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LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS Diabstraksikan oleh: Nunuk L.H., N. Akhmad, E. Sunaryono, dan Soemarno PSL-PDKLP-PPSUB Januari 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS Diabstraksikan oleh: Nunuk L.H., N. Akhmad, E. Sunaryono, dan Soemarno PSL-PDKLP-PPSUB Januari 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS Diabstraksikan oleh: Nunuk L.H., N. Akhmad, E. Sunaryono, dan Soemarno PSL-PDKLP-PPSUB Januari 2013

2 LCA merupakan suatu metode analisis lingkungan dan dampak lingkungan yang berhubungan dengan suatu produk, proses, atau jasa; dengan jalan melakukan inventori input enerji dan material, serta limbahnya yang dibuang ke lingkungan; analisis dampak lingkungan dari input dan limbah, serta interpretasi hasil-hasilnya untuk digunakan dalam pengambilan keputusan. Ketersediaan perangkat lunak (software) mempermudah pelaksanaan LCA yang membutuhkan basis data yang besar. Life Cycle Asessment merupakan satu pendekatan “Cradle to Grave” dimulai dari pengambilan bahan mentah dari lingkungan untuk membuat produk dan berakhir pada pembuangan limbah ke lingkungan. Esensi dari Life Cycle Assessment adalah evaluasi dampak teknologi, ekonomi dan lingkungan, yang relevan dengan bahan mentah (material), proses dan/atau produk, sepanjang siklus hidup mulai dari pembuatannya hingga menjadi limbah. LCA = LIFE-CYCLE AANALYSIS Analisis Siklus Hidup. ANALISIS DAUR HIDUP

3 A life-cycle assessment (LCA, also known as life-cycle analysis, ecobalance, and cradle-to-grave analysis) is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from-cradle-to-grave (i.e., from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling). LCAs can help avoid a narrow outlook on environmental concerns by: 1. 1.Compiling an inventory of relevant energy and material inputs and environmental releases; 2. 2.Evaluating the potential impacts associated with identified inputs and releases; 3. 3.Interpreting the results to help make a more informed decision. Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life-cycle_assessment……. 5/1/2013 LCA = LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

4 GOALS AND PURPOSE The goal of LCA is to compare the full range of environmental effects assignable to products and services in order to improve processes, support policy and provide a sound basis for informed decisions. The term life cycle refers to the notion that a fair, holistic assessment requires the assessment of raw-material production, manufacture, distribution, use and disposal including all intervening transportation steps necessary or caused by the product's existence.holistic distribution There are two main types of LCA. Attributional LCAs seek to establish the burdens associated with the production and use of a product, or with a specific service or process, at a point in time (typically the recent past). Consequential LCAs seek to identify the environmental consequences of a decision or a proposed change in a system under study (oriented to the future), which means that market and economic implications of a decision may have to be taken into account. Social LCA is a different approach to life cycle thinking intended to assess social implications or potential impacts. Social LCA should be considered as an approach that is complementary to environmental LCA. The procedures of life cycle assessment (LCA) are part of the ISO 14000 environmental management standards: in ISO 14040:2006 and 14044:2006. (ISO 14044 replaced earlier versions of ISO 14041 to ISO 14043.)ISO 14000 1. 1.Thomas,J.A.G., ed: Energy Analysis, ipc science and technology press & Westview Press, 1977, ISBN 0-902852-60-4 or ISBN 0-89158-813-2ISBN 0-902852-60-4ISBN 0-89158-813-2 Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life-cycle_assessment……. 5/1/2013 LCA = LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

5 Empat tahapan Utama According to the ISO 14040 [4] and 14044 [5] standards, a Life Cycle Assessment is carried out in four distinct phases as illustrated in the figure shown to the right. The phases are often interdependent in that the results of one phase will inform how other phases are completed. [4] [5] Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life-cycle_assessment……. 5/1/2013 LCA = LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT 4.4.ISO 14040 (2006): Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and framework, International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO), Geneve 5.5.ISO 14044 (2006): Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Requirements and guidelines, International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO), Geneve INTERPRETASI ANALISIS INVENTORY PENDUGAAN DAMPAK DEFINISI TUJUAN & LINGKUP

6 Goal and scope An LCA starts with an explicit statement of the goal and scope of the study, which sets out the context of the study and explains how and to whom the results are to be communicated. This is a key step and the ISO standards require that the goal and scope of an LCA be clearly defined and consistent with the intended application. The goal and scope document therefore includes technical details that guide subsequent work: 1. 1.The functional unit, which defines what precisely is being studied and quantifies the service delivered by the product system, providing a reference to which the inputs and outputs can be related. Further, the functional unit is an important basis that enables alternative goods, or services, to be compared and analyzed. [6] [6] 2. 2.The system boundaries; 3. 3.Any assumptions and limitations; 4. 4.The allocation methods used to partition the environmental load of a process when several products or functions share the same process; and 5. 5.The impact categories chosen. 6.Rebitzer, G. et al. (2004). Life cycle assessment Part 1: Framework, goal and scope definition, inventory analysis,and applications. Environment International. 30(2004), 701-720. Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life-cycle_assessment……. 5/1/2013 LCA = LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

7 Life cycle inventory Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) analysis involves creating an inventory of flows from and to nature for a product system. Inventory flows include inputs of water, energy, and raw materials, and releases to air, land, and water. To develop the inventory, a flow model of the technical system is constructed using data on inputs and outputs. The flow model is typically illustrated with a flow chart that includes the activities that are going to be assessed in the relevant supply chain and gives a clear picture of the technical system boundaries. The input and output data needed for the construction of the model are collected for all activities within the system boundary, including from the supply chain (referred to as inputs from the techno-sphere). The data must be related to the functional unit defined in the goal and scope definition. Data can be presented in tables and some interpretations can be made already at this stage. The results of the inventory is an LCI which provides information about all inputs and outputs in the form of elementary flow to and from the environment from all the unit processes involved in the study. 7.Steinbach, V. and Wellmer, F. (May 2010). “Review: Consumption and Use of Non-Renewable Mineral and Energy Raw Materials from an Economic Geology Point of View.” Sustainability. 2(5), pgs. 1408-1430. Retrieved from { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/13/4099023/slides/slide_7.jpg", "name": "Life cycle inventory Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) analysis involves creating an inventory of flows from and to nature for a product system.", "description": "Inventory flows include inputs of water, energy, and raw materials, and releases to air, land, and water. To develop the inventory, a flow model of the technical system is constructed using data on inputs and outputs. The flow model is typically illustrated with a flow chart that includes the activities that are going to be assessed in the relevant supply chain and gives a clear picture of the technical system boundaries. The input and output data needed for the construction of the model are collected for all activities within the system boundary, including from the supply chain (referred to as inputs from the techno-sphere). The data must be related to the functional unit defined in the goal and scope definition. Data can be presented in tables and some interpretations can be made already at this stage. The results of the inventory is an LCI which provides information about all inputs and outputs in the form of elementary flow to and from the environment from all the unit processes involved in the study. 7.Steinbach, V. and Wellmer, F. (May 2010). Review: Consumption and Use of Non-Renewable Mineral and Energy Raw Materials from an Economic Geology Point of View. Sustainability. 2(5), pgs. 1408-1430. Retrieved from

8 Life cycle inventory Inventory flows can number in the hundreds depending on the system boundary. For product LCAs at either the generic (i.e., representative industry averages) or brand-specific level, that data is typically collected through survey questionnaires. At an industry level, care has to be taken to ensure that questionnaires are completed by a representative sample of producers, leaning toward neither the best nor the worst, and fully representing any regional differences due to energy use, material sourcing or other factors. The questionnaires cover the full range of inputs and outputs, typically aiming to account for 99% of the mass of a product, 99% of the energy used in its production and any environmentally sensitive flows, even if they fall within the 1% level of inputs. One area where data access is likely to be difficult is flows from the techno-sphere. The technosphere is more simply defined as the man- made world. Considered by geologists as secondary resources, these resources are in theory 100% recyclable; however, in a practical sense the primary goal is salvage. [7] [7] For an LCI, these technosphere products (supply chain products) are those that have been produced by man and unfortunately those completing a questionnaire about a process which uses man-made product as a means to an end will be able to specify how much of a given input they use. Typically, they will not have access to data concerning inputs and outputs for previous production processes of the product. The entity undertaking the LCA must then turn to secondary sources if it does not already have that data from its own previous studies. National databases or data sets that come with LCA-practitioner tools, or that can be readily accessed, are the usual sources for that information. Care must then be taken to ensure that the secondary data source properly reflects regional or national conditions. 7.Steinbach, V. and Wellmer, F. (May 2010). “Review: Consumption and Use of Non-Renewable Mineral and Energy Raw Materials from an Economic Geology Point of View.” Sustainability. 2(5), pgs. 1408-1430. Retrieved from { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/13/4099023/slides/slide_8.jpg", "name": "Life cycle inventory Inventory flows can number in the hundreds depending on the system boundary.", "description": "For product LCAs at either the generic (i.e., representative industry averages) or brand-specific level, that data is typically collected through survey questionnaires. At an industry level, care has to be taken to ensure that questionnaires are completed by a representative sample of producers, leaning toward neither the best nor the worst, and fully representing any regional differences due to energy use, material sourcing or other factors. The questionnaires cover the full range of inputs and outputs, typically aiming to account for 99% of the mass of a product, 99% of the energy used in its production and any environmentally sensitive flows, even if they fall within the 1% level of inputs. One area where data access is likely to be difficult is flows from the techno-sphere. The technosphere is more simply defined as the man- made world. Considered by geologists as secondary resources, these resources are in theory 100% recyclable; however, in a practical sense the primary goal is salvage. [7] [7] For an LCI, these technosphere products (supply chain products) are those that have been produced by man and unfortunately those completing a questionnaire about a process which uses man-made product as a means to an end will be able to specify how much of a given input they use. Typically, they will not have access to data concerning inputs and outputs for previous production processes of the product. The entity undertaking the LCA must then turn to secondary sources if it does not already have that data from its own previous studies. National databases or data sets that come with LCA-practitioner tools, or that can be readily accessed, are the usual sources for that information. Care must then be taken to ensure that the secondary data source properly reflects regional or national conditions. 7.Steinbach, V. and Wellmer, F. (May 2010). Review: Consumption and Use of Non-Renewable Mineral and Energy Raw Materials from an Economic Geology Point of View. Sustainability. 2(5), pgs. 1408-1430. Retrieved from

9 Inventory analysis is followed by impact assessment. This phase of LCA is aimed at evaluating the significance of potential environmental impacts based on the LCI flow results. Classical life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) consists of the following mandatory elements: selection of impact categories, category indicators, and characterization models; the classification stage, where the inventory parameters are sorted and assigned to specific impact categories; and impact measurement, where the categorized LCI flows are characterized, using one of many possible LCIA methodologies, into common equivalence units that are then summed to provide an overall impact category total. In many LCAs, characterization concludes the LCIA analysis; this is also the last compulsory stage according to ISO 14044:2006. However, in addition to the above mandatory LCIA steps, other optional LCIA elements – normalization, grouping, and weighting – may be conducted depending on the goal and scope of the LCA study. In normalization, the results of the impact categories from the study are usually compared with the total impacts in the region of interest, the U.S. for example. Grouping consists of sorting and possibly ranking the impact categories. During weighting, the different environmental impacts are weighted relative to each other so that they can then be summed to get a single number for the total environmental impact. ISO 14044:2006 generally advises against weighting, stating that “weighting, shall not be used in LCA studies intended to be used in comparative assertions intended to be disclosed to the public”. This advice is often ignored, resulting in comparisons that can reflect a high degree of subjectivity as a result of weighting. Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life-cycle_assessment……. 5/1/2013 LCIA = LIFE-CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT

10 Interpretation Life Cycle Interpretation is a systematic technique to identify, quantify, check, and evaluate information from the results of the life cycle inventory and/or the life cycle impact assessment. The results from the inventory analysis and impact assessment are summarized during the interpretation phase. The outcome of the interpretation phase is a set of conclusions and recommendations for the study. According to ISO 14040:2006, the interpretation should include: 1. 1.Identification of significant issues based on the results of the LCI and LCIA phases of an LCA; 2. 2.Evaluation of the study considering completeness, sensitivity and consistency checks; and 3. 3.Conclusions, limitations and recommendations. A key purpose of performing life cycle interpretation is to determine the level of confidence in the final results and communicate them in a fair, complete, and accurate manner. Interpreting the results of an LCA is not as simple as "3 is better than 2, therefore Alternative A is the best choice"! Interpreting the results of an LCA starts with understanding the accuracy of the results, and ensuring they meet the goal of the study. This is accomplished by identifying the data elements that contribute significantly to each impact category, evaluating the sensitivity of these significant data elements, assessing the completeness and consistency of the study, and drawing conclusions and recommendations based on a clear understanding of how the LCA was conducted and the results were developed. Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life-cycle_assessment……. 5/1/2013 LCA = LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

11 Reference test More specifically, the best alternative is the one that the LCA shows to have the least cradle-to-grave environmental negative impact on land, sea, and air resources. [8] [8] 8.Curran, Mary Ann. "Life Cycle Analysis: Priciples and Practice". Scientific Applications International Corporation. Retrieved 24 October 2011."Life Cycle Analysis: Priciples and Practice" Diunduh dari: http://www.toolkit.bc.ca/tool/life-cycle-analysis……. 7/1/2013 LCA = LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT LCA estimates the impacts or costs of resources associated with a project from ‘cradle to grave’ – including extraction, processing, use, and disposal. The technique is often used to compare options for a project, informing a selection that is less environmentally damaging.

