunodeficiency. Season: Season: Bacterial diarrheas are more frequent in summer. Rotavirus is more frequent in winter but occur throughout year.

27 Types of diarrhea : Acute Watery Diarrhea: (80% of cases) This refers to diarrhea that begins suddenly; it persists for days then gradually improves over another days. It is usually self-limited (lasts less than 14 days) and involves the passage of frequent loose or watery stool without visible blood. This refers to diarrhea that begins suddenly; it persists for days then gradually improves over another days. It is usually self-limited (lasts less than 14 days) and involves the passage of frequent loose or watery stool without visible blood. Dysentery: (5 – 10% of cases) This is diarrhea with visible fresh blood in the stools. Its sequelae include anorexia and damage to the intestinal mucosa. This is diarrhea with visible fresh blood in the stools. Its sequelae include anorexia and damage to the intestinal mucosa. Persistent Diarrhea: (10% of cases) Post infectious diarrhea that begins actually and lasts at least 14) days. Persistent diarrhea is not chronic diarrhea which is recurrent or long- lasting due to non-infectious causes. (e.g. metabolic disorders). Post infectious diarrhea that begins actually and lasts at least 14) days. Persistent diarrhea is not chronic diarrhea which is recurrent or long- lasting due to non-infectious causes. (e.g. metabolic disorders).

28 Dangers of diarrhea : Dehydration, which might lead to death if not properly, treated. Dehydration, which might lead to death if not properly, treated. Malnutrition: diarrhea is worse in persons with malnutrition and can make it worst because: Malnutrition: diarrhea is worse in persons with malnutrition and can make it worst because: Nutrition is lost from the body in diarrhea. Nutrition is lost from the body in diarrhea. The patient may not be hungry (due to diminished absorption). The patient may not be hungry (due to diminished absorption). Mothers may not feed their children during the episode or even for some days after the diarrhea improves. Mothers may not feed their children during the episode or even for some days after the diarrhea improves. N.B. The life span of intestinal mucosal cells is 3-5 days. New normal cells will replace the destroyed cells damaged by toxins, within this period. This is why diarrhea is usually a self-limited disease of 3-5 days duration. N.B. The life span of intestinal mucosal cells is 3-5 days. New normal cells will replace the destroyed cells damaged by toxins, within this period. This is why diarrhea is usually a self-limited disease of 3-5 days duration.

29 Incidence of diarrhea : The peak incidence of diarrhea is between 6 months to 2 years. This is due to: Declining level of maternal antibodies. Declining level of maternal antibodies. Exposure to enteric pathogens through contaminated weaning food. Exposure to enteric pathogens through contaminated weaning food. The pleasure of picking -up contaminated objects and putting them in the mouth while crawling. The pleasure of picking -up contaminated objects and putting them in the mouth while crawling. Seriousness of diarrheal disorders during infancy : Their higher needs for water exchange to meet their high metabolism. Their higher needs for water exchange to meet their high metabolism. Greater susceptibility of infants to infection. Greater susceptibility of infants to infection. Lower power of their kidneys to concentrate urine, which results in relative polyuria. Lower power of their kidneys to concentrate urine, which results in relative polyuria. Their smaller metabolic reserves of water and electrolytes. Their smaller metabolic reserves of water and electrolytes. Therefore, with limited intake and /or extra loss of fluid during diarrhea, acute dehydration usually occurs Therefore, with limited intake and /or extra loss of fluid during diarrhea, acute dehydration usually occurs

30 Causes of diarrhea: 1- Enteropahtogenic: (infectious diarrhea) Viruses (rotavirus) (15 – 25% of cases). Viruses (rotavirus) (15 – 25% of cases). Bacteria (E.Coli 10 – 20% of cases), (shigell 5 – 15% of cases). Bacteria (E.Coli 10 – 20% of cases), (shigell 5 – 15% of cases). Protozoa (cryptosporidium 5-15% of cases). Protozoa (cryptosporidium 5-15% of cases). Other less common pathogens include (Giardia - doudenaris, Entamoeba histolotic à y andsalomnella). Other less common pathogens include (Giardia - doudenaris, Entamoeba histolotic à y andsalomnella).

