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CHARACTERISTICS OF SCIENCE Brief Ana Lilia Acosta Patoni 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "CHARACTERISTICS OF SCIENCE Brief Ana Lilia Acosta Patoni 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SCIENCE Brief Ana Lilia Acosta Patoni 2013

2 SCIENCE Science is the use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process. The observation, identification, description, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of phenomena.

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4 Characteristics of Science 1. It is guided by natural law – The pursuit of scientific knowledge must be guided by the physical and chemical laws that govern the universe (state of existence). 2. It has to be explained by referencing these natural laws. – Scientific knowledge must explain what is observed by reference in nature. – Science must only rely on observable, testable evidence which must either support or not support hypotheses. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence. We cannot invoke the explanations based on supernatural deities (ghosts, angels, gremlins, fairies, etc.) miracles, or magic. – Science must only rely on observable, testable evidence which must either support or not support hypotheses. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.

5 Characteristics of Science Science relies on observable, testable evidence, which must either support or not support hypotheses 3. Science is testable against the observable world. – We must be able to make observations in the real world, directly or indirectly, ask questions, or form and test hypotheses = a tentative, causal explanation/answer for an observation or phenomenon. _ We use observations and/or tests to answer questions about the natural world. – Science relies on observable, testable evidence, which must either support or not support hypotheses 4. Its conclusions are tentative, that is, are not necessarily the final word. _ If we draw a conclusion based on some observation or test on some event, we must be ready always to discard or to modify our conclusion, if further observations falsify it. _ Can’t be scientific if you start with a conclusion and refuse to change it regardless of the evidence developed during the course of the investigation.

6 Characteristics of Science 5. It is falsifiable. (capable of being tested (verified or falsified) by experiment or observation)  You must be able to disprove any statement. If there is no possibility that the statement cannot be correct, then it isn’t science. What this means is that science will seek out errors and correct them. Unlike other philosophies, it’s a self-correcting system. We add to and take away information on a daily basis depending on new discoveries and new evidence. 6. It relies on evidence that is testable (from observations and experimentations). If we cannot make repeated observations or experiments to gather information, then it is outside the realm of science (e.g. UFO’s, haunted houses, etc.).

7 Characteristics of Science 7. One cannot ever prove things true or false in science. Probability plays a role, as do critical values. 8. Correlation does not imply Causation. Just because the price of beans in China goes up when the Dalllas Cowboys football team loses does NOT mean the loss caused the bean prices to go up

8 Some web pages e/nature_06 e/nature_06

9 . Conclusions of science are reliable, though tentative. Science is always a work in progress, and its conclusions are always tentative. But just as the word "theory" means something special to the scientist, so too does the word "tentative." Science's conclusions are not tentative in the sense that they are temporary until the real answer comes along. Scientific conclusions are well founded in their factual content and thinking and are tentative only in the sense that all ideas are open to scrutiny. In science, the tentativeness of ideas such as the nature of atoms, cells, stars or the history of the Earth refers to the willingness of scientists to modify their ideas as new evidence appears. Science is based on evidence, not votes.

10 Scientific ideas are subject to scrutiny from near and far, but nobody ever takes a vote. Science is not democratic. Scientific ideas are subject to scrutiny from near and far, but nobody ever takes a vote. If the question of plate tectonics had been decided democratically when it was first presented in the early twentieth century, we would, today, have no explanation for the origins of much of Earth's terrain. Scientific ideas are accepted or rejected instead on the basis of evidence. Science is based on evidence, not votes.. Science is based on evidence, not votes.

11 Nothing in the scientific enterprise or literature requires belief. Science is non-dogmatic. Nothing in the scientific enterprise or literature requires belief. To ask someone to accept ideas purely on faith, even when these ideas are expressed by "experts," is unscientific. While science must make some assumptions, such as the idea that we can trust our senses, explanations and conclusions are accepted only to the degree that they are well founded and continue to stand up to scrutiny.

12 but they cannot scientifically assert that a rose is prettier than a daisy. Science cannot make moral or aesthetic decisions. Scientists can infer the relationships of flowering plants from their anatomy, DNA, and fossils, but they cannot scientifically assert that a rose is prettier than a daisy. Being human, scientists make moral and aesthetic judgments and choices, as do all citizens of our planet, but such decisions are not part of science.

13 What Are the Key Principles of Biomedical Ethics? What Are the Key Principles of Biomedical Ethics? Read more: What Are the Key Principles of Biomedical Ethics? | eHow.com fo_ _key- principles-biomedical- ethics.html#ixzz2MAZ4IM GVWhat Are the Key Principles of Biomedical Ethics? | eHow.com fo_ _key- principles-biomedical- ethics.html#ixzz2MAZ4IM GV.

14 Code of Ethics Modern Examples Many organizations and professions have come up with their own "universal code of ethics." For example, the scientists' professional code of ethics includes the following moral standards [citation needed] :citation needed Act with skill and care in all scientific work. Maintain up to date skills and assist their development in others. Take steps to prevent corrupt practices and professional misconduct. Declare conflicts of interest. Be alert to the ways research derives from and affects the work of other people, and respect the rights and reputations of others. Ensure that your work is lawful and justified. Minimise and justify any adverse effect your work may have on people, animals and the natural environment. Seek to discuss the issues that science raises for society. Listen to the aspirations and concerns of others. Do not knowingly mislead, or allow others to be misled, about scientific matters. Present and review scientific evidence, theory or interpretation honestly and accurately.

15 SHOULD SCIENCE BE GUIDED BY ETHICS?


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