12 LCA uses Based on a survey of LCA practitioners carried out in 2006 [9] LCA is mostly used to support business strategy (18%) and R&D (18%), as input to product or process design (15%), in education (13%) and for labeling or product declarations (11%). LCA will be continuously integrated into the built environment as tools such as the European ENSLIC Building project guidelines for buildings or developed and implemented, which provide practitioners guidance on methods to implement LCI data into the planning and design process. [10] [9] [10] Major corporations all over the world are either undertaking LCA in house or commissioning studies, while governments support the development of national databases to support LCA. Of particular note is the growing use of LCA for ISO Type III labels called Environmental Product Declarations, defined as "quantified environmental data for a product with pre-set categories of parameters based on the ISO 14040 series of standards, but not excluding additional environmental information". [11][12] These third- party certified LCA-based labels provide an increasingly important basis for assessing the relative environmental merits of competing products. Third-party certification plays a major role in today's industry. Independent certification can show a company's dedication to safer and environmental friendlier products to customers and NGOs. [13] [11][12] [13] LCA also has major roles in environmental impact assessment, integrated waste management and pollution studies. 9. 9.Cooper, J.S.; Fava, J. (2006). "Life Cycle Assessment Practitioner Survey: Summary of Results". Journal of Industrial Ecology. 10. 10.Malmqvist, T; Glaumann, M; Scarpellini, S; Zabalza, I; Aranda, A (April 2011). "Life cycle assessment in buildings: The ENSLIC simplified method and guidelines". Energy 36 (4): 1900- 1907. Retrieved October 31, 2012."Life cycle assessment in buildings: The ENSLIC simplified method and guidelines" 11. 11.S. Singh, B. R. Bakshi (2009). "Eco-LCA: A Tool for Quantifying the Role of Ecological Resources in LCA". International Symposium on Sustainable Systems and Technology: 1–6. doi:10.1109/ISSST.2009.5156770. ISBN 978-1-4244-4324-6. doi10.1109/ISSST.2009.5156770ISBN978-1-4244-4324-6 12. 12.EPD_System – www.thegreenstandard.orgEPD_Systemwww.thegreenstandard.org 13. 13.LCA by Independent Third PartiesLCA by Independent Third Parties Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life-cycle_assessment……. 5/1/2013 LCA = LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

13 Data analysis A life cycle analysis is only as valid as its data; therefore, it is crucial that data used for the completion of a life cycle analysis are accurate and current. When comparing different life cycle analyses with one another, it is crucial that equivalent data are available for both products or processes in question. If one product has a much higher availability of data, it cannot be justly compared to another product which has less detailed data. [14] [14] There are two basic types of LCA data – unit process data and environmental input-output data (EIO), where the latter is based on national economic input-output data. [15] Unit process data are derived from direct surveys of companies or plants producing the product of interest, carried out at a unit process level defined by the system boundaries for the study. [15] Data validity is an ongoing concern for life cycle analyses. Due to globalization and the rapid pace of research and development, new materials and manufacturing methods are continually being introduced to the market. This makes it both very important and very difficult to use up- to-date information when performing an LCA. If an LCA’s conclusions are to be valid, the data must be recent; however, the data-gathering process takes time. If a product and its related processes have not undergone significant revisions since the last LCA data was collected, data validity is not a problem. However, consumer electronics such as cell phones can be redesigned as often as every 9 to 12 months, [16] creating a need for ongoing data collection. [16] 14.Scientific Applications International Corporation (May). "Life cycle assessment: principles and practice". p. 88."Life cycle assessment: principles and practice" 15."How Does GREET Work?"15."How Does GREET Work?". Argonne National Laboratory. 2010-09-03. Retrieved 2011-02-28.Argonne National Laboratory 16.Choney, Suzanne (24 February 2009). "Planned obsolescence: cell phone models". MSNBC. Retrieved 28 October 2011."Planned obsolescence: cell phone models" Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life-cycle_assessment……. 5/1/2013 LCA = LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

14 Data analysis The life cycle considered usually consists of a number of stages including: materials extraction, processing and manufacturing, product use, and product disposal. If the most environmentally harmful of these stages can be determined, then impact on the environment can be efficiently reduced by focusing on making changes for that particular phase. For example, the most energy-intensive life phase of an airplane or car is during use due to fuel consumption. One of the most effective ways to increase fuel efficiency is to decrease vehicle weight, and thus, car and airplane manufacturers can decrease environmental impact in a significant way by replacing aluminum with lighter materials such as carbon fiber reinforced fibers. The reduction during the use phase should be more than enough to balance additional raw material or manufacturing cost. 14.Scientific Applications International Corporation (May). "Life cycle assessment: principles and practice". p. 88."Life cycle assessment: principles and practice" 15."How Does GREET Work?"15."How Does GREET Work?". Argonne National Laboratory. 2010-09-03. Retrieved 2011-02-28.Argonne National Laboratory 16.Choney, Suzanne (24 February 2009). "Planned obsolescence: cell phone models". MSNBC. Retrieved 28 October 2011."Planned obsolescence: cell phone models" Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life-cycle_assessment……. 5/1/2013 LCA = LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

15 Economic input–output life cycle assessment Economic input–output LCA (EIOLCA) involves use of aggregate sector- level data on how much environmental impact can be attributed to each sector of the economy and how much each sector purchases from other sectors. [24]EIOLCA [24] Such analysis can account for long chains (for example, building an automobile requires energy, but producing energy requires vehicles, and building those vehicles requires energy, etc.), which somewhat alleviates the scoping problem of process LCA; however, EIOLCA relies on sector- level averages that may or may not be representative of the specific subset of the sector relevant to a particular product and therefore is not suitable for evaluating the environmental impacts of products. Additionally the translation of economic quantities into environmental impacts is not validated. [25] [25] 24. Hendrickson, C. T., Lave, L. B., and Matthews, H. S. (2005). Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Goods and Services: An Input–Output Approach, Resources for the Future Press ISBN 1-933115-24-6.ISBN 1-933115-24-6 25.Limitations of the EIO-LCA Method and Models Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life-cycle_assessment……. 5/1/2013 LCA = LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

16 Ecologically based LCA While a conventional LCA uses many of the same approaches and strategies as an Eco-LCA, the latter considers a much broader range of ecological impacts. It was designed to provide a guide to wise management of human activities by understanding the direct and indirect impacts on ecological resources and surrounding ecosystems. Eco-LCA is developed by Ohio State University Center for resilience, a methodology that quantitatively takes into account regulating and supporting services during the life cycle of economic goods and products. In this approach services are categorized in four main groups: supporting, regulating provisioning and cultural services. [11] [11] 11.S. Singh, B. R. Bakshi (2009). "Eco-LCA: A Tool for Quantifying the Role of Ecological Resources in LCA". International Symposium on Sustainable Systems and Technology: 1–6. doi:10.1109/ISSST.2009.5156770. ISBN 978-1- 4244-4324-6.doi10.1109/ISSST.2009.5156770ISBN978-1- 4244-4324-6 Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life-cycle_assessment……. 5/1/2013 LCA = LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

17 LCEA = Life cycle energy analysis Life cycle energy analysis (LCEA) is an approach in which all energy inputs to a product are accounted for, not only direct energy inputs during manufacture, but also all energy inputs needed to produce components, materials and services needed for the manufacturing process.energy An earlier term for the approach was energy analysis. With LCEA, the total life cycle energy input is established. Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life-cycle_assessment……. 5/1/2013 LCA = LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT Life Cycle Energy Assessment (LCEA) of Building Construction Life Cycle Energy Assessment (LCEA) of building construction covers a range of the issues relevant to sustainable building development. LCEA includes the entire life cycle of the product, process or activity, encompassing extracting and processing materials; manufacturing, transportation and distribution; use, reuse, maintenance; recycling and final disposal. Promoting LCEA of buildings would arouse attention to environmentally friendly building designs, including energy efficient building design and selection of materials and construction methods that would incur lower impacts on the global, local and indoor environments, which will also help minimise construction and demolition waste. Diunduh dari: http://www.energyland.emsd.gov.hk/en/building/assessment/index.html ……. 7/1/2013

18 Energy production It is recognized that much energy is lost in the production of energy commodities themselves, such as nuclear energy, photovoltaic electricity or high-quality petroleum products. Net energy content is the energy content of the product minus energy input used during extraction and conversion, directly or indirectly. A controversial early result of LCEA claimed that manufacturing solar cells requires more energy than can be recovered in using the solar cell. The result was refuted. [26] Another new concept that flows from life cycle assessments is Energy Cannibalism. Energy Cannibalism refers to an effect where rapid growth of an entire energy-intensive industry creates a need for energy that uses (or cannibalizes) the energy of existing power plants. Thus during rapid growth the industry as a whole produces no energy because new energy is used to fuel the embodied energy of future power plants. Work has been undertaken in the UK to determine the life cycle energy (alongside full LCA) impacts of a number of renewable technologies. [27][28] [26] [27][28] 26.David MacKay Sustainable Energy 24 February 2010 p. 41Sustainable Energy 27.McManus, M (2010). "Life cycle impacts of waste wood biomass heating systems: A case study of three UK based systems". Energy 35 (10): 4064–4070. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2010.06.014. doi10.1016/j.energy.2010.06.014 28. 28.Allen, S.R., G.P. Hammond, H. Harajli, C.I. Jones, M.C. McManus and A.B. Winnett (2008). Integrated appraisal of micro-generators: methods and applications. 161. pp. 73–86. doi:10.1680/ener.2008.1+61.2.73 doi10.1680/ener.2008.1+61.2.73 Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life-cycle_assessment……. 5/1/2013 LCA = LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

19 ENERGY RECOVERY If materials are incinerated during the disposal process, the energy released during burning can be harnessed and used for electricity production. This provides a low-impact energy source, especially when compared with coal and natural gas [29] While incineration produces more greenhouse gas emissions than landfilling, the waste plants are well-fitted with filters to minimize this negative impact. [29] A recent study comparing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from landfilling (without energy recovery) against incineration (with energy recovery) found incineration to be superior in all cases except for when landfill gas is recovered for electricity production. [30] [30] 29.Damgaard, A, et. al. Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration. Waste Management 30 (2010) 1244–1250. 30Liamsanguan, C., Gheewala, S.H., LCA: A decision support tool for environmental assessment of MSW management systems. Jour. of Environ. Mgmt. 87 (2009) 132–138. Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life-cycle_assessment……. 5/1/2013 LCA = LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

20 Critiques Life cycle assessment is a powerful tool for analyzing commensurable aspects of quantifiable systems. Not every factor, however, can be reduced to a number and inserted into a model. Rigid system boundaries make accounting for changes in the system difficult. This is sometimes referred to as the boundary critique to systems thinking. The accuracy and availability of data can also contribute to inaccuracy. For instance, data from generic processes may be based on averages, unrepresentative sampling, or outdated results. [34] [34] Additionally, social implications of products are generally lacking in LCAs. Comparative life-cycle analysis is often used to determine a better process or product to use. However, because of aspects like differing system boundaries, different statistical information, different product uses, etc., these studies can easily be swayed in favor of one product or process over another in one study and the opposite in another study based on varying parameters and different available data. [35] [35] There are guidelines to help reduce such conflicts in results but the method still provides a lot of room for the researcher to decide what is important, how the product is typically manufactured, and how it is typically used. 34.Malin, Nadav, Life-cycle assessment for buildings: Seeking the Holy Grail. Building Green, 2010.Life-cycle assessment for buildings: Seeking the Holy Grail. 35. 35.Linda Gaines and Frank Stodolsky Life-Cycle Analysis: Uses and Pitfalls. Argonne National Laboratory. Transportation Technology R&D CenterLife-Cycle Analysis: Uses and Pitfalls 36. 36.National Council for Air and Stream Improvement Special Report No: 04-03. Ncasi.org. Retrieved on 2011-12-14.National Council for Air and Stream Improvement Special Report No: 04-03 37. 37.FPInnovations 2010 A Synthesis of Research on Wood Products and Greenhouse Gas Impacts 2nd Edition page 40. (PDF). Retrieved on 2011-12-14.FPInnovations 2010 A Synthesis of Research on Wood Products and Greenhouse Gas Impacts 2nd Edition page 40 38. 38.Bland, W.L. and Bell, M.M. (2007). "A holon approach to agroecology". International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 5 (4): 280–294."A holon approach to agroecology" Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life-cycle_assessment……. 5/1/2013 LCA = LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

21 Critiques An in-depth review of 13 LCA studies of wood and paper products [36] found [37] a lack of consistency in the methods and assumptions used to track carbon during the product life cycle. A wide variety of methods and assumptions were used, leading to different and potentially contrary conclusions – particularly with regard to carbon sequestration and methane generation in landfills and with carbon accounting during forest growth and product use. [36] [37] The Agroecology tool "agroecosystem analysis" offers a framework to incorporate incommensurable aspects of the life cycle of a product (such as social impacts, and soil and water implications). [38] [38] This tool is specifically useful in the analysis of a product made from agricultural materials such as corn ethanol or soybean biodiesel because it can account for an ecology of contexts interacting and changing through time. This analysis tool should not be used instead of life-cycle analysis, but rather, in conjunction with life-cycle analysis to produce a well-rounded assessment. 34.Malin, Nadav, Life-cycle assessment for buildings: Seeking the Holy Grail. Building Green, 2010.Life-cycle assessment for buildings: Seeking the Holy Grail. 35. 35.Linda Gaines and Frank Stodolsky Life-Cycle Analysis: Uses and Pitfalls. Argonne National Laboratory. Transportation Technology R&D CenterLife-Cycle Analysis: Uses and Pitfalls 36. 36.National Council for Air and Stream Improvement Special Report No: 04-03. Ncasi.org. Retrieved on 2011-12-14.National Council for Air and Stream Improvement Special Report No: 04-03 37. 37.FPInnovations 2010 A Synthesis of Research on Wood Products and Greenhouse Gas Impacts 2nd Edition page 40. (PDF). Retrieved on 2011-12-14.FPInnovations 2010 A Synthesis of Research on Wood Products and Greenhouse Gas Impacts 2nd Edition page 40 38. 38.Bland, W.L. and Bell, M.M. (2007). "A holon approach to agroecology". International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 5 (4): 280–294."A holon approach to agroecology" Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life-cycle_assessment……. 5/1/2013 LCA = LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

22 LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS Analysis of Environmental, Financial and Social Impacts throughout the Life- cycle of Products and Processes

23 The Concept of Environmental LCA Methodology of Environmental LCA; Goal and Scope Inventory Analysis Impact Assessment Interpretation Extending the scope of Environmental LCA; Economic LCA Social LCA LCA Diunduh dari: http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?pid=S1816- 79502011000500013&script=sci_arttext……. 7/1/2013 A life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a comprehensive environmental management tool used to investigate the environmental impacts of products, services and activities by taking a 'cradleto-grave' approach. The assessment scope includes the extraction and processing of raw materials, manufacturing, transportation and distribution, use/reuse/maintenance, recycling and final disposal

24 Products do no pollute, but their production, use and disposal do! Product systems are composed of interrelated processes Life Cycle of Product Systems (Source: USEPA, 2006. Life Cycle Assessment: Principles and Practice, Cincinnati, Ohio report no. 45268 KONSEP LCA

25 Some products have a dominating environmental load in production, some in use, some in disposal: Examples: books, furniture, art etc. Examples: cars, television, airco etc. Examples: Ni-Cd batteries, household chemicals, fireworks etc. KONSEP LCA

26 Environmental LCA is the quantitative assessment of environmental impacts of products or processes over their life cycle.   LCA is the analysis of the contribution of lifecycle stages, product parts or processes to environmental burden.   LCA is often used to compare between products or design alternatives. Applications of LCA:   Product improvement   Support for strategic choices   Benchmarking   External communication KONSEP LCA

27 LCA is a model of a complex reality! …of an average lifecycle of a mass product …of the effect of all impacts that occur …of their interaction. Any model is a simplification of reality: If you make a model, you must specify the goal and scope describing why you want to make the model. KONSEP LCA

28 1. 1.Goal and Scope definition 2. 2.Inventory Analysis 3. 3.Impact Assessment 4. 4.Interpretation The official LCA framework according to the International Standards: ISO 14040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006 METODOLOGI LCA

29 Questions: What is the intended application of the LCA? How much effort do you want to invest? Who are interested parties? What methodology will you use?   Why is a goal and scope definition important? – –guidance in data collection phase – –communication base for data providers – –reference for data quality management. – –afterwards, to explain how choices have been made during the various LCA phases. METODOLOGI LCA

30 Definition of functional unit, initial system boundaries and procedural aspects   Functional unit: comparison of products on the basis of equivalent function, for example: comparison of 2 packaging systems for 1000 litres of milk by (a) 1000 disposable cartons or (b) 100 reusable bottles; instead of comparison of 1 carton and 1 bottle.   Functional unit is basis for comparison = ? “Compare environmental impacts of packaging of 1000 litres milk in carton packages or glass bottles” METODOLOGI LCA

31 Definition of functional unit, initial system boundaries and procedural aspects 1. 1.System boundaries: definition of processes that are included in the investigation, e.g. material extraction, processing and transport; energy production; disposal processes. Production of capital goods (equipment used for production and transportation) are often excluded from the system. System boundaries are further defined during the inventory process. 2. 2.Procedural aspects: organizational arrangements such as a critical review to guarantee consistency, scientific validity, transparency of the final report and how various stakeholders will be involved in the process (LCA is a participatory process) METODOLOGI LCA