31 2- Dietary : A-Formula feeding problems: Contaminated feeding bottles. Contaminated feeding bottles. Overfeeding. Overfeeding. Over concentrated formula. Over concentrated formula. Excess sugar or fat in formula. Excess sugar or fat in formula.

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33 B-Weaning food problems: Introduction of food, which is not suitable for the age. Introduction of food, which is not suitable for the age. Unripe fruits. Unripe fruits. Introduction of new food. Introduction of new food. Improperly cooked diet. Improperly cooked diet. Malnutrition. Malnutrition. 3- Some parenteral infections: Pneumonia and otitis media may be accompanied by diarrhea. It may actually be due to an associated intestinal infection. Pneumonia and otitis media may be accompanied by diarrhea. It may actually be due to an associated intestinal infection. Communicable diseases (e.g. measles) diarrhea occurs due to immunological impairment. Communicable diseases (e.g. measles) diarrhea occurs due to immunological impairment.

34 4- Miscellaneous: Emotional tension & Irritable colon. Emotional tension & Irritable colon. Heavy metal poison (arsenic, lead, mercury). Heavy metal poison (arsenic, lead, mercury). Antibiotic Antibiotic 5- Malabsorption: Cystic fibrosis, ciliac disease.

35 N.B. Teething is not a cause of diarrhea. Diarrhea that occurs during teething is usually caused by an intestinal infection and should be treated properly. Teething is not a cause of diarrhea. Diarrhea that occurs during teething is usually caused by an intestinal infection and should be treated properly.

36 درجات الإسهال : إسهال بسيط : 4 – 6 مرات في اليوم. إسهال بسيط : 4 – 6 مرات في اليوم. إسهال متوسط : 6 – 10 مرات في اليوم. إسهال متوسط : 6 – 10 مرات في اليوم. إسهال شديد : أكثر من 10 مرات في اليوم. إسهال شديد : أكثر من 10 مرات في اليوم.

37 الأعراض المصاحبة للإسهال : القيء و يعد هو العرض الرئيسي و الأولى. القيء و يعد هو العرض الرئيسي و الأولى. الاحمرار الشديد حول فتحة الشرج. الاحمرار الشديد حول فتحة الشرج. ارتفاع درجة الحرارة. ارتفاع درجة الحرارة. آلام البطن. آلام البطن. الجفاف : يعد الجفاف من أخطر مضاعفات الإسهال، و لذا حين يصاب الطفل بالإسهال يجب متابعة حالته لملاحظة أي بوادر للجفاف قد تظهر عليه. الجفاف : يعد الجفاف من أخطر مضاعفات الإسهال، و لذا حين يصاب الطفل بالإسهال يجب متابعة حالته لملاحظة أي بوادر للجفاف قد تظهر عليه.

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40 Dehydration Definition It is one of the consequences of watery diarrhea. It is caused by the loss of water and electrolytes in liquid or loose stools and vomitus. Fever can make it worse as it causes additional loss of water. Dehydration can lead to hypovolemia, cardiovascular collapse, and death if not treated promptly. It is one of the consequences of watery diarrhea. It is caused by the loss of water and electrolytes in liquid or loose stools and vomitus. Fever can make it worse as it causes additional loss of water. Dehydration can lead to hypovolemia, cardiovascular collapse, and death if not treated promptly. The signs of dehydration are the result of 2 important factors: The signs of dehydration are the result of 2 important factors: Type of dehydration: Isotonic, hyperonic, hypotonic. Type of dehydration: Isotonic, hyperonic, hypotonic. Degree: Mild, moderate or sever. Degree: Mild, moderate or sever.

