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Team Work for Patient Safety and Care Michael West Aston Business School Patient Safety Federation Conference 10 th February 2011 The Ark, Basingstoke.

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Presentation on theme: "Team Work for Patient Safety and Care Michael West Aston Business School Patient Safety Federation Conference 10 th February 2011 The Ark, Basingstoke."— Presentation transcript:

1 Team Work for Patient Safety and Care Michael West Aston Business School Patient Safety Federation Conference 10 th February 2011 The Ark, Basingstoke

2 Leading culture change for safety Searching for new ways to meet clients’ needs and ensure quality and safety Leadership is upbeat and self confident. There’s no problem that can’t be solved, no status quo that can’t be bettered Listening to clients/patients..... Leadership is about doing the difficult not managing the inevitable

3 Results The HR system variable explains 16.9% of the variance in subsequent mortality (p <.01) Even taking prior mortality into account, the HR systems variable explains a further 7.8% on top of this (p <.01)

4 >25% more appraisers trained, associated with a reduction of 12.3% of the number of deaths after hip fracture > 25% more staff working in teams associated with 275 fewer deaths per 100,000 following emergency surgery or 7.1% of the total number of deaths following emergency surgery West et al,2001 International Journal of HRM West, Guthrie, Dawson, 2006 Journal of Organizational Behavior Implications

5 The Dance of Teams

6 Employee Involvement Programme* > >The extent of team working in hospitals predicts : > >job satisfaction > >organisational commitment > >adherence to organisational rules and procedures > >individual and organisational innovation > >cooperation with co-workers > >patient mortality West et al., Working together: Staff involvement and Organizational Performance in the NHS. Final Report

7 Four conditions for effective teams: Having a real team - bounded, stable, interdependent with a real team task Having a clear team purpose, challenging and consequential with clear objectives Making the right choices about who should be on the team - skills and roles, enablers not derailers Developing through regular coaching and self-coaching

8 Real Teams Having a real team - bounded, stable, interdependent with a real team task Bounded? Team A CEO: 11; Members 7-84; Team B CEO 5; Members 5-9. Only 11/120 agreed on the size of the team Team size? Team stability? Wageman et al, Senior Leadership Teams, Harvard University Press

9 Working in Teams in the NHS ‘Do you work in a team?’ If yes (91%) … >Does your team have clear objectives? >Do you have to work closely together to achieve these objectives? >Do you meet regularly to review your team effectiveness and how it could be improved? >38% of 1.4 million employees

10 Team working in Primary Care 300 PCTs 50,000 respondents % working in real teams % working in pseudo teams Organizational health and safety overall % staff suffering injury at work in previous year % staff witnessing potentially harmful errors/near misses in previous month % staff experiencing physical violence in previous year % staff experiencing bullying, harassment or abuse in previous year

11 Working in Team and Errors, Stress and Injury (170 acute trusts, 120,000 respondents)

12 Staff absenteeism 5% more staff working in real teams associated with 0.27% in overall absenteeism rate (p <.001) For an “average” acute hospital, this represents a potential estimated saving of over £1 million per year in direct salary alone

13 Patient mortality 5% more staff working in real teams associated with 3.3% drop in mortality rate (p =.006) For an “average” acute hospital, this represents around 40 deaths per year

14 Mortality

15 Cooperationacrossteams Clear roles Team vision & objectivesReflexivity Failures of team-based working

16 Four conditions for effective teams: Having a real team - bounded, stable, interdependent with a real team task Having a clear team purpose, challenging and consequential with clear objectives Making the right choices about who should be on the team - skills and roles, enablers not derailers Developing through regular coaching and self-coaching

17 ABS Management Team Objectives 1.Increase staff and student satisfaction 2.Improve student staff ratio 3.Improve collaboration with central services and the three other schools and manage university initiatives effectively 4.Balance the budget and ensure strategic investment ambitions are met (4%) 5.Successfully implement DLMBA and associated changes in processes of learning and teaching 6.Ensure improvements in employability of students by building links with employers and student skills 7.Achieve accreditations

18 Three things we must always do 1.Provide leadership by focusing on what is difficult and important rather than inevitable or unimportant 2.Encourage and reward risk and innovation to create a climate of engagement and excitement 3.Share responsibility for management team decisions and support each other

19 Three things we must never do 1.Lose sight of our common purpose 2.Intentionally mislead each other or staff 3.Neglect promoting, learning from and supporting the whole organization

20 Four conditions for effective teams: Having a real team - bounded, stable, interdependent with a real team task Having a clear team purpose, challenging and consequential with clear objectives Making the right choices about who should be on the team - skills and roles, enablers not derailers Developing through regular coaching and self-coaching

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22 Four conditions for effective teams: Having a real team - bounded, stable, interdependent with a real team task Having a clear team purpose, challenging and consequential with clear objectives Making the right choices about who should be on the team - skills and roles, enablers not derailers Developing through regular coaching and self-coaching

23 Regular honest review and feedback Developing through regularly taking time out to review performance and how to improve Coaching the team Reflexivity Reflexivity

24 How to lead dream teams

25 Team Leadership - Managing Team members enabled to work interdependently A high degree of autonomy in achieving objectives Accurate and timely feedback on team performance Sufficient forming time to build rapport Encourage, model and reward positive group attitudes towards diversity

26 Positivity Opens Us Barbara Fredrickson Positivity ratio > 3:1; Maximum 11>1 Fredrickson & Losada, American Psychologist (2005) 60, (... and negativity is necessary)

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28 Team Leadership - Coaching Encourage positive, supportive relationships in teams Resolve and prevent intense conflicts Inquiry plus advocacy Ensure regular and positive team meetings Encourage optimism in teams by modelling

29 “Where do good new ideas come from? That’s simple! From differences. Creativity comes from unlikely juxtapositions. The best way to maximize differences is to mix ages, cultures and disciplines.” Nicholas Negroponte The Value of Team Diversity

30 Team Leadership - Leading Offer an inspiring vision Ensure that team leadership is clear Be attentive and listen carefully to the team Lead inter-team cooperation and effectiveness Model organisational loyalty

31 Where does team working fit in? >Patient focus >Clear aligned goals and objectives at every level >Good people management >Positive emotional environments and relationships >Employee engagement >Real team working >Values based leadership

32 LEADERSHIP VALUES - How can you promote these values and virtues in the organization?

33 The Dance of Teams


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