32 1. 1.Also referred to as Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) phase 2. 2.Compiling and quantifying of inputs and outputs 3. 3.Collecting of data, determination of total emissions and resource use 4. 4.Detailed defining of product system and economy-environment boundary. Only data collection for processes that are controlled by human beings (economic processes). Examples: coal mining, electricity production, controlled dumping of solid waste etc. 5. 5.Visualizing connected processes in product system 6. 6.Scaling of available technical data (e.g. from data libraries) to functional unit 7. 7.Aggregating the inputs and outputs in Inventory Table METODOLOGI LCA: INVENTORY

33 Example of Product system and Inventory Table electricity steel plasti c production distributionusedump incineration reus e recycling LCI table with environmental interventions Crude oil from earth 40000 kg CO2 to air 3500 SO2 to air 20 kg NOx to air 100 kg Cd to water 5 g PAH to water 8 kg Etc.……. METODOLOGI LCA: Inventory

34 Difficulties: Data availability and quality   Data rarely available, usually special data gathering studies needed   Measurement procedures rarely standardized Geographic variations   quality of raw materials/energy sources   production methods   relevant environmental impacts Technology   Which type of electricity production?   Salt Electrolysis with Mercury or Membrane process?   Oldest, average or modern Waste Incineration Plant? METODOLOGI LCA: Inventory

35 Difficulties: Allocation of environmental interventions in case of multiple output processes;   Many processes are ‘multifunctional’ (e.g. co- production, combined waste treatment.) and interventions can be allocated to more outputs: Recycling and reuse Allocation determined by number of reuse times and fraction of materials that can be recycled at a certain quality Electricity production Salt electrolysis Plastic product ion Paint product ion Chlorine Caustic Soda Plastic bag use Recycli ng Old plastic METODOLOGI LCA: Inventory

36 Also referred to as Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) Linkage (long) list of LCI results to environmental impacts, like climate change, acidification, eco-toxic impacts etc. Land use LCI result Raw materials Land use CO2 VOS P SO2 NOx CFC Cd PAH DDT Climate change Acidification Ecotoxicity Depletion Eutrophication Humantoxicity METODOLOGI LCA: Pendugaan Dampak

37 Steps: Characterization, Classification and Normalization:   Determine which LCI results contribute to which impact category, e.g. CO2 and CH4 to climate change   Multiply environmental interventions (resources, emissions etc.) from LCI with a characterisation factor to get indicator results   Normalize to understand the relative magnitude of the indicator results and to get dimensionless score (useful for comparison) Impact category Char. Factor (Global Warming Potential) Cat. Indicator result (kg CO2 equivalent) METODOLOGI LCA: Pendugaan Dampak

38 EffectIntervention Damage CO2 P SO2 NO x DD T Dus t VOC Cd PAH CFC Heavy metals Greenhouse effect Acidification Pesticides Eutrophication Damage to Eco- systems Damage to human health Indicator Winter smog Summer smog Carconogenics Ozone layer depl. Category indicators are quantifiable representations of impact categories (ISO) and are defined according standards, such as CML-IA, Eco indicator 99, Impact 2002+ etc.) METODOLOGI LCA: Pendugaan Dampak

39 A ‘high’ contribution to a certain impact category (a high normalized score) does not automatically mean an ‘important’ contribution  weighing of results is needed Weighing is a valuation of results and thus a normative process, depending on preferences of researcher; which environmental impact is most important? Procedure of LCIA according to ISO: - -Classification and characterisation are an obligatory step. - -Normalisation is an optional step. - -Weighing is only permitted for internal decision making, and not for comparison of products to the public. METODOLOGI LCA: Pendugaan Dampak

40 “Phase of life cycle assessment in which the findings of either the inventory analysis or the impact assessment, or both, are combined consistent with the defined goal and scope in order to reach conclusions and recommendations” (ISO) To interpret an LCA, you must check the goal and scope:   Are the the general assumptions reasonable?   Is the functional unit well chosen?   Are ISO standards applied?   Has a peer review been conducted? METODOLOGI LCA: Interpretasi

41 Conduct a sensitivity analysis: analyze the impact of important choices or assumptions   What if other allocations are applied.   What if other boundaries are applied.   What if other impact assessment method is used. By recalculating the LCA with other assumptions, we can verify how the conclusions connect with the assumptions. METODOLOGI LCA: Interpretasi

42 1. 1.LCA is often associated with environmental impacts, but scope can be extended to include economic and social impacts. 2. 2.Financial LCA = Life Cycle Costing (LCC); Analysis of life cycle costs 3. 3.Social LCA Social impacts throughout life cycle of products and processes LCA diperluas:

43 What are the costs and revenues incured during the life cycle of a product or process? R&D Production Marketing Sales Etc. Sometimes external costs included as well (costs that are ‘imposed’ on society or the environment): Monetary valuation of environmental LCI and LCIA results…but is it possible to monetise all environmental services? LCA diperluas:

44 Social LCA analyses social impacts, such as employment and health:   Job quality   Quality physical health   Quality social health   Earthly possessions Challenging to model social life cycle impacts, because social conditions do change more rapidly   impacts from changes in employment conditions may dissipate   emotions resulting from changes disappear with time   diseases get cured   people who are laid off may find new jobs) LCA diperluas:

45 LCA METHODS AND METHODOLOGY Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006

46 Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006

47 Definitions of LCA According to the ISO DIS standards, LCA is defined as a method for analysing and determining the environmental impact along the product chain of (technical) systems. It includes the various types of technical conversions that occur in the manufacturing process. These consist of: - change of material chemistry (chemical conversion), material formulation, or material structure; - the removal of material resulting in an increase of (primary) outputs over the inputs; - joining and assembly of materials resulting in a decrease of (primary) outputs over the inputs. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 DEFINISI LCA

48 According to ISO 14040, the formal definition of LCA is as follows: “LCA is a technique for assessing the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product by: Compiling an inventory of relevant inputs and outputs of Compiling an inventory of relevant inputs and outputs of a product system. Evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated Evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with those inputs and outputs. Interpreting the results of the inventory analysis and impact assessment phases in relation to the objectives of the study.” Interpreting the results of the inventory analysis and impact assessment phases in relation to the objectives of the study.” Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 DEFINISI LCA

49 The Goals and Applications of LCA LCA assess the environmental effects of a product or service or, more commonly, the effects of a change in the production or design of a product or service. The goals and applications of LCA range over a scale from short to long term. It includes: Short-term process engineering. Design and optimization in a life cycle Product comparisons including product design and product improvement. Eco-labelling in the medium and long term Long-term strategic planning Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 APLIKASI LCA

50 Product life cycle [Stachowicz, 2001; Walz, 2000]. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006

51 The Qualitative (approximate) LCA The Red Flag Method Qualitative LCA methods do not use systematic computational procedures to assess the environmental profile of the system under study. They analyse the life cycle of a product in environmental terms directly on the basis of emissions released and the consumption of raw materials. Assessing the seriousness of the impacts directly from the impact table requires thorough training and extensive knowledge. A decisive role is played by relevant experiences of the expert carrying out the evaluation Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006

52 The red flag method (RFM) may serve as an example of a qualitative method. There are a number of companies working with RFM, for instance Philips. The first step is preparing an impact table. This gathers all emissions and material consumption during the whole life cycle of a product. Then, the items which are harmful to the environment are red-flagged. The red-flagged process or product should be given special attention and if possible excluded from the life cycle of the product. The red flags many times are placed in nearly each process or life stage without, any distinction between small and large quantities of unwanted emissions. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006

53 The MET Matrix (materials, energy and toxicity). A MET analysis consists of five stages: a discussion of the social relevance of the product’s functions. a discussion of the social relevance of the product’s functions. the life cycle of the product under study is determined and all the relevant data is gathered. the life cycle of the product under study is determined and all the relevant data is gathered. next the data is used in which is the core of the MET matrix method: completing the matrix next the data is used in which is the core of the MET matrix method: completing the matrix the processes in the life cycle are entered in the processes in the life cycle are entered in the matrix divided into three categories: material consumption, energy consumption, and emissions of toxic substances. As in the case of Red Flag Method, completion of the MET matrix can be done only with an aid of environmental experts. when the most significant environmental problems are when the most significant environmental problems are identified, possible steps to improvement of the product or service should be outlined. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006

54 5.3 Quantitative LCA Methods The Components of Quantitative Methods There are a number of different quantitative LCA techniques. These are in practice applied as a group of methods which use classification, characterisation, normalisation and weighting. The most important are: Eco-points Eco-points Eco-indicator Eco-indicator EPS system EPS system MIPS concept MIPS concept The methodological framework of all the LCA techniques is based on ISO standards 14040-43. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 METODE LCA KUANTITATIF

55 A complete LCA consistent with ISO standards consists of four interrelated phases (compare with the definition of LCA given by ISO): 1. Goal definition and scope. 2. Inventory analysis. 3. Impact assessment with four sub-phases: classification, characterisation, normalisation, weighting. 4. Improvement assessment. Interrelations among the LCA phases make LCA an iterative process Interrelation of LCA phases [Hillary, 1995]. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 METODE LCA KUANTITATIF

56 The calculation and evaluation procedure is repeated until the analysis reaches the required level of detail and reliability. The first step in an LCA is a raw assessment to determine critical points in the life cycle and find directions for further studies. Such a quick analysis is called screening. Sometimes it is enough to answer all the questions asked in the goal definition. Goal definition and scope is crucial for all the other phases. These include gathering data, that is building a model of the life cycle, choosing appropriate environmental effects to consider (local, global?), and drawing conclusions to answer the questions asked at the beginning of the project. The last step, the improvement assessment phase, is performed in accordance with the goal of the study and on the basis of results from the impact assessment phase. This is achieved by applying the computational procedure to the data in the inventory table. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 METODE LCA KUANTITATIF

57 In the goal definition and scope phase the unambiguous and clear description of the goal of the study and its scope must be developed. The product (or service) to be assessed is defined, a functional basis for comparison in case of comparative analysis is chosen and, in general, the questions to be answered are established. The scope of the study sets requirements to the desirable level of detail. The main issues to consider in this stage are: Purpose of the study: Why is the analysis being performed? What is the end use of the LCA? To whom are the results addressed? Specify the product to be investigated (functional unit). Scope of the study: depth and breadth (system boundaries). Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 DEFINISI SASARAN DAN LINGKUP

58 As far as the LCA end use is concerned there are several basic possibilities: 1. 1.Product or process improvement. 2. 2.Product or process design. 3. 3.Publication of information on the product. 4. 4.Granting of an eco-label. 5. 5.Exclusion or admission of products from or to the market. 6. 6.Formulation of company policy (purchasing, waste management, product range, how to invest the money). Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 DEFINISI SASARAN DAN LINGKUP

59 An LCA of a product must have clearly specified functions to be assessed. If, for instance, the product is a washing machine, it is important to describe its performance characteristics. That is, it is important to define a function of a product rather than a product itself. The measure of performance which the system delivers is called a functional unit. The functional unit provides a reasonable point of reference when comparing different products. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 UNIT FUNGSIONAL

60 1. 1.Two products, A and B, may have different performance characteristics even though they fulfil the same function. 2. 2.An illustrative example is the comparison of different kinds of milk packaging. Two possible alternatives are: a milk carton and a returnable glass bottle. 3. 3.A glass bottle can be used ten or more times, whereas a milk carton can be used only once. On the other hand, a milk carton does not need washing and additional transportation. 4. 4.When comparing one carton and one bottle we could conclude that carton is the environmentally best choice. If the functional unit of the two packages is established, however, the analysis are not distorted by unfair assumptions. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 UNIT FUNGSIONAL

61 The next vital task in the goal and scope definition step is to define system boundaries. The necessity of defining system boundaries results from the fact that the main technique applied in any LCA is modelling. A function fulfilled by the product is represented by a model of the complex technical system. This consists of subsequent processes required to produce, transport, use and dispose of a product. The model is graphically illustrated by a process tree. Moreover, models of environmental mechanisms are created to translate inflows and outflows from the life cycle into the environmental impacts they may contribute to. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 BATAS-BATAS SISTEM

62 Process tree of the production and use of biodiesel Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006

63 The typical question when defining the system boundaries is whether to include the production of capital goods or not. In a majority of LCAs capital goods, e.g. equipment of a workshop, are neglected. This assumption does not lead to important distortions of the final LCA outcome. In some cases, however, neglecting capital goods significantly underestimates environmental burdens. This applies to, for example, electricity production. It has been shown, that the production of capital goods constitutes about 30% of the total environmental impact resulting from an average generation of electricity. Another common problem is presented by agricultural areas, which can be seen as a part of nature or as a part of the production system. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 BATAS-BATAS SISTEM

64 To narrow down the system boundaries, one uses cut- off rules. Thus if the mass or economic value of the inflow is lower than a certain percentage (a previously set threshold) of the total inflow it is excluded from further analysis. The same applies when the contribution from an inflow to the environmental load is below a certain percentage of the total inflow. Carefully and properly specified goals and scope help to develop the model of the product in such a way that the simplifications and thus distortions have only an insignificant influence on the results. This is vital for getting reliable answers from an LCA. This challenging task undoubtedly depends to some degree on subjective decisions and requires a lot of experience. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 BATAS-BATAS SISTEM

65 The inventory phase is the core of an LCA and is a common feature of any LCA. During this phase all the material flows, the energy flows and all the waste streams released to the environment over the whole life cycle of the system under study are identified and quantified. The final result of the inventory analysis is an inventory table. The inventory phase has four separate sub- stages: 1. 1.Constructing a process flow chart (so-called process tree). 2. 2.Collecting the data. 3. 3.Relating the data to a chosen functional unit (allocation). 4. 4.Developing an overall energy and material balance (all inputs and outputs from the entire life cycle) – an inventory table. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 TABEL INVENTORY

66 Selected items in an inventory table for the production of 1 kg of PVC derived from SimaPro. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006

67 Very often a process fulfils two or more functions or gives two or several of usable outputs. They are multi-output processes. Then we have to determine which part of the total emissions and material consumption should be attributed to each specific product. The same applies to multi-input processes. An example of a multi-input process is a plastic bag. When performing an LCA for a plastic bag, we assume that at the end of its life cycle it is incinerated. However, there are many other products incinerated at one time. To what extent is the bag responsible for chemicals emitted from the incineration plant? The problem of how to divide emissions and material consumption between several product or processes is called allocation. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 ALOKASI

68 Several methods have been developed to deal with allocation Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 TEKNIK-TEKNIK ALOKASI

69 LCIA = Life Cycle Impact Assessment Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006

70 The Components of Impact Assessment A typical Life Cycle Assessment inventory table consists of a few hundred or more items. They might be grouped into categories: raw materials, emissions to air, water, soil, solid emissions, non-material emissions (noise, radiation, land use) etc. An inventory table is a basis for the next step of LCA – impact assessment. On the condition that an inventory table contains relatively few items, an environmental expert can assess the life cycle without applying any mathematical procedures. In practice, however, such a situation hardly ever obtains. The data from an inventory table has to be processed to attain a higher level of aggregation. Ideally the aggregation process results in a meaningful single score. To achieve this, the ISO standards advise a four-step procedure : 1. 1.Compulsory steps: 1.Classification - Klasifikasi 2.Characterisation - Karakterisasi. 2.Optional steps: 1.Normalisation - Normalisasi 2.Weighting - PEMBOBOTAN. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 SISTEM PENDUGAAN DAMPAK