41 Types of dehydration: 1- Isotonic (isonatremic) dehydration: This is the most common result of acute watery cliarrhea (more than 75% of cases). Deficits of water and sodium are balanced. 2- Hypertonic (hypernatremic) dehydration the net loss of water is greater than that of sodium. The condition is more common in young infants who can't verbally ask for water. It results from the intake of large amounts of hpertonic fluids ( high content of sodium or sugar ) during diarrhea. 3- Hypotonic (hypontremic) dehydration: it is less common and the net loss of sodim is greater than that of water. This result from the intake of large amounts of water or hypnotic fluids during diarrhea.

42 Therapy of dehydration : Oral rehudration: The rehydrauon therapy in the form of ORS is considered an effective treatment of dehydration, It is a mixture of water, glucose, and electrolytes and is used to correct or prevent dehydration. Glucose is added (2%) to promote sodium absorption. Increasing the concentration of glucose by 2% increase the osmolarity of the solution and may cause osmotic diarrhea. The rehydrauon therapy in the form of ORS is considered an effective treatment of dehydration, It is a mixture of water, glucose, and electrolytes and is used to correct or prevent dehydration. Glucose is added (2%) to promote sodium absorption. Increasing the concentration of glucose by 2% increase the osmolarity of the solution and may cause osmotic diarrhea.

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44 Composition of ORS : Amount G/L Components g/1 3.5 G/L Sodium chloride. 2.9 G/L Trisodium citrate. 1.5 G/L potassium chloride 20.0 G/L Glucose

45 N.B. The use of citrate increases the shelf life of ORS and therefore lowers its cost. Tape water(200 ml) is used to dissolve the mixture and needs no boiling. It is given by cup and spoon, but : N.B. The use of citrate increases the shelf life of ORS and therefore lowers its cost. Tape water(200 ml) is used to dissolve the mixture and needs no boiling. It is given by cup and spoon, but : It can be given by nasogastric tube in the following conditions : When the patient is unable to drink but not in shock, or has severe dehydration or paralytic ileus. When the patient is unable to drink but not in shock, or has severe dehydration or paralytic ileus. When the patient has severe repeated vomiting, or if dehydration is not improving when ORS is given slowly by cup and spoon. When the patient has severe repeated vomiting, or if dehydration is not improving when ORS is given slowly by cup and spoon.

46 Nursing management of diarrhea Nursing Assessment: It includes taking the patient's history, measuring weight and temperature and Assessing the degree of dehydration. It includes taking the patient's history, measuring weight and temperature and Assessing the degree of dehydration. 1- History: Personal characteristics (age and sex) and socioeconomic background (home environment, income, education, occupation, beliefs.... etc). Personal characteristics (age and sex) and socioeconomic background (home environment, income, education, occupation, beliefs.... etc). Duration of the episode. Duration of the episode. Frequency and consistency of stool. Frequency and consistency of stool.

47 Presence or absence of mucus, pus or blood in stool. Presence or absence of mucus, pus or blood in stool. Patient's ability to drink and or presence of thirst. Patient's ability to drink and or presence of thirst. Presence of vomiting, fever or other problems (cough, otitis media). Presence of vomiting, fever or other problems (cough, otitis media). Last time urine passed. Last time urine passed. Feeding practices before and during illness. Feeding practices before and during illness. Treatment during this episode (ORS, drugs). Treatment during this episode (ORS, drugs). Vaccination taken especially measles vaccine. Vaccination taken especially measles vaccine. 2- Assessment of the degree of dehydration: Assessment of the degree of dehydration is based on 4 signs which are the most important to be detected: Assessment of the degree of dehydration is based on 4 signs which are the most important to be detected:

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49 Assessment of the degree of dehydration. C Severe dehydration loss > 10% of body weight B Some dehydration loss 5 – 10% of body weight A No signs of dehydration loss < 5% of body weight Sings Lethargic, floppy unconscious Restlessness and irritable Well and alert G-General condition Very sunken and dry SunkenNormal E- Eyes Drinks poorly or unable to drink. Thirsty, drinks eagerly Drinks normally M- Thirst Goes back very slowly (>2 seconds). Goes back slowly Goes back quickly S-Skin pinch If 2 or more signs are present there is severe dehydration. If 2 or more signs are present, there is moderate dehydration. Patient has no sings of dehydration (mild) Decide Plan C Plan B Plan A Select treatment plan

