Presentation on theme: "GENETIC ENGINEERING ENGINEERING Presented by Presented by Dr. Randa Helal Fathy Egypt."— Presentation transcript:
GENETIC ENGINEERING ENGINEERING Presented by Presented by Dr. Randa Helal Fathy Egypt
Genetic Engineering Code of life Every human except identical twins has a unique and different set of genes formed in chromosomes inherited from both parents
Genetic Engineering In mid 1970s, scientists had invented ways to move pieces of genetic material, the very blueprint of life, from one species to another.
Genetic Engineering Major tool is recombinant DNA. -Recombinant- DNA joined to other unrelated foreign DNA. -Recombinant- DNA joined to other unrelated foreign DNA. -called gene splicing. ( a process of cutting a gene out of a DNA strand and inserting the gene into another DNA strand. -called gene splicing. ( a process of cutting a gene out of a DNA strand and inserting the gene into another DNA strand. -tiny segments of a gene are taken out and replaced. -tiny segments of a gene are taken out and replaced.
Genetic Engineering The addition, deletion, or manipulation of a single trait in an organism to create a desired characteristic change The technology of moving & changing genes by addition, deletion, or manipulation of a single trait in an organism to create a desired characteristic change is called Genetic Engineering
Genetic Engineering = Creating organisms with novel genetic sequences.
Genetic Engineering As the 21st century begins, genetic engineering has taken over the biotechnology industry so the terms genetic engineering and biotechnology are used inter changeably.
Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering, meanwhile, extended the technology's application from bacteria to plants, mammals and ultimately human cells. Use of transgenic living things – (those containing genes) from a species other than their own - became growing part of biotechnology.
Genetic Engineering Researchers are experimentally treating certain inherited diseases by altering the genes of individuals, a new form of medicine called gene therapy.
Genetic Engineering It would lead to more abundant food supplies, inexpensive medicines and cures for currently untreatable diseases.
Targets and benefits Design babies( parents now have the opportunity to design their ideal baby) Design babies( parents now have the opportunity to design their ideal baby) Drug treatment. Drug treatment. DNA banks ( scientists use information's & keep characters) DNA banks ( scientists use information's & keep characters)
Targets and benefits Super food ( more nutritious, delicious & resistant to harmful pesticides) Super food ( more nutritious, delicious & resistant to harmful pesticides) animals treated engineered hormones-produce more milk, leaner meat. animals treated engineered hormones-produce more milk, leaner meat. Scientists will use information found in our genes to treat many diseases like cancer and cystic fibrosis Scientists will use information found in our genes to treat many diseases like cancer and cystic fibrosis
Benefits of biotechnology More food Better food Better for the environment Pest Resistance Enhanced Nutrition Commercial Value
Supporters and Opponents Supporters and opponents of GE were just as divided about the basic ethics or morality of the technology as they were worry about its practical implications. Consumers of GE food are worried about the adverse effects that might have on them as it is new technology has not time to examine the long term effect
Supporters Supporters’ opinion is nothing more than an extension of what breeders of plants and animals had been doing for thousands of years and, indeed, what nature itself did through evolution & natural selection.
Opponents Critics say that creating & growing genetically engineered crops is unethical because the crops threaten the environment. Crops provided with bacterial genes that allows them to make their own pesticides may result in the death of harmless insects.
Arguments Against Biotechnology Genetic engineering concept differs in the way the people think: Some groups say Genetic engineering is unnatural. Some groups say Genetic engineering is unnatural. Others say it is intrinsically wrong. Others say it is intrinsically wrong. While others think it is against the will of God. While others think it is against the will of God.
Arguments Against Biotechnology Allergies All allergies are caused by proteins. Genetic engineering involves adding new proteins to altered products. Transgenic crops could bring new allergens into foods that sensitive individual would not be in a position to avoid, leading to unexpected allergic reactions or other harm to human health.
Arguments Against Biotechnology It is possible for example to transfer the gene found in milk into vegetables like carrots. People who ought to avoid milk would not be aware that transgenic carrots contained milk proteins.
Arguments Against Biotechnology Production of new toxins Organisms have the ability to produce toxic substances. which help them to defend against many predator in their environment. The addition of new genetic material through genetic engineering to some plants could reactivate the inactive toxic pathways leading to increase the levels of toxic substances within the plant.
Arguments Against Biotechnology Antibiotic resistance Most genetically engineered plant foods carry fully functioning antibiotic resistant genes. The presence of antibiotic resistant genes in food could have a harmful effects:
Arguments Against Biotechnology Eating these foods could reduce the effectiveness of antibiotics which are taken with such a meal. Example: If a tomato with an antibiotic resistant gene is eaten at the same time it could destroy the antibiotic in the stomach. Antibiotic resistance genes produce enzymes that can degrade antibiotics.
Arguments Against Biotechnology Diminished nutritional quality Genetic engineering may mislead consumers of fruits & vegetables which appear to be fresh & just about ripe / but in fact are engineered to last longer on the shelf & as a consequence may lack nutritional quality.
Arguments Against Biotechnology Example Some of the new genes being added to crops can remove heavy metals like mercury from the soil & concentrate them in the plant tissue.
Biotechnology Governance Government Regulations based on reliable safety science Safety professional certification Public Safety research Safety education and training Producers (businesses & public institutions) GE & product safety standards Safety leadership-top to certify safety professionals
Ethical behavior Scientists must be ethical and Do no harm. Scientists must be ethical and Do no harm. Such behavior cannot be legalislated but must be learned. Such behavior cannot be legalislated but must be learned. Punish the guilty and do not preclude freedom of inquiry by the innocent. Punish the guilty and do not preclude freedom of inquiry by the innocent.
If Individual Rights result in real or potential harm to others, those rights should be rescinded. The Rights of Society should thus sometimes super cede the Rights of the Individual. Most would agree the developing vaccines to prevent deaths. Finally, Genetic Engineering may be very useful for the technology in agriculture & Most would agree the developing vaccines to prevent deaths. However, Ethical view must be considered. Conclusion