71 The first step to higher aggregation of the data is classification. Inflows and outflows from the life cycle are gathered in a number of groups representing the chosen impact categories. The inventory table is rearranged in such a way that under each impact category, all the relevant emissions or material consumption are listed (qualitatively and quantitatively). This procedure is illustrated in Figure Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 KLASIFIKASI DAMPAK

72 The common source of uncertainty here is the lack of a universally accepted appropriate official list of environmental impacts to consider. Nevertheless, as a result of numerous already performed LCAs, a “standard”, a list of environmental impacts that should be treated does exists. These are all broadly recognised environmental problems such as resource depletion, toxicity, global warming, ozone depletion, eutrophication, acidification, etc. The choice of impact categories is subjective. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 KLASIFIKASI DAMPAK

73 In the previous step, substances contributing to the impact categories were taken from an inventory table and ascribed to a certain group. However, different substances among one group contribute differently to the impact category. During the characterisation step the relative strength of the unwanted emission is evaluated and contributions to each environmental problem are quantified. What is needed here is a single number for each category. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 KARAKTERISASI – FAKTOR EKUIVALENSI

74 Relations between emissions and impact categories. To the left are raw materials used (top) and pollutants emitted (bottom) during the life cycle of a product. To the right are the impact categories to which these emissions contribute. The figure illustrates that one emission may contribute to several impacts, and that several emissions contribute to the same impact. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006

75 The final result of the characterisation step is a list of potential environmental impacts. This list of effect scores, one for each category, is called the environmental profile of the product or service. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 PROFIL LINGKUNGAN

76 Environmental profiles. The impact of a life cycle may be expressed as the sum of each kind of impact summed over the entire life cycle (above), or as the impact expressed separately for each life stage (below). In this life cycle four impacts are considered (resource depletion; global warming; acidification; and stratospheric ozone depletion), and four life stages (disposal (wasting); transportation; use; and manufacture) [Hillary, 1995]. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 PROFIL LINGKUNGAN

77 Equivalence factors for environmental impacts. The contribution to an environmental impact is calculated for any substance if an equivalence factor is available. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 FAKTOR EKUIVALENSI DAMPAK LINGKUNGAN

78 The results from the characterisation step cannot be compared since they are usually presented in different units (CO2eq., SO2eq., CFC-11eq, etc.). A procedure to allow us to compare impact categories among themselves is therefore carried out. This is called normalisation. Normalisation is performed to make the effect scores of the environmental profile comparable. The normalised effect score is the percentage of a given product’s annual contribution to that effect in a certain area: Normalised Effects Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 NORMALISASI

79 The principle of a normalisation is illustrated by the diagram below. It shows a computational procedure for an environmental profile of a coffee machine in Belgium. The entire life cycle of the coffee machine results in the following emissions: 6.1 kg of equivalent CO2 (for global warming), 56.2 g of equivalent SO2 (for acidification), 2.88. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 MENGHITUNG PROFIL LINGKUNGAN Sumber: http://www.extracon.se/LCAbeskrivneng.html …. 7/1/2013http://www.extracon.se/LCAbeskrivneng.html A LCA is a mapping (inventory) and allocation / calculation of environmental impacts for a product system. Starting with the product and its manufacturing then backwards upstream along the supply chain until you reach base reosurces used. All emissions to air, water and ground for this chain will be gathered and summarised to a total sum. Same is done downstream, at product usage and at waste phase. But these latter parts must be build on scenarios as we do not in detail know the fate of the sold product. Totally you then get a sort of a model for total environmental impact from the products craddle to its grave.

80 Normalisation of impacts from the life cycle of a Belgian coffee machine. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006

81 Comparing Impact Categories In order to obtain a single score representing the environmental impact of a product, we need further aggregation of the data. Weighting (valuation) is the step in which the different impacts categories are weighted so that they can be compared among themselves, i.e. the relative importance of the effects is assessed. In comparative analysis the prime goal is to find out which one of the products fulfilling the same function is the best option for the environment. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 PEMBOBOTAN

82 Comparing impacts of life cycles from different products. Four impacts from three different products, called A, B and C expressed as relative values. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 PEMBANDINGAN DAMPAK

83 How to establish such a set of preferences and priorities? This is a still subjective process although much effort has been spent in recent years to work out a scientific basis for weighting, i.e. weighting principles. Ranking impact categories in terms of their environmental impact makes clear distinction between the weighting and all of the previous phases. The latter use empirical knowledge of environmental effects and their mechanisms, while the weighting relies mainly on preferences and social values. In practice, weighting is performed by multiplying a normalised environmental profile by a set of weighting factors, which reflect the seriousness of a given effect. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 INDEKS LINGKUNGAN

84 One of the ready-made methods, Eco- indicator 95, can serve an example of a defined set of weighting factors (Table). Weighting factors used in Eco-indicator 95 Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 INDEKS LINGKUNGAN

85 A Panel of experts can provide a qualitative analysis which uses weighting without weighting factors. Instead of applying the computational procedure the rating is performed by the panel of experts. The major disadvantage of this approach is its poor reproducibility – the results will often remain controversial and open to discussion. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 PRINSIP PEMBOBOTAN

86 The Social evaluation is the basis of the EPS (Environmental Priority Strategy) system. EPS is designed to be used internally as a tool supporting product development within a company. It is there to assist designers and product developers in finding which of two product concepts is preferable in environmental terms. Prevention costs are costs of preventing or combating the negative changes in the environment with the aid of technical means. The principle of this approach is simple: the higher the prevention costs, the higher the seriousness of the impact. Energy consumption. This approach is analogous to the previous one, except that in this case the overall energy needed to prevent emissions consumption is used as an indicator. The higher the energy consumption, the higher the seriousness of the impact. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 PRINSIP PEMBOBOTAN

87 The Distance-to-target principle is based on the assumption that the seriousness of an effect can be related to the difference between the current and target values [Goedkoop, 1995]. It should be clear that the choice of the target value is crucial. Much thought has also been given to the choice and development of the target values. Finally one may avoid weighting by using only one environmental effect, namely energy consumption. This principle derives from the fact that energy consumption can be seen, in some cases, as an indicator of the total environmental pollution. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 PRINSIP PEMBOBOTAN

88 Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 PRINSIP PEMBOBOTAN

89 Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 PRINSIP PEMBOBOTAN

90 As mentioned, the weighting phase in any LCA remains the most doubtful and controversial, because of the subjective assessment of environmental issues. The results may, however, be expressed in a less subjective way, when the weighting is analysed with aid of a so-called weighting triangle (Figure). The triangle indicates to what extent the result of an analysis is dependent on weighting factors. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 SEGITIGA PEMBOBOTAN

91 Areas of product B and A superiority in the weighting triangle. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006

92 Areas of product B and A superiority in the weighting triangle. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006

93 Uncertainties in the Impact Assessments Improvement assessment closing an LCA should thoroughly analyse all the results obtained during previous methodological stages and give answers to questions asked in the goal and scope definition phase. The possible ways to reduce the environmental burden of a product should be suggested and evaluated. In this phase a detailed report is also drawn up to present the results in the most informative way possible, suited to the intended audience. There are several issues to cover. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 PENYEMPURNAAN PENDUGAAN

94 The LCA methodology still has many weak points and strongly depends on the quality of the data, which frequently is extremely hard to obtain. All these factors must be highlighted when drawing conclusions from the analysis, not to mislead the audience. The conditions for receiving credible results should be unambiguously described. There are two main sources of uncertainty. First is the quality of the data – data often comes from different sources, estimates, assumptions, theoretical calculation, etc.. Secondly any LCA, includes subjective choices which cannot be avoided – uncertainty is part of the model, e.g. system boundaries, allocation rules, characterisation models. For products, which have long lifetimes, future events have to be predicted. A sensitivity analysis is made to check how stable the results are. It should be proved that input data and methodological choices do not influence the results of an LCA too much. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 UNCERTAINTY – KETIDAK-PASTIAN

95 Ready-made Methods for Life Cycle Impact Assessment Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006

96 There are several different qualitative methods for conducting an LCA. When working with a ready-made method one needs to do the review of the life cycle of the product or service just as in a proper full scale LCA – agree of systems boundaries, allocations etc. The difference lies in the way in which the impact assessment is performed: different impact categories are taken into account, different environmental models and equivalence factors are used for the characterisation, different reference points are used during normalisation and different ways are used when conducting the weighting phase. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 METODE LCIA SEMI-KUANTITATIF

97 The ready-made methods, among others, include: 1. 1.EPS system (Environmental Priority Strategies in product design). 2. 2.EDIP/UMIP (Environmental Development of Industrial Products, in Danish UMIP). 3. 3.Eco-points. 4. 4.Eco-indicator. 5. 5.MIPS (Material Input per Service Unit). 6. 6.Ecological footprints. There are several more than those listed. The Eco-indicator concept seems to be the most successful one in practical LCIA applications. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 METODE LCIA SEMI-KUANTITATIF

98 The Eco-indicator Methodology The eco-indicator was first introduced in 1995 to provide engineers and designers with a simple method to estimate the environmental impact of proposed design solutions. It was thus in the first place intended for internal use in companies when working with product development The Eco-indicator method is a multi-step process (Figure). It starts with the calculation of the environmental loads from the product life cycle. In the following two steps the exposure and effect of the exposure, using average European data, are calculated. Then follows the critical issue: what should be considered an environmental problem. In the Eco-indicator approach three damage categories, so-called endpoints, are distinguished: 1. 1.Human Health, 2. 2.Ecosystem Quality and 3. 3.Resources. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 EKO-INDIKATOR & ECO-POINTS

99 The eco-indicator concept Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006

100 Figure below shows in general the Eco-indicator methodology. The white boxes refer to the procedures; the other boxes refer to the (intermediate) results. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 METODOLOGI EKO-INDIKATOR

101 The health of any human individual, being a member of the present or a future generation, may be damaged either by reducing the duration of his or her life by premature death, or by causing a temporary or permanent reduction of body functions (disabilities). The environmental sources for such damages include e.g.: 1. 1.Infectious diseases, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, as well as forced displacement due to the climate change. 2. 2.Cancer as a result of ionizing radiation. 3. 3.Cancer and eye damages due to ozone layer depletion. 4. 4.Respiratory diseases and cancer due to toxic chemicals in air, drinking water and food. These types of damages represent important threats to Human Health caused by emissions from product systems. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 EKO-INDIKATOR UNTUK KESEHATAN MANUSIA

102 Eco-indicator for Ecosystem Quality Ecosystems are very complex, and it is very difficult to determine all damage inflicted upon them. An important difference compared with Human Health is that even if you could, you are not really concerned with the individual organism, plant or animal. The species diversity is used as an indicator for Ecosystem Quality. You can express the ecosystem damage as a percentage of species that are threatened or that disappear from a given area during a certain time. Eco-indicator for Resources In the case of non-renewable resources it is rather arbitrary to give data on the total quantity per resource existing in the accessible part of the earth crust. The sum of the known and easily exploitable deposits is quite small in comparison with current yearly extractions. If one includes occurrences of very low concentrations or with very difficult access, the resource figures become huge. It is difficult to fix convincing boundaries for including or not-including occurrences between the two extremes, as quantity and quality are directly linked. To tackle this problem, the Eco-indicator methodology does not consider the quantity of resources as such, but rather the qualitative structure of resources. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 EKO-INDIKATOR

103 The Eco-indicator values for a certain impact are expressed as a sum of impacts for each of the three categories. Each of the impact categories are expressed in one unit. Principle of damage assessment in Eco-indicator 99. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 MENGHITUNG NILAI EKO-INDIKATOR

104 Using Single Dimensions to Asses Environmental Impact Proxy methods are those where a single dimension is used to reflect the total environmental impact of a product or service. 1. 1.Energy consumption 2. 2.Money 3. 3.Surface area use Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 METODE PROKSI

105 METODOLOGI MIPS Material Input Per Service unit, MIPS, is a concept developed by the Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy, Germany. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006

106 The Ecological Footprint Method The idea was to reduce all ecological impacts of a product or service to the surface area in nature that was necessary to support its use /production. Any production or other service in society is dependent on one or several ecological services, and that each of these required a small area in nature. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 METODE MIPS: KEKUATAN & KELEMAHAN

107 Five main categories of ecological services were considered: 1. 1.Agricultural land, needed for food production, grain or meat. 2. 2.Forest land, needed for production of fibres, timber, paper etc. 3. 3.Energy land, needed for production of energy, calculated as biomass or other forms of energy, such as ethanol from grain or methanol from wood 4. 4.Waste sinks, land to absorb waste, such as carbon dioxide or nutrients. 5. 5.Built land, used for infrastructure, buildings, roads, etc. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 JASA EKOLOGIS

108 LCA Information Management Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006

109 Product Data Management, PDM Product data management. Information management includes four stages, acquisition, structuring, documentation and transfer of data [Bourgonje et al., 1995]. Each of these will be described in some detail in the chapter. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006

110 DIAGRAM LCA PRODUKSI

111 Data quality. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 RELIABILITAS RELEVANSI AKSESIBILITAS TRANSPARANSI KOMPE- TENSI KREDI- BILITAS PRESISI

112 The following data quality requirements, according to ISO 14 041:1998(E), should be considered when performing an LCA: 1. 1.Time-related coverage. 2. 2.Geographical coverage. 3. 3.Technology coverage. Also, further descriptors to define the nature of the data should be given, and the following parameters should be considered at an appropriate level of detail: 1. 1.Precision. 2. 2.Completeness. 3. 3.Representativeness. 4. 4.Consistency. 5. 5.Reproducibility. The above requirements may all be grouped into the quality aspects relevance, reliability and accessibility described above: 1. 1.Relevance: time-related coverage, geographical coverage, technology coverage, completeness representativeness. 2. 2.Reliability: precision, consistency. 3. 3.Accessibility: reproducibility, consistency. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006 PERSYARATAN KUALITAS-DATA UNTUK LCA

113 The LCA data set. Components, which may or should be part of a complete LCA data set are shown. Sumber: LCA methods and methodology. Ireneusz Zbicinski; Lodz, Technical University. Molo, EMS Conference, 28th June-2 nd July 2006

114 LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis Sumber: Life Cycle Assessment. A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis. UNEP LCA Training Kit. Module a –LCA and decision support

115 Life cycle assessment (LCA) – product from cradle to grave (vertical integration) total picture; avoidance of problem shifting – all types of impact (horizontal integration) – role of functional unit for comparability of different product systems – integration over space and time – standardised in ISO (14040 series) Sumber: Life Cycle Assessment. A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis. UNEP LCA Training Kit. Module a –LCA and decision support Now, we come to focus on LCA. First some general features. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

116 Sumber: Life Cycle Assessment. A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis. UNEP LCA Training Kit. Module a –LCA and decision support Here, we see the ISO framework for LCA. It comprises the LCA procedure itself, as well as its relation with the direct applications. The four main phases of LCA are concerned with different types of data, assumptions, procedures or calculations. The phases are mutually connected with arrows. These represent flows of information from one phase to another phase. The bidirectional flows stress that LCA is not a sequential process, starting with goal and scope definition and ending with interpretation. Rather, LCA is an iterative process, in which the goal and scope may be refined after inventory analysis, impact assessment or interpretation, and likewise the inventory analysis may be refined after impact assessment or interpretation. The direct applications are not formally part of the LCA, as LCA is a tool for decision- support. However, they are worth mentioning in relation to the LCA framework itself. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

117 Final result can be in terms of: – LCI results (extractions and emissions) – LCIA results (for separate impact categories) – weighted results (one index) Weighting (subjective!) possible on basis of: – distance to target (policy reference) – economic values (various possibilities, incl. collectively revealed preferences) – social preferences (panel process) Sumber: Life Cycle Assessment. A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis. UNEP LCA Training Kit. Module a –LCA and decision support Without discussing the machinery inside the LCA tool, the type of its results it yields are important to know. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

118 Example of the results of a comparative LCA Impact category Incandescent lamp Fluorescent lamp Climate change 120000 kg CO2-eq 40000 kg CO2-eq Ecotoxicity320 kg DCB- eq 440 kg DCB- eq Acidification45 kg SO2-eq21 kg SO2-eq Depletion of resources 0.8 kg antinomy-eq 0.3 kg antinomy-eq etc…… Sumber: Life Cycle Assessment. A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis. UNEP LCA Training Kit. Module a –LCA and decision support An example of a table with category indicator results. Some people refer to this as the environmental profile (or ecoprofile), the characterisation table, or the impact table. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

119 Main applications – product comparisons – product improvement, design and development – strategy and policy development – LCA as a process Sumber: Life Cycle Assessment. A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis. UNEP LCA Training Kit. Module a –LCA and decision support Product comparisons is the most obvious and striking application of LCA. However, product improvement, design and development are by far the most frequent applications. Many of these LCAs are never made public: they are for internal use only. Larger companies and authorities use LCA for strategy and policy development, e.g. on the design of logistics, waste policies, etc. LCA as a process, finally, means that doing an LCA implies learning: 1. 1.learning about the product, 2. 2.learning about the processes that are involved, 3. 3.learning about the ideas of other stakeholders, etc.