50 Other signs that are used in the assessment of dehydration are: Anterior fontanel: normal, depressed or severely depressed. Anterior fontanel: normal, depressed or severely depressed. Mucous membrane of the mouth and tongue: moist, dry or very dry. Mucous membrane of the mouth and tongue: moist, dry or very dry. Tears: present in mild dehydration, absent in severe dehydration. Tears: present in mild dehydration, absent in severe dehydration. Pulse (radial) as dehydration increase, pulse becomes more rapid. In severe dehydration pulse becomes weak. Pulse (radial) as dehydration increase, pulse becomes more rapid. In severe dehydration pulse becomes weak. Extremities: in severe dehydration, skin becomes cool and moist and the nail bed may be cyanosed. Extremities: in severe dehydration, skin becomes cool and moist and the nail bed may be cyanosed. Breathing : rapid deep breathing is a sign of acidosis. Breathing : rapid deep breathing is a sign of acidosis. Weighing is essential as it helps to estimate the amount of fluid required, for an initial rehydration. Patient should be weighted to the nearest 50 – 100 grams at the beginning of the assessment and recorded. Towards the end of rehydration, the child should have gained weight.

51 Nursing diagnosis: Bowel elimination is altered related to diarrhea. Bowel elimination is altered related to diarrhea. Fluid and electrolyte balanced is altered related to diarrhea. Fluid and electrolyte balanced is altered related to diarrhea. Altered nutrition less than body requirement related to loss of appetite. Altered nutrition less than body requirement related to loss of appetite. High risk for infection related to body resistance. High risk for infection related to body resistance. Altered parenthood related to knowledge deficit about child care. Altered parenthood related to knowledge deficit about child care.

52 Nursing intervention: The aim of nursing intervention is: To hydrate the infant. To hydrate the infant. To feed the infant. To feed the infant. To deal with associated problems. To deal with associated problems.

53 Fluid replacement

54 Plan C Plan B Plan A Treatment In hospital In OP rehydration center At home Where Give IV fluids Gives ORS Give more fluid than usual 1- Fluid therapy Pansol.Ringer's lactate. Normal saline. Home made fluids (rice, water, tea without sugar, soup, yogurt). What type ml/kg of body wt. given in 3 – 6 hrs. - 1 st 30 ml/kg given in 1 / 2 to 1 hr. - Next 70 ml/kg given in 2.5 – 5hrs, longer time is used for infant < 1 year. (NB*) Goes back slowly - Give after each loose stool for child <2 years : 50 – 100ml - For child > 2 years: 100 – 200 ml. How much I.V. Slowly (1 spoon 1-2 min) by cup and spoon, cup alone, dropper/syringe. Nasogastric tube. - Slowly (1 spoon 1-2 min) - By cup and spoon, cup alone, dropper/syring e. How given

55 متى يجب الاتصال بالطبيب في حالات الإسهال؟ Further assessment إذا كان الطفل اقل من 6 شهور. إذا كان الطفل اقل من 6 شهور. إذا كان الإسهال مصاحبا بارتفاع شديد في درجة الحرارة ≥ 39 درجة مئوية. إذا كان الإسهال مصاحبا بارتفاع شديد في درجة الحرارة ≥ 39 درجة مئوية. ظهور أعراض الجفاف. ظهور أعراض الجفاف. إذا كان الإسهال مصاحبا بترجيع لمدة أكثر من 8 ساعات أو احتواء الترجيع على مخاط اخضر أو دم. إذا كان الإسهال مصاحبا بترجيع لمدة أكثر من 8 ساعات أو احتواء الترجيع على مخاط اخضر أو دم. احتواء البراز على مخاط أو دم. احتواء البراز على مخاط أو دم. إذا لم يتبول الطفل لمدة 8 ساعات. إذا لم يتبول الطفل لمدة 8 ساعات. حدوث تصلب في رقبة الطفل. حدوث تصلب في رقبة الطفل. ألم شديد بالبطن لمدة أكثر من ساعتان. ألم شديد بالبطن لمدة أكثر من ساعتان. الميل الشديد للنوم الزائد أو النعاس الشديد الزائد الميل الشديد للنوم الزائد أو النعاس الشديد الزائد