120 Product comparisons – by industry, government, NGOs – also for ecolabeling (type I, type III) Note: – need for authorized procedure and peer review – “comparative assertions disclosed to the public” (ISO) Sumber: Life Cycle Assessment. A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis. UNEP LCA Training Kit. Module a –LCA and decision support Here are some uses of product comparisons. ISO stresses the importance of “comparative assertions disclosed to the public”, where qualiity requirements and procedures are extremely important. APLIKASI LCA

121 Sumber: Life Cycle Assessment. A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis. UNEP LCA Training Kit. Module a –LCA and decision support This gives an illustration of some ecolabeling criteria. APLIKASI LCA

122 Product improvement, design and development – by industry – also on the basis of adapted LCA- tools Learning curve: – LCA suggests rules of thumb – rules of thumb further validated and improved by LCA Sumber: Life Cycle Assessment. A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis. UNEP LCA Training Kit. Module a –LCA and decision support The use of LCA for improvement, design and development. APLIKASI LCA

123 Sumber: Life Cycle Assessment. A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis. UNEP LCA Training Kit. Module a –LCA and decision support This graph illustrates that different types of improvements are of interest in different decision situations. As an example, we see three innovations for cars: 1) 1)the catalyser 2) 2)the hybrid Toyota Prius 3) 3)the full hydrogen-based GM HydroGen3 APLIKASI LCA

124 Sumber: Life Cycle Assessment. A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis. UNEP LCA Training Kit. Module a –LCA and decision support Here, we see an example of simple visual LCA-based rules of thumb that are used by product designers. APLIKASI LCA

125 Policy and policy development – by government, sometimes together with industries or NGOs – examples: waste management packaging EU's Integrated Product Policy (IPP) energy policy green building Sumber: Life Cycle Assessment. A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis. UNEP LCA Training Kit. Module a –LCA and decision support The strategic use of LCA: some examples. APLIKASI LCA

126 D r a f t Sumber: Life Cycle Assessment. A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis. UNEP LCA Training Kit. Module a –LCA and decision support This shows the classical waste treatment hierarchy. LCA can be used to validate it, or to add some nuances for particular materials or products. APLIKASI LCA

127 D r a f t Sumber: Life Cycle Assessment. A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis. UNEP LCA Training Kit. Module a –LCA and decision support. This is an LCA application for total consumption patterns: which activities contribute to most to environmental problems? To the right, we see activities that contribute largely per euro of product. The width indicates how much a household spends on that activity. Thus the area indicates the total impact of that activity. Car driving is the activity with the highest impact. This study has been done for the Integrated Product Policy of the EU. APLIKASI LCA

128 LCA as a process – LCA as a vehicle of discussion for various stakeholders producer supply chain competitors purchasers government NGOs Sumber: Life Cycle Assessment. A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis. UNEP LCA Training Kit. Module a –LCA and decision support Finally, LCA as a process of learning and getting to understand the problems and one another. APLIKASI LCA

129 KETERBATSAN LCA LCA in practice obstructed by: – data requirements – methodological inconsistencies – technical characteristics Sumber: Life Cycle Assessment. A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis. UNEP LCA Training Kit. Module a –LCA and decision support LCA sounds nice. But now, we move to some of the problems in doing LCA.

130 Data requirements – only general, no specific data – obsolete data – only data from industrialized countries – different data formats – databases not connected Role for ISO 14048 and UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative Role for input-output analysis (and hybrids of IOA and LCA) Sumber: Life Cycle Assessment. A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis. UNEP LCA Training Kit. Module a –LCA and decision support LCA is very data intensive. General purpose databases are emerging, but there is still much to do. KETERBATSAN LCA

131 Methodological inconsistencies and debates: – main issues in LCI: system boundaries multiple processes/allocation attribution versus change oriented – main issues in LCIA midpoint versus damage level heterogeneous mechanisms (e.g., toxicity) regionalisation Sumber: Life Cycle Assessment. A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis. UNEP LCA Training Kit. Module a –LCA and decision support Although the basic principles of LCA have been described in the ISO standards, many issues are still under debate, especially within academic circles. KETERBATSAN LCA

132 Some specific details: – global/regional, not local – steady state, not dynamic, no one- time transitions – quantitative, not pass/fail criteria – risk approach, not prevention approach Sumber: Life Cycle Assessment. A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis. UNEP LCA Training Kit. Module a –LCA and decision support Some explanations: 1. 1.LCA does not address the impact of a product for a specific user at a well-defined place. It focuses on the impacts of a product as it is available and used in a certain country, continent, or even the world. 2. 2.LCA studies products in a well-established situation, not the transition to that situation 3. 3.LCA is primarily a quantitative tool, it does not address issues as “contains hardwood” or “is recyclable” 4. 4.LCA does not look at risks in the sense of pollutants exceeding threshold; it focuses on the load KARAKTERISTIK TEKNIS LCA

133 Usual impact categories: – depletion of fossil fuels and minerals – climate change – ozone depletion – photo-oxidant formation – acidification – eutrophication – human toxicity and ecotoxicity Sumber: Life Cycle Assessment. A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis. UNEP LCA Training Kit. Module a –LCA and decision support KARAKTERISTIK TEKNIS LCA

134 Potential impact categories: – land occupation (area) – water use – salination – soil erosion – leakage of nutrients – noise Sumber: Life Cycle Assessment. A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis. UNEP LCA Training Kit. Module a –LCA and decision support This is an additional list of impacts that are typically not included, but that are sometimes included, and that are certainly of interest in special cases. KARAKTERISTIK TEKNIS LCA

135 Not fitting impact categories: – land use quality (forest, coral reefs) – depletion of wildlife and fish stocks – desiccation; desertification – biodiversity – contained toxics Sumber: Life Cycle Assessment. A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis. UNEP LCA Training Kit. Module a –LCA and decision support There are some environmental issues that may be of interest as such, but that are difficult to fit into the overall LCA perspectives in a satisfactory way. KARAKTERISTIK TEKNIS LCA

136 Need to make LCA – broader (more impacts, also covering economic and social aspects) – deeper (more precise, more mechanisms) How to make LCA broader and deeper – three major options: extension of LCA hybrid LCA use of toolbox (with additional quantitative tools, or using pass-fail criteria) LCA is not perfect. Important directions for improvement are indicated here, making it broader and deeper. Three strategies to achieve this are listed as well. More on the last strategy in the next few slides. Sumber: Life Cycle Assessment. A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis. UNEP LCA Training Kit. Module a –LCA and decision support KARAKTERISTIK TEKNIS LCA

137 HASIL- HASIL PENELITIAN

138 LIFE-CYCLE ANALYSIS: USES AND PITFALLS Linda Gaines and Frank Stodolsky Conference Paper : Air & Waste Management Association 90th Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Date: June 8-13, 1997. Toronto, Ontario, Canada There has been a recent trend toward the use of lifecycle analysis (LCA) as a decision-making tool. However, the different practitioners' methods and assumptions vary widely, as do the interpretations put on the results. The lack of uniformity has been addressed by such groups as the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), but standardization of methodology assures neither meaningful results nor appropriate use of the results. This paper examines the types of analysis that are possible for various consumer products, explains possible pitfalls to be avoided, and suggests ways that LCA can be used as part of a rational decision- making procedure. Examples are drawn from studies of municipal waste disposition, using standard methodology. The key to performing a useful analysis is identification of the factors that will actually be used in making the decision. It makes no sense to analyze system energy use in detail if direct financial cost is to be the decision criterion. Criteria may depend on who is making the decision (consumer, producer, regulator). LCA can be used to track system performance for a variety of criteria, including emissions, energy use, and monetary costs, and these can have spatial and temporal distributions. Real decisions are often made using rather narrow criteria; we illustrate how choice of criteria and differences in location can affect decisions. Because optimization of one parameter is likely to worsen another, identification of trade-offs is an important function of LCA. www.transportation.anl.gov/pdfs/TA/104.pdf Diunduh dari: www.transportation.anl.gov/pdfs/TA/104.pdf……. 5/1/2013

139 Lifecycle analysis (LCA) is a powerful tool, often used as an aid to decision making in industry and for public policy. LCA forms the foundation of the newly-invented field of industrial ecology. There are several possible uses and users for this tool. It can be used to evaluate the impacts from a process or from production and use of a product. Impacts from competing products or processes can be compared to help manufacturers or consumers choose among options, including foregoing the service the product or process would have provided because the impacts are too great. Information about impacts can be used by governments to set regulations, taxes, or tariffs; to allocate funds for research and development (R&D) or low-interest loans; or to identify projects worthy to receive tax credits. In addition, LCA can identify key process steps and, most important, key areas where process changes, perhaps enabled by R&D, could significantly reduce impacts. Analysts can use the results to help characterize the ramifications of possible policy options or technological changes. www.transportation.anl.gov/pdfs/TA/104.pdf Diunduh dari: www.transportation.anl.gov/pdfs/TA/104.pdf ……. 5/1/2013 LIFE-CYCLE ANALYSIS: USES AND PITFALLS Linda Gaines and Frank Stodolsky Conference Paper : Air & Waste Management Association 90th Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Date: June 8-13, 1997. Toronto, Ontario, Canada

140 The basic procedure is, in concept, relatively straightforward. Examine the entire system, evaluate the impacts, and choose the best option. But in actual practice, there are a number of difficulties. Each of the key words used in describing the procedure needs careful definition, or the results obtained may be different. The system must be defined so that the entire lifecycle is included, or important effects may be neglected. Alternatively, smaller systems with equivalent inputs and outputs can be compared. The impacts of concern must be identified, and these can range from a single air emission (e.g., CO2) to total financial costs. Impacts may be difficult to evaluate, and they may be regional or global, as well as distributed in time. The analyst or decision-maker must finally decide what is meant by "best." If there are trade-offs among impacts, how should they be weighted? Different weightings might imply different decisions. www.transportation.anl.gov/pdfs/TA/104.pdf Diunduh dari: www.transportation.anl.gov/pdfs/TA/104.pdf ……. 5/1/2013 LIFE-CYCLE ANALYSIS: USES AND PITFALLS Linda Gaines and Frank Stodolsky Conference Paper : Air & Waste Management Association 90th Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Date: June 8-13, 1997. Toronto, Ontario, Canada

141 LCA CONCEPTS This section briefly describes our concept of LCA. LCA is an effective tool when a decision must be made about how to deal with a specific, limited problem. (For some purposes, larger problems can be tackled, but these and the associated institutional issues are very complicated.). The logical steps in the LCA procedure are described below. System Definition -- The first step in a complete LCA is to determine what consumers actually require. They do not usually require a specific product made from a specific material, but rather a service that will meet their primary needs (such as freshness of the contents of a package). Once the actual requirements are identified, the next step is to define all of the acceptable means to satisfy them (such as using a different process to produce the product or recycling it). All of the inputs and outputs associated with each option must be identified; care must be taken to ensure that systems to be compared have equivalent functionality. For instance, if one produces a co-product, appropriate credits must be given. Life-Cycle Inventory -- The next step in the analysis is to actually perform an inventory of all of the inputs and outputs for every element of the system and for each process or product option. Two alternative methods can be used: input/output (I/O) analysis and process analysis. Each has advantages and disadvantages, but we prefer to use process analysis because newer data are generally available and the effects of technological changes are more apparent. On the other hand, I/O captures all the effects from a process throughout the entire economy. The collection and interpretation of data for process analysis are nontrivial activities and the subject of a considerable volume of literature. We employed flowcharts to aid in our understanding of energy and material flows in industrial processes (inputs and outputs, including residuals). An example is provided in Figure 1. www.transportation.anl.gov/pdfs/TA/104.pdf Diunduh dari: www.transportation.anl.gov/pdfs/TA/104.pdf ……. 5/1/2013 LIFE-CYCLE ANALYSIS: USES AND PITFALLS Linda Gaines and Frank Stodolsky Conference Paper : Air & Waste Management Association 90th Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Date: June 8-13, 1997. Toronto, Ontario, Canada

142 Criteria Choice -- The analyst must then determine the goals to be accomplished (i.e., define the criteria to be used for choosing the best option). The choice of criteria is a policy decision; the criteria should be meaningful and explicit, rather than vague "motherhood and apple pie“ justifications like conserving resources. Which resources do we want to conserve? Possibilities include energy in general, fossil fuels, trees, landfill space, and clean air. Other possible goals include minimizing costs, either for production or over the product's life cycle. But any decision (including changes in lifestyle that would reduce or eliminate the demand) involves trade-offs. It is often difficult to conserve one resource without using more of another. So priorities must be more detailed, and may differ, depending on who is setting the policy and where the decision is being made. Minimizing the total cost to society might be considered the ultimate criterion for a product or process choice. We attempted to analyze total costs in an early work on power generation options.(1) The total social cost includes the direct financial cost and indirect costs. Indirect costs, which differ for virgin and recycled products, are generally not reflected in the market price of the products. Indirect costs can result from impacts on unpriced resources (such externalities as air and water quality, wilderness, parks, and wildlife habitats), as well as costs to other parties (such as damage to buildings from acid rain). External costs are sometimes internalized by the government through regulations, such as limits on SO2 emissions from utilities and industrial boilers. Other social costs that may not be adequately reflected in the market price are the time-related or strategic values of resources. www.transportation.anl.gov/pdfs/TA/104.pdf Diunduh dari: www.transportation.anl.gov/pdfs/TA/104.pdf ……. 5/1/2013 LIFE-CYCLE ANALYSIS: USES AND PITFALLS Linda Gaines and Frank Stodolsky Conference Paper : Air & Waste Management Association 90th Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Date: June 8-13, 1997. Toronto, Ontario, Canada

143 The LCA examples presented below is study of alternative disposition option for municipal solid waste (msw). Recycling of Solid Waste -- The second example is more insidious, because this generally competent and objective study for a public interest group does not technically make any errors. However, there is a flaw (or is it a feature?) in the data presentation that supports a policy option that appears inconsistent with the presumed decision criteria. The study includes detailed appendices with careful estimates, using the SETAC methodology, of lifecycle inventories of energy and emissions for manufacture and recycling of each of the major components in municipal solid waste. Again, the material of interest is kraft paper, and the text includes the key fact that recycling of kraft paper may actually require more fossil fuel than does production from trees. The conclusion based on this fact was highlighted in our work on MSW (4): if fossil fuel use (and CO2 emissions) is to be minimized, perhaps kraft paper should be burned for energy rather than recycled, in order to conserve fossil fuel. No such conclusion is made in the example report, however. Instead, total energy use for all of the components in MSW is added up. The aggregation obscures important differences among materials. The total energy use when MSW is recycled is correctly found to be lower than when all of the material is landfilled. Therefore, maximum recycling is the option suggested in both the main report text and in the executive summary, where only aggregated results are presented. Moreover, the report implies that a major opportunity for increased recycling is increased paper recovery. The important information about paper recycling remains buried in the appendix. The more appropriate MSW strategy to conserve fossil fuel and minimize emissions, a mixed strategy including combustion of some components, should have been highlighted. www.transportation.anl.gov/pdfs/TA/104.pdf Diunduh dari: www.transportation.anl.gov/pdfs/TA/104.pdf……. 5/1/2013 LIFE-CYCLE ANALYSIS: USES AND PITFALLS Linda Gaines and Frank Stodolsky Conference Paper : Air & Waste Management Association 90th Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Date: June 8-13, 1997. Toronto, Ontario, Canada

144 LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF BUILDINGS: A REVIEW Mohamad Monkiz Khasreen, Phillip F.G. Banfill and Gillian F. Menzies Sustainability 2009, 1, 674-701 Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) is one of various management tools for evaluating environmental concerns. This paper reviews LCA from a buildings perspective. It highlights the need for its use within the building sector, and the importance of LCA as a decision making support tool. It discusses LCA methodologies and applications within the building sector, reviewing some of the life-cycle studies applied to buildings or building materials and component combinations within the last fifteen years in Europe and the United States. It highlights the problems of a lack of an internationally comparable and agreed data inventory and assessment methodology which hinder the application of LCA within the building industry. It identifies key areas for future research as 1. 1.The whole process of construction, 2. 2.The relative weighting of different environmental impacts and 3. 3.Applications in developing countries. Diunduh dari: ……. 5/1/2013

145 Life-Cycle Assessment There are many methods available for assessing the environmental impacts of materials and components within the building sector. While adequate to an extent for a particular purpose, they have disadvantages. LCA is a methodology for evaluating the environmental loads of processes and products during their whole life-cycle [15]. The assessment includes the entire life-cycle of a product, process, or system encompassing the extraction and processing of raw materials; manufacturing, transportation and distribution; use, reuse, maintenance, recycling and final disposal [16]. LCA has become a widely used methodology, because of its integrated way of treating the framework, impact assessment and data quality [17]. LCA methodology is based on ISO 14040 and consists of four distinct analytical steps: defining the goal and scope, creating the life- cycle inventory, assessing the impact and finally interpreting the results [18]. Employed to its full, LCA examines environmental inputs and outputs related to a product or service life-cycle from cradle to grave, i.e., from raw material extraction, through manufacture, usage phase, reprocessing where needed, to final disposal. www.rpd-mohesr.com/uploads/custompages/sust..pdf Diunduh dari: www.rpd-mohesr.com/uploads/custompages/sust..pdf ……. 5/1/2013 LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF BUILDINGS: A REVIEW Mohamad Monkiz Khasreen, Phillip F.G. Banfill and Gillian F. Menzies Sustainability 2009, 1, 674-701

146 ISO 14040 defines LCA as: ―A technique for assessing the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product, by: compiling an inventory of relevant inputs and outputs of a product system; evaluating the potential environmental impacts; and interpreting the results of the inventory analysis and impact assessment phases. LCA is often employed as an analytical decision support tool. Historically it has found popular use comparing established ways of making and processing materials, for example comparing recycling with incineration as a waste management option. LCA is increasingly being seen as a tool for the delivery of more eco-efficient life-cycles. www.rpd-mohesr.com/uploads/custompages/sust..pdf Diunduh dari: www.rpd-mohesr.com/uploads/custompages/sust..pdf ……. 5/1/2013 LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF BUILDINGS: A REVIEW Mohamad Monkiz Khasreen, Phillip F.G. Banfill and Gillian F. Menzies Sustainability 2009, 1, 674-701

147 The UN Environment Program published the Life-cycle Assessment: What Is and How to Do it, and The European Environment Agency‘s Life-cycle Assessment: A Guide to Approaches, Experiences and Information Sources. There were many initiatives to standardize the methodology of life-cycle assessment; the Canadian Standards Association released the world‘s first national LCA guideline Z-760 Environmental Life-cycle Assessment in 1994, to provide in-depth information on LCA methodology. The most recognized standards were the ones published by the International Standards Organization ISO : 1. 1.ISO 14040 Environmental management, LCA, Principles and framework (1997). 2. 2.ISO 14041 Environmental management, LCA, Goal definition and inventory analysis (1998). 3. 3.ISO 14042 Environmental management, LCA, Life-cycle impact assessment (2000). 4. 4.ISO 14043 Environmental management, LCA, Life-cycle interpretation (2000). www.rpd-mohesr.com/uploads/custompages/sust..pdf Diunduh dari: www.rpd-mohesr.com/uploads/custompages/sust..pdf ……. 5/1/2013 LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF BUILDINGS: A REVIEW Mohamad Monkiz Khasreen, Phillip F.G. Banfill and Gillian F. Menzies Sustainability 2009, 1, 674-701

148 The building industry, governments, designers and researchers of buildings are all affected by the trend of sustainable production and eco- green strategies. The importance of obtaining environment-related product information by LCA is broadly recognized, and LCA is one of the tools to help achieve sustainable building practices. Applying LCA in the building sector has become a distinct working area within LCA practice. This is not only due to the complexity of buildings but also because of the following factors, which combine to make this sector unique in comparison to other complex products. 1. 1.First, buildings have long lifetimes, often more than 50 years, and it is difficult to predict the whole life-cycle from cradle-to-grave. 2. 2.Second, during its life span, the building may undergo many changes in its form and function, which can be as significant, or even more significant, than the original product. The ease with which changes can be made and the opportunity to minimize the environmental effects of changes are partly functions of the original design. 3. 3.Third, many of the environmental impacts of a building occur during its use. Proper design and material selection are critical to minimize those in-use environmental loads. 4. 4.Fourth, there are many stakeholders in the building industry. The designer, who makes the decisions about the final building or its required performance, does not produce the components, nor does he or she build the building. Traditionally, each building is unique and is designed as such. There is very little standardization in whole building design, so new choices have to be made for each specific situation. www.rpd-mohesr.com/uploads/custompages/sust..pdf Diunduh dari: www.rpd-mohesr.com/uploads/custompages/sust..pdf ……. 5/1/2013 LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF BUILDINGS: A REVIEW Mohamad Monkiz Khasreen, Phillip F.G. Banfill and Gillian F. Menzies Sustainability 2009, 1, 674-701

149 Life-Cycle Assessment Methods in Building ISO 14040 defined four main phases of life-cycle assessment study, each affecting the other phases in some way (Figure 1). Figure 1. Life-cycle assessment framework [18]. www.rpd-mohesr.com/uploads/custompages/sust..pdf Diunduh dari: www.rpd-mohesr.com/uploads/custompages/sust..pdf ……. 5/1/2013 LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF BUILDINGS: A REVIEW Mohamad Monkiz Khasreen, Phillip F.G. Banfill and Gillian F. Menzies Sustainability 2009, 1, 674-701 Goal and scope definition Study Outcome Interpretation Inventory Analysis Impact Assessment

150 During the design process of heating and air conditioning systems, the designer must analyse various factors in order to determine the best design options. Therefore, the environmental aspects of a product should be included in the analysis and selection of design options if an environmentally aware design is to be produced or selected. The comparison between three different heating systems was made with the Eco-indicator 95 method. The study included the environmental impact at the production phase of the system, because alternative production methods have different kinds of environmental burdens. The results showed that the three different concepts of heating systems with different construction materials varied the Eco-indicator value. For radiator heating system the Eco-indicator value is far superlative than for floor or fan coil convector heating system. Copper pipes and other copper parts contribute to the greatest environmental impact. Radiator heating Eco-indicator showed three times higher value for copper pipes than for the steel pipes despite smaller dimensions. The lowest values are obtained for floor heating systems. Reasonable values are obtained for fan coil units; analysis shows up, that heat exchanger contributes the main part of the value. Diunduh dari: ……. 5/1/2013 Energy and Buildings 36 (2004) 1021–1027 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS, A SIMPLIfiED CASE STUDY Matjaz Prek ∗

151 A major goal of these studies is to present the consequences of designers’ choices during the design phase. Selecting and designing of heating and air-conditioning systems affects the costs and the environmental impacts. This study dealt with effects of selecting the heating system as a part of building services systems of a dwelling in a residential building. The work was carried out by studying alternative combinations of heating systems in model building. In the study the LCA methodology was used. It has become one of the most actively considered techniques for the study and analysis of strategies to meet environmental challenges. The strengths of LCAs derive from their roots in traditional engineering and process analysis. Also vital is the technique’s recognition that the consequences of changes in technological undertakings may extend far beyond the immediate, or local, environment. A technological process or a change in process can produce a range of consequences whose impacts can only be perceived when the entire range is taken into consideration. Diunduh dari: ……. 5/1/2013 Energy and Buildings 36 (2004) 1021–1027 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS, A SIMPLIfiED CASE STUDY Matjaz Prek ∗

152 Life cycle assessment and Eco-indicator methodology Life cycle assessment is defined by ISO 14000 series standards [5–8] and is conducted by compiling an inventory of relevant inputs and outputs of a product system by evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with the inputs and outputs and by interpreting the results of the inventory analysis and impact assessment phases. The LCA covers the whole life of the product; the study begins from the raw material acquisition through production, use and disposal. The main phases of LCA are goal and scope definition (defining aims, product system and reach of the study), inventory (extractions and emissions caused by the product system are quantified and related to the product function), impact assessment (outcome of the inventory is analysed with respect to their environmental relevance) and interpretation (results are evaluated with regard to the goal of the study). Diunduh dari: ……. 5/1/2013 Energy and Buildings 36 (2004) 1021–1027 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS, A SIMPLIfiED CASE STUDY Matjaz Prek ∗

153 An LCA starts with a systematic inventory of all emissions and the resource consumption during a product’s entire life cycle. The result of this inventory is a list of emissions, consumed resources and non-material impacts like land use. This table is termed the inventory result. Since usually inventory tables are very long and hard to interpret, it is common practice to sort the impacts by the impact category and calculate a score for impact categories such as greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, and acidification. Once the category indicator results are generated, additional techniques are used to analyse the category indicator results (normalisation) and the valuation process to aggregate across impact categories (valuation or weighting). How these impact categories are to be weighted is much less clear. For this reasons it is frequently the case that the result of an LCA cannot be unambiguously interpreted. Diunduh dari: ……. 5/1/2013 Energy and Buildings 36 (2004) 1021–1027 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS, A SIMPLIfiED CASE STUDY Matjaz Prek ∗

154 The importance of the LCA approach, including the LCIA phase, lies in LCA’s key feature—a system-wide perspective and the use of inventory functional unit to normalize the data. Weighting is an optional element to be included separately to better understand the ecological consequences of results from the inventory analysis. This procedure, starting with the inventory result and then trying to interpret it, is referred to as the bottom-up approach. Another possibility is a top-down approach. The top-down approach starts by defining the required result of assessment. This involves the definition of term ‘environment’ and the way for weighting the different environmental impacts. The weighting of environmental problems is usually seen as the most controversial and difficult step in an assessment. Diunduh dari: ……. 5/1/2013 Energy and Buildings 36 (2004) 1021–1027 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS, A SIMPLIfiED CASE STUDY Matjaz Prek ∗

155 The Eco-indicator method has resolved these problems. The LCA method has been expanded to include a weighting method. This has enabled one single score to be calculated for the total environmental impact based on the calculated effects, as is schematically shown in Figure. During the development of the weighting method for the Eco- indicator much attention was given to defining the environmental impact. The problem lies in determining the weighting factors. In this method, the so-called Distance-to-Target principle was chosen. Diunduh dari: ……. 5/1/2013 Energy and Buildings 36 (2004) 1021–1027 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS, A SIMPLIfiED CASE STUDY Matjaz Prek ∗

156 A recently developed life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is the Eco-indicator 99 [6], the successor of the Eco-indicator 95 method. Eco-indicator 99 methodology assesses the impact of emissions to human beings and ecosystems. Ecological impact is represented by the potentially affected fraction (PAF) or potentially disappeared fraction (PDF) of species, since the environmental impact is given as the global warming potential (GWP), ozone depletion potential (ODP), etc. The impact on human well-being is measured by disability adjusted life years (DALY). This represents the years of life lost and years lived disabled due to the impact of emissions and is based on a approach described in [15,16]. For a given process, the emissions data are classified in several impact categories and characterized in common units for each category based on impact factors. The improvements have been made for damage categories themselves, inclusion of land-use as an impact or impact category, inclusion of source depletion, better modelling of damage functions and inclusion of cultural theory as a tool to manage subjectivity. Diunduh dari: ……. 5/1/2013 Energy and Buildings 36 (2004) 1021–1027 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS, A SIMPLIfiED CASE STUDY Matjaz Prek ∗

157 This paper presents the results of a streamlined life cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and avoidance from one-year’s operation of a community non-profit reused building materials store (RBMS). The hypothesis was that a representative RBMS would provide a greater avoidance of GHG emissions than will result from its operations.The mix of materials types in any RBMS and lack of detailed inventories posed unique challenges in this assessment. A hybrid approach of economic input-output (EIO) LCA and direct process inventory and impact assessment was taken to overcome data inventory obstacles 1. The environmental attribute calculated in this assessment were GHG as measured in CO 2 equivalents (CO 2 e). The assessment was performed on the Community Forklift (CF) non-profit in Edmonston, MD in 2011 2. It was estimated that CF’s CO 2 e gross emissions for 2011 were approximately 285.6 tCO 2 e and its operations resulted in a gross 799.1 tCO 2 e emissions avoidance. The net GHG impacts of CF for the year 2011 were -513.5 tCO 2 e. The largest GHG impacts occurred from donation pick-ups. The secondary impacts were from building heating and electricity. The largest avoided impacts or benefits came from the provision of reused building materials. The recycling of mixed metals also had a significant positive impact. The three R’s of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle are well-known by the average US citizen as priorities for materials conservation and avoiding the impacts of waste. It is estimated that approximately 30-40% of all US solid waste is a result of construction and demolition (C&D) activities with an approximate 30% recycling rate. The C&D reuse rate is unknown, however, it is estimated to be a fraction of one- percent of the C&D waste produced in the US each year. RBMS and reuse have not been well-analyzed, as compared to recycling, for their potential environmental benefits to the building materials and construction industries. This study also identifies areas of potential environmental improvement by the RBMS. Diunduh dari: http://lcacenter.org/lcaxii/abstracts/521.html ……. 5/1/2013 Life Cycle Assessment Methods for Building Materials Recovery and Reuse George Guy, The Catholic University of America Benjamin Holsinger, The Catholic University of America Jim Schulman, The Community Forklift