56 B) Reassess the patient's condition. - If no signs of dehydration shift to plan A. - Some dehydration shift to plan B - Severe dehydration shift to plan C. Further assessment A) Advice the mother to bring the child to a health facility if : - Frequent large stools. - Repeated vomiting - Increased thirst - No improvement after days - Bloody stools. - Fever.

57 Guidance during intervention : Mothers should be taught how to give ORS (one teaspoonful every 1-2 minutes and the child should be in a semi-sitting position). Mothers should be taught how to give ORS (one teaspoonful every 1-2 minutes and the child should be in a semi-sitting position). Give ORS as much as the desires. Give ORS as much as the desires. If vomiting occurs, wait 10 minutes. then continue giving ORS solution but more slowly (one teaspoonful every 2-3 minutes). If vomiting occurs, wait 10 minutes. then continue giving ORS solution but more slowly (one teaspoonful every 2-3 minutes). Watch for puffy eyes as a sign of over hydration. If this occurs, stop ORS solution and give breast feeding and plain water. When puffiness is gone, the child is considered fully dehydrated. Further treatment should follow treatment plan A. Watch for puffy eyes as a sign of over hydration. If this occurs, stop ORS solution and give breast feeding and plain water. When puffiness is gone, the child is considered fully dehydrated. Further treatment should follow treatment plan A.

58 Feeding during and after the episode: –During diarrhea give the child as much food as he wants. –Offer food every 3-4 hours. –Small frequent feeding are better tolerated than less frequent and large feedings. –Children will anorexia have to be gently encouraged to eat. –After stoppage diarrhea, give one extra meal per day for 2 weeks in normal child and longer period in malnourished one.

59 Advantage of continued feeding during diarrhea.(important point) Preserves body weight and sustains growth, thus maintaining strength and health avoiding lowered resistance. Preserves body weight and sustains growth, thus maintaining strength and health avoiding lowered resistance. The contact of foodstuffs with the gut mucosa protects its absorptive capacity and stimulates the production of digestive enzymes. The contact of foodstuffs with the gut mucosa protects its absorptive capacity and stimulates the production of digestive enzymes. Easily digestible foods may enhance intestinal salt and water absorption by providing organic molecules, which facilities their absorption. Easily digestible foods may enhance intestinal salt and water absorption by providing organic molecules, which facilities their absorption. Studies have shown that continued feeding actually hastens recovery from a diarrheal episode. Studies have shown that continued feeding actually hastens recovery from a diarrheal episode.

60 Assessment of the progress of rehydration The patient's progress should be assessed at least every hour. The patient's progress should be assessed at least every hour. The signs of a satisfactory response are: The signs of a satisfactory response are: Return of a strong radial pulse. Return of a strong radial pulse. Improved consciousness level. Improved consciousness level. Ability to drink. Ability to drink. Much improved skin turgor. Much improved skin turgor. Passage of urine Passage of urine

61 Drugs therapy in diarrhea : 1- Antibiotic are ineffective and may lead to( prolonged diarhea – cause malabsorption- have side effect – prolong the duration of infection – their abuse will increase the resistance of organism). 2 - Anti - diarrheal drugs. 3 - Anti -motility drugs. 4 - Anti – emetics.

62 Therapy of diarrhea إعطاء المضادات الحيوية المناسبة للالتهاب البكتيري أو أدوية الأميبا الحادة إعطاء المضادات الحيوية المناسبة للالتهاب البكتيري أو أدوية الأميبا الحادة

63 Prevention of diarrhea: 1- Promotion of breast-feeding 2- Improved weaning practices 3- Proper use of water for hygiene and drinking: 4- Personal hygiene 5- Use of latrines 6- Safe disposal of stools of young children 7- Measles vaccination

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