158 LCA is a helpful tool for measuring the energy and environmental impacts of a product. Allocation plays an important role in LCA. Assumptions made during allocation can have a significant impact on the overall LCA result. In the illustration developed here it was shown that GHG co-product credits for ethanol and subsequently the overall life cycle GHG emissions, depend on assumptions made regarding the end use of the co-products. The method presented in this paper can likely be adapted to determine co-product credits associated with both feed and fertilizer co-products from the ever increasing number and types of biorefinery co-products. Co- product credits for these applications may vary with the level of co- product used for a specific application. In the case of animal feed the value of the co-product most likely depends on the amount fed and in the case of fertilizer the value to the soil most likely depends on the amount applied. The case study presented in this paper demonstrates that assumptions are an important aspect and play a significant role in the overall results of LCA. www.trinityconsultants.com/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id... Diunduh dari: www.trinityconsultants.com/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id... ……. 5/1/2013 CO-PRODUCT ALLOCATION IN LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: A CASE STUDY Extended Abstract 2009-645-AWMA Katherine A. Edwards AND Robert P. Anex Trinity Consultants, 106 Main Street South, Suite 201, Stillwater, MN 55082

159 Lithuania is one of the countries that have ratified the Marpol 73/78 Convention, which foresees the tools of reduction and prevention of sea pollution by bilge water and other substances. The Directive of the European Parliament and Council 2000/59/EB is addressed to the reduction of waste onboard ships and its wash overboard. Analysis of the ships entering Klaipėda sea port has estimated that oil waste constitutes about 74% of the whole collected waste amount. Engine bilge water is specific and hazardous to the environment because it is a liquid compound of water and oil products capable of making steady emulsions. It also acquires specific properties during various technological processes. Equipment, technological processes, specificity of the control related to combustibility and flammability, as well as conformity to the requirements of the International and European Union Rights, technological process management, and documents are needed for the management of this specific waste. For this reason, separation of this oily water from the common oil-polluted waste and analysis of these streams of waste treatment are of great importance to enhance the effectiveness of environmental protection during the management process of this oily waste. Applying a system approach to the oily waste in the port, we set up a waste management system algorithm based on the life cycle. The system of port waste management is a set of technological processes, each of them performing a certain function and requiring stock, electric energy, fuel, transport, heat, technological equipment, etc. Having made the environmental assessment, a suggestion was made to convert the waste resulting from the engine bilge water treatment into energy and to use it in a technological process when closing (finishing) the life cycle. In this paper, a life-cycle assessment (LCA) was performed to identify and quantify the environmental impacts caused by the ship-generated waste management, focusing on oily waters of the port of Klaipėda. LCA methodology was used to evaluate the environmental performance of ship-generated waste management of Klaipėda port, according to international standards. Diunduh dari: http://www.jcronline.org/doi/abs/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-11-00167.1……. 5/1/2013. J. Dvarionienė, G. Zobėlaitė-Noreikienė, J. Kruopienė, and Ž Stasiškienė (2012) Application of the Life-Cycle Assessment Method for Pollution Prevention in Klaipėda Sea Port. Journal of Coastal Research doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-11-00167.1http://dx.doi.org/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-11-00167.1

160 This study was conducted to assess the impact of cereals (wheat and barley) production on environment under rainfed and irrigated farming systems in northeast of Iran. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used as a methodology to assess all environmental impacts of cereal grain production through accounting and appraising the resource consumption and emissions. The functional unit considered in this study was one ton grain yield production under different rates of nitrogen application. All associated impacts of different range of N fertilizer application were evaluated on the basis of the functional unit. In this study, three major impact categories considered were climate change, acidification, and eutrophication. In order to prepare final evaluation of all impacts on environment, the EcoX was determined. Results represented that, under low consumption of N fertilizer, the environmental impacts of both rainfed farming systems of wheat and barley was less than irrigated farming systems. Considering grain yield as response factor to different fertilizer application level, irrigated farming systems of wheat and barley with the range of 160–180 and >220 (Kg N ha −1 ) showed the maximum impact on environment. It seems LCA is an appropriate method to quantify the impact of utilized agricultural inputs and different managements on environment. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012. Diunduh dari: http://ideas.repec.org/a/spr/endesu/v14y2012i6p979- 992.html#cites……. 6/1/2013 The environmental impact assessment of wheat and barley production by using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology F. FallahpourA. AminghafouriA. Ghalegolab BehbahaniM. Bannayan Environment, Development and SustainabilityEnvironment, Development and Sustainability.Volume (Year): 14 (2012) Issue (Month): 6 (December). Pages: 979-992

161 Requirements for the design of HVAC systems with low environmental impact have become accepted in the past decade. However, the environmental performance is complicated to evaluate, because the process is a ected by several parameters. This paper presents a case study, in which a previously established method for environmental evaluation is adapted. Two alternative air handling units were analysed using life cycle assessment including the weighting step. The results, according to the weighting method applied as well as the material assumptions, show that the user stage of the life cycle of both units is the critical part of the overall impact. In an LCA study, the whole life cycle of a product or a system is taken into account. This means that the assessment includes the extraction of resources, production processes, the use and waste treatment of the product assessed. The LCA study consists of four stages: goal and scope, inventory analysis (LCI), impact assessment (LCIA) and interpretation. The goal and scope stage speciÿes the intention of the study, as well as its application and audience. Moreover, limitations of the study are speciÿed and the functional unit, which is a quantiÿed performance of a product system, is deÿned. In the LCI, the inventory data on materials and energy ows for the product during its life cycle are collected. This is the most extensive and time-consuming phase of the study, because the information is not always available. Since the production processes of a material involve several stages (producers, transporters, etc.), the compilation of the information is time consuming and sometimes fragmentary. Results of the LCI are given as emissions (in kg) with various e ects on the environment. In next phase, the LCIA, the various kinds of emissions are assigned to impact categories (e.g. climate change), and category indicator results are calculated (e.g. kg of CO2 equivalents). In the interpretation phase, the information from the earlier phases is evaluated. stuff.mit.edu/.../.. Diunduh dari: stuff.mit.edu/.../..……. 6/1/2013 Environmental impact assessment using a weighting method for alternative air-conditioning systems KatarÃna Heikkila Building and Environment 39 (2004) 1133 – 1140

162 The article presents the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to a complete sanitation system including the sewer network. It first describes the LCA hypothesis which concerns two types of waste water-treatment plant with the same daily nominal load in BOD5 and associated to the same sewer network derived from the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) database Ecoinvent. The two wastewater treatment systems compared are (i) a “Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands (VFCW)” for which a detailed inventory was elaborated and (ii) an “activated sludge” stemming from the LCI database Ecoinvent. LCA scores of VFCW highlight the importance of eutrophication which can be easily explained by the incomplete removal of total N and total P in a VFCW. In a more surprising way, the impact of the network seems considerable. Finally, the article analyses the applicability and limitations of LCA for wastewater treatment with regard to water quality and the needed improvements of water status in LCA. hal.cirad.fr/docs/00/57/24/79/PDF/MO2010- PUB00029467.pdf Diunduh dari: hal.cirad.fr/docs/00/57/24/79/PDF/MO2010- PUB00029467.pdf……. 6/1/2013. Life Cycle environmental Assessment (LCA) of sanitation systems including sewerage: Case of vertical flow constructed wetlands versus activated sludge P. Rouxa, C. Boutinb, E. Rischa, A. Héduitc 12th IWA International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control Venise ITA, 4-8 octobre 2010

163 LCA is a method developed to carry out a comparison of environmental impacts of products, technologies or services on their whole life cycle, so called from “cradle to grave” (Haes et al., 2002). The emissions to all environmental compartments and resource consumption during production, use and disposal are considered. The LCA framework is defined according to international standards (ISO 14040-14044) and for its effective implementation databases of processes, material and energy flows are used (Ecoinvent database in this study). The LCA method consists of 4 main phases described in this paper: (1) Goal and scope definition (2) Life Cycle Inventory - LCI (3) Life Cycle Impact Assessment – LCIA (4) Interpretation. Within the LCA conceptual framework, impact categories have been defined following the description of environmental pathways, i.e. cause- effect chains, as shown with some examples in Figure 1. This results in defining two main impact categories for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA), the first one being the MIDPOINT indicator category and the second being defined as ENDPOINT indicators. While midpoint indicators do not account for potential damages they may cause to the final targets, endpoint indicators are damage-oriented. They must be understood as issues of environmental concern, such as human health, extinction of species, and availability of resources for future generations. In this paper, the presentation of the results will use mainly midpoint indicators from the CML method (Guinée et al., 2001) and in one case the endpoint Eco-indicator method (Goedkoop et al, 2001). hal.cirad.fr/docs/00/57/24/79/PDF/MO2010- PUB00029467.pdf Diunduh dari: hal.cirad.fr/docs/00/57/24/79/PDF/MO2010- PUB00029467.pdf……. 6/1/2013 METODE

164 The literature on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to process industry products and particularly to chemical processes has been reviewed. The main purpose of an LCA is to provide a quantitative assessment of the environmental impact of products over their entire life cycle, with a view to making improvements. Application to processes, which are key parts of the life cycle, is important in the context of process design and development, and in the analysis of processing chains. Reference is made to some important techniques for environmental assessment which interface with LCA when evaluating processes. The essential features of the LCA methodology are reviewed and some specific difficulties in the application of LCA are identified and discussed. These difficulties include allocation of impacts to multiple products, the de"nition of system boundaries, the quality of data, temporal and spatial characteristics, and impact assessment methods. Consideration is given to the combined use of LCA with economic evaluations, which is important in the process industry context. Finally, some cases of the application of LCA to speci"c chemical processes are reviewed. Diunduh dari: ……. 6/1/2013 Application of life cycle assessment to chemical processes A. Burgess, D. J. Brennan Chemical Engineering Science 56 (2001) 2589}2604

165 Life cycle assessment The use of LCA as a tool for assessing the environ mental impacts of products, processes and activities is gaining wide acceptance. All direct and indirect environmental impacts associated with the product, process or activity are included in the assessment. The scope of the assessment encompasses extraction and processing of raw materials, manufacturing and assembly processes, product distribution, use, re-use, maintenance, recycling and "nal disposal (Consoli et al., 1993; Kniel, Delmarco, & Petrie, 1996). LCAs identify and quantify the process #ows and systems which are major contributors to environmental degradation (Lee, O'Callaghan, & Allen, 1995). This is important for identifying the areas for improvement which will have the greatest in#uence on total life cycle impacts (Berkhout & Howes, 1997). Unlike some pollution prevention techniques which are centred around single issues such as recyclability or reduced toxicity, LCA considers a range of environmental impact categories (Curran, 1993; Lee et al., 1995). Furthermore, while typical approaches to environmental protection select the most effcient and cost-e!ective processes before determining ways of reducing environmental impacts, environmental considerations are part of the decision-making process from the beginning when using LCA (Harsch, 1996). 1. 1.Berkhout, F., & Howes, R. (1997). The adoption of life-cycle approaches by industry: patterns and impacts. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 20, 71}94. 2. 2.Consoli, F., Boustead, I., Fava, J., Franklin, W., Jensen A., de Oude, N., Parish, R., Postlethwaite, D., Quay, B., Seguin, J., & Vignon, B. (1993). Guidelines for life-cycle assessment: A &Code of Practice'. SETAC. 3. 3.Curran, M. (1993). Broad-based environmental life cycle assessment. Environmental Science and Technology, 27(3), 431}436. 4. 4.Harsch, M. (1996). Life-cycle assessment. Advanced Materials and Processes, 43}46. 5. 5.Kniel, G. E., Delmarco, K., & Petrie, J. G. (1996). Life cycle assessment applied to process design: Environmental and economic analysis and optimisation of a nitric acid plant. Environmental Progress, 15(4), 221}228. 6. 6.Lee, J., O'Callaghan, P., & Allen, D. (1995). Critical review of life cycle analysis and assessment techniques & their application to commer- cial activities. Resources, Conservation & Recycling, 13, 37}56. Diunduh dari: ……. 6/1/2013 Application of life cycle assessment to chemical processes A. Burgess, D. J. Brennan Chemical Engineering Science 56 (2001) 2589}2604

166 Eco-design is an essential way to reduce the environmental impacts and economic cost of processes and systems, as well as products. Until now, the majority of eco-design approaches have employed multi-objective optimization methods to balance between environmental and economic performances. However, the methods have limitations because multi- objective optimization requires decision makers to subjectively assign weighting factors for objectives, i.e., environmental impacts and economic cost. This implies that, depending on decision makers' preference and knowledge, different design solutions can be engendered for the same design problem. This study proposes an eco-design method which can generate a single design solution by developing mathematical optimization models with a single-objective function for environmental impacts and economic cost. For the formulation of the single-objective function, environmental impacts are monetized to external cost by using the Environmental Priority Strategies. This enables the tradeoffs between environmental impacts and economic cost in the same unit, i.e., monetary unit. As a case study, the proposed method is applied to the eco-design of a water reuse system in an industrial plant. This study can contribute to improving the eco-efficiency of various products, processes, and systems. Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652612003782 ……. 6/1/2013. System optimization for eco-design by using monetization of environmental impacts: a strategy to convert bi-objective to single-objective problems Seong-Rin Lim,, Yoo Ri Kim, Seung H. Woo, Donghee Park, Jong Moon Park Journal of Cleaner Production. Volume 39, January 2013, Pages 303–311Volume 39

167 Comparison of eco-design methods: (a) multi-objective optimization; (b) proposed method converting a multi-objective problem to a single- objective problem by using the monetization of environmental impacts to economic cost. Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652612003782 ……. 6/1/2013. System optimization for eco-design by using monetization of environmental impacts: a strategy to convert bi-objective to single- objective problems Seong-Rin Lim,, Yoo Ri Kim, Seung H. Woo, Donghee Park, Jong Moon Park Journal of Cleaner Production. Volume 39, January 2013, Pages 303–311Volume 39

168 Concept of the proposed eco-design method. Environmental impacts of principal contributors are monetized to external costs by using the Environmental Priority Strategies (EPS) as a life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method for life cycle assessment (LCA), which enables the tradeoffs between environmental impacts and economic cost. The monetized external costs and economic costs are formulated and combined to develop a mathematical optimization model with a single-objective function. Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652612003782 ……. 6/1/2013. System optimization for eco-design by using monetization of environmental impacts: a strategy to convert bi-objective to single- objective problems Seong-Rin Lim,, Yoo Ri Kim, Seung H. Woo, Donghee Park, Jong Moon Park Journal of Cleaner Production. Volume 39, January 2013, Pages 303–311Volume 39

169 Generalized superstructure model used to generate a water supply system utilizing freshwater and wastewater. Modified from the model in Lim and Park (2007).Lim and Park (2007) Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652612003782 ……. 6/1/2013. System optimization for eco-design by using monetization of environmental impacts: a strategy to convert bi-objective to single- objective problems Seong-Rin Lim,, Yoo Ri Kim, Seung H. Woo, Donghee Park, Jong Moon Park Journal of Cleaner Production. Volume 39, January 2013, Pages 303–311Volume 39

170 Various authors have stated that Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) differs fundamentally from product Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This paper shows the contrary. LCA is a specific elaboration of a generic environmental evaluation framework. EIA is a procedure rather than a tool, in which LCA certainly may be useful. Particularly in strategic and project EIAs, environmental comparisons of process and abatement alternatives may be relevant. Although these alternatives may lead to different emissions and effects at the location of the process itself (which is usually the focus in project EIAs), they can also influence the demand for activities upstream and downstream in the production chain. Including such secondary effects in an EIA, which may be crucial for a proper comparison of alternatives, requires a system approach that takes into account all relevant effects. This is, in fact, LCA. A review of five case studies shows that it is quite feasible to use elements of LCA in EIA. Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195925599000451 ……. 6/1/2013. Life cycle assessment as a tool in environmental impact assessment Arnold Tukker Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Volume 20, Issue 4, August 2000, Pages 435–456Volume 20, Issue 4

171 A typical environmental evaluation in an LCA Diunduh dari: ……. 6/1/2013

172 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Risk Assessment (RA) are two different tools in environmental management. This article identifies harmonies, discrepancies, and relations between the two tools exemplified by the RA principles of the European Commission (EC) and the LCA method, Environmental Design of Industrial Products (EDIP), developed in Denmark, respectively. A very important feature of LCA is the relative assessment due to the use of a functional unit. RA, on the other hand, is an absolute assessment, which requires very specific and detailed information on e.g. the exposure conditions. It is concluded that the conceptual background and the purpose of the tools are different, but that there are overlaps where they may benefit from each other and complement each other in an overall environmental effort. Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195925501000750 ……. 6/1/2013. Life cycle impact assessment and risk assessment of chemicals — a methodological comparison Stig Irving Olsen, Frans Møller Christensen, Michael Hauschild, Finn Pedersen, Henrik Fred Larsen, Jens Tørsløv Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Volume 21, Issue 4, July 2001, Pages 385–404Volume 21, Issue 4

173 Schematic overview of the principles of assessment of chemicals (Bro-Rasmussen, 1998). TGD and EUSES (the accompanying software model) can be used for preliminary screening (priority setting), as well as for risk characterisation. The principles of TGD can also be used for more specific RA, depending on purpose and data accessibility. The RA has to quantify actual risks, and therefore, specific information on the actual conditions of a given population is necessary. This is not immediately possible in EUSES.(Bro-Rasmussen, 1998) Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195925501000750 ……. 6/1/2013. Life cycle impact assessment and risk assessment of chemicals — a methodological comparison Stig Irving Olsen, Frans Møller Christensen, Michael Hauschild, Finn Pedersen, Henrik Fred Larsen, Jens Tørsløv Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Volume 21, Issue 4, July 2001, Pages 385–404Volume 21, Issue 4

174 Schematic presentation of the correlation between the product-oriented and the chemical-oriented approach. This is a very simplified description, because chemical substances can form part of a product's life cycle in many different ways, e.g. a chemical substance can be the product itself in some cases (if so, just a few fields of application are assessed), in other cases, it may be a raw material or an auxiliary material. It might also appear as a decomposition product/by-product in processes. Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195925501000750 ……. 6/1/2013. Life cycle impact assessment and risk assessment of chemicals — a methodological comparison Stig Irving Olsen, Frans Møller Christensen, Michael Hauschild, Finn Pedersen, Henrik Fred Larsen, Jens Tørsløv Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Volume 21, Issue 4, July 2001, Pages 385–404Volume 21, Issue 4

175 Relationship between RA and LCA according to the time and site specificity. Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195925501000750 ……. 6/1/2013. Life cycle impact assessment and risk assessment of chemicals — a methodological comparison Stig Irving Olsen, Frans Møller Christensen, Michael Hauschild, Finn Pedersen, Henrik Fred Larsen, Jens Tørsløv Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Volume 21, Issue 4, July 2001, Pages 385–404Volume 21, Issue 4

176 In principle, the assessments of emissions in LCA and RA are based on the same data, but end up with different results. LCA furthermore includes use of ressources and land.. Life cycle impact assessment and risk assessment of chemicals — a methodological comparison Stig Irving Olsen, Frans Møller Christensen, Michael Hauschild, Finn Pedersen, Henrik Fred Larsen, Jens Tørsløv Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Volume 21, Issue 4, July 2001, Pages 385–404Volume 21, Issue 4 Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195925501000750 ……. 6/1/2013

177 Environmental impact assessment is becoming indispensable for the design and operation of chemical plants. Structured and consistent methods for this purpose have experienced a rapid development. The more rigorous and sophisticated these methods become, the greater is the demand for convenient tools. On the other hand, despite the incredible advances in process simulators, some aspects have still not been sufficiently covered. To date, applications of these programs to quantify environmental impacts have been restricted to straightforward examples of steady-state processes. In this work, a life-cycle assessment implementation with the aim of process design will be described, with a brief discussion of a dynamic simulation for analysis of transient state operations, such as process start- up. A case study shows the importance of this analysis in making possible operation at a high performance level with reduced risks to the environment. Diunduh dari: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-66322004000300005 ……. 6/1/2013 Braz. J. Chem. Eng. vol.21 no.3 São Paulo July/Sept. 2004 INCORPORATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CRITERIA IN THE DESIGN AND OPERATION OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES P.E. Bauer; R. Maciel Filho

178 LCA METHODOLOGY LCA is a tool used to evaluate the environmental effects of a product, process or system from extraction of the raw materials (oil, ores, fresh water, air, and so on) to the final disposal of materials in the environment, commonly known as "cradle to grave" analysis. LCA is normally applied (ISO 14040, 1997), as shown in Figure 1, in four main phases:Figure 1 1) goal and scope definition, 2) inventory analysis, 3) impact assessment, and 4) interpretation. Diunduh dari: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-66322004000300005 ……. 6/1/2013 Braz. J. Chem. Eng. vol.21 no.3 São Paulo July/Sept. 2004 INCORPORATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CRITERIA IN THE DESIGN AND OPERATION OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES P.E. Bauer; R. Maciel Filho

179 LCA METHODOLOGY In the first phase the purpose of the work is defined and the system boundaries (temporal, geographical, and technological) and mainly the environmental impact categories to be used are identified. The second phase is concerned with data collection and the calculation procedures for preparing the materials and energy inputs and outputs of any unit process producing the LCI. These procedures may be almost completely rigorously implemented using the chemical process simulation software. The third phase is impact assessment (LCIA), and it is aimed at understanding and evaluating the magnitude and significance of potential environmental impacts of the system under study. It is essentially a quantitative procedure to identify, characterise, and assess the potential impacts of environmental interventions identified in the second phase. The final phase in an LCA study is interpretation, which may be defined as the systematic procedure to identify, qualify, check, and evaluate the results of the LCI and LCIA. The main aim of interpretation is to analyse the results according to the goals and scope and to formulate the conclusions and the recommendations that can be drawn from the LCA. It can comprise five different kinds of analysis (Heijungs and Kleijn, 2000): 1) contribution analysis, 2) perturbation analysis, 3) uncertainty analysis, 4) comparative analysis, and 5) discernibility analysis. The chemical process design follows a series of stages, beginning with a preliminary structuring of the process, based on an input-output description (Turton et al., 1998) and concluding with a flowsheet of the final process. LCA can assist in the environmental performance analysis during the whole sequence of stages. 1. 1.Heijungs, R. and Kleijn, R. 2000. Numerical Approaches towards Life-Cycle Interpretation: Five Examples, WP-SSP Working Paper 2000.001, Centre of Environmental Science (CML), Leiden University, The Netherlands. 2. 2.Turton, R., Bailie, R.C., Whiting, W.B., and Shaeiwitz, J.A. 1998. Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc. Diunduh dari: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-66322004000300005 ……. 6/1/2013 Braz. J. Chem. Eng. vol.21 no.3 São Paulo July/Sept. 2004 INCORPORATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CRITERIA IN THE DESIGN AND OPERATION OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES P.E. Bauer; R. Maciel Filho

180 One of the most discussed topics worldwide is climate change, upon which livestock production is known to have a great environmental impact. There are different methods to measure these environmental impacts, some of which are mentioned in this review. It especially focuses on the method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), because it is widely used, of high relevance and good quality. This review highlights a sample of the few published European LCA studies on pork production. These assessments result in an average global warming potential of 3.6 kg CO 2 - eq per kg pork, ranging from 2.6 to 6.3 kg CO 2 - eq per kg pork. Additionally, it illustrates the main limitations of the methodology itself (e.g. data intensiveness, different allocation techniques) and its application in pork production (e.g. limited data availability, use of multiple functional units, varying system boundaries). The missing comparability of various studies arising from a vague standard still represents the main problem in LCA. Therefore, a new standardisation and the development of a more exhaustive database would generate a future trend. Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030147971200196X……. 6/1/2013. Environmental Impact Assessment – methodology with special emphasis on European pork production K. Reckmann, I. Traulsen, J. Krieter Journal of Environmental Management. Volume 107, 30 September 2012, Pages 102–109Volume 107

181 Stages of an LCA (according to ISO, 2006a). Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030147971200196X……. 6/1/2013. Environmental Impact Assessment – methodology with special emphasis on European pork production K. Reckmann, I. Traulsen, J. Krieter Journal of Environmental Management. Volume 107, 30 September 2012, Pages 102–109Volume 107

182 System boundaries of the pork production chain. In a typical cradle-to-gate study, dark grey boxes are not taken into account. Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030147971200196X……. 6/1/2013. Environmental Impact Assessment – methodology with special emphasis on European pork production K. Reckmann, I. Traulsen, J. Krieter Journal of Environmental Management. Volume 107, 30 September 2012, Pages 102–109Volume 107

183 Life cycle assessment (LCA) is frequently used as a tool for environmental assessment of buildings and building products. Generally, the main focus of LCA is the impact on the regional and global external environment. However, there are important environmental problems related to buildings that arise locally in connection with the indoor environment, such as effects on human health. The approaches of LCA, measurements of emissions from building materials, and indoor climate assessment were studied to see how they relate to each other from a methodological point of view, using volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions as an example. The possibility of including indoor climate issues as an impact category in LCA of building products was investigated. Only very limited aspects of the indoor climate could be addressed in LCA; thus, indoor climate issues are preferably dealt with separately. Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195925599000396 ……. 6/1/2013 Is it feasible to address indoor climate issues in LCA? Åsa Jönsson Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Volume 20, Issue 2, April 2000, Pages 241–25.Volume 20, Issue 2

184 Environmental loads from the technical systems contribute to effects of various orders in the natural environment Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195925599000396 ……. 6/1/2013 Is it feasible to address indoor climate issues in LCA? Åsa Jönsson Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Volume 20, Issue 2, April 2000, Pages 241–25.Volume 20, Issue 2

185 Life cycle assessment (LCA), material emissions assessment (MEA), and indoor climate assessment (ICA) approaches, with the most common types of input data Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195925599000396 ……. 6/1/2013 Is it feasible to address indoor climate issues in LCA? Åsa Jönsson Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Volume 20, Issue 2, April 2000, Pages 241–25.Volume 20, Issue 2

186 Life cycle assessment (LCA) and material emissions assessment (MEA) start out from the technical system to assess the potential effects on the natural environment, whereas indoor climate assessment (ICA) aims at finding the causes of observed effects in the natural environment Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195925599000396 ……. 6/1/2013 Is it feasible to address indoor climate issues in LCA? Åsa Jönsson Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Volume 20, Issue 2, April 2000, Pages 241–25.Volume 20, Issue 2 Elements in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) stage, according to the draft of ISO 14042

187 Lack of regulations and standards on mineral waste recycling makes Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) useful methods for environmental assessment of recycling scenarios. An unsolved problem arises whenever two scenarios of recycling have to be compared according to both ERA and LCA impact results considered simultaneously. A methodology to combine LCA and ERA results and tools toward Integrated Environmental Assessment (IEA) is proposed together with three application examples based on case studies. The most effective combination approach is to define further impact categories for ERA to be considered with the standard LCA ones. Then, the use of a multicriteria analysis method was proved to be an efficient way to rank alternative scenarios with respect to all the results. The key issues to be further researched are discussed and proposals are suggested. Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195925506001296……. 6/1/2013. COMBINING LIFECYCLE AND RISK ASSESSMENTS OF MINERAL WASTE REUSE SCENARIOS FOR DECISION MAKING SUPPORT Enrico Benetto, Ligia Tiruta-Barna, Yves Perrodin Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Volume 27, Issue 3, April 2007, Pages 266–285Volume 27, Issue 3

188 Relationship between LCA and ERA (from Flemström et al., 2004).Flemström et al., 2004 Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195925506001296……. 6/1/2013. COMBINING LIFECYCLE AND RISK ASSESSMENTS OF MINERAL WASTE REUSE SCENARIOS FOR DECISION MAKING SUPPORT Enrico Benetto, Ligia Tiruta-Barna, Yves Perrodin Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Volume 27, Issue 3, April 2007, Pages 266–285Volume 27, Issue 3

189 Overall IEA (Integrated Environmental Assessment) scheme. Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195925506001296……. 6/1/2013. COMBINING LIFECYCLE AND RISK ASSESSMENTS OF MINERAL WASTE REUSE SCENARIOS FOR DECISION MAKING SUPPORT Enrico Benetto, Ligia Tiruta-Barna, Yves Perrodin Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Volume 27, Issue 3, April 2007, Pages 266–285Volume 27, Issue 3

190 Scheme for combining LCA and ERA results. Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195925506001296……. 6/1/2013. COMBINING LIFECYCLE AND RISK ASSESSMENTS OF MINERAL WASTE REUSE SCENARIOS FOR DECISION MAKING SUPPORT Enrico Benetto, Ligia Tiruta-Barna, Yves Perrodin Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Volume 27, Issue 3, April 2007, Pages 266–285Volume 27, Issue 3

191 ERA (a. from ADEME, 1999) and LCA (b, from Birgisdóttir, 2005) scenarios considered in the application example 1.ADEME, 1999Birgisdóttir, 2005 Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195925506001296……. 6/1/2013. COMBINING LIFECYCLE AND RISK ASSESSMENTS OF MINERAL WASTE REUSE SCENARIOS FOR DECISION MAKING SUPPORT Enrico Benetto, Ligia Tiruta-Barna, Yves Perrodin Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Volume 27, Issue 3, April 2007, Pages 266–285Volume 27, Issue 3

192 ERA (a, from POLDEN, 2002) and LCA (b, from Mroueh et al., 1999) scenarios considered in the application example 2.POLDEN, 2002Mroueh et al., 1999 Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195925506001296……. 6/1/2013. COMBINING LIFECYCLE AND RISK ASSESSMENTS OF MINERAL WASTE REUSE SCENARIOS FOR DECISION MAKING SUPPORT Enrico Benetto, Ligia Tiruta-Barna, Yves Perrodin Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Volume 27, Issue 3, April 2007, Pages 266–285Volume 27, Issue 3

193 ERA scenario considered in the application example 3. Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195925506001296……. 6/1/2013. COMBINING LIFECYCLE AND RISK ASSESSMENTS OF MINERAL WASTE REUSE SCENARIOS FOR DECISION MAKING SUPPORT Enrico Benetto, Ligia Tiruta-Barna, Yves Perrodin Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Volume 27, Issue 3, April 2007, Pages 266–285Volume 27, Issue 3

194 The role of life cycle analysis (LCA) in identifying and measuring the environmental impact of extended supply chains, i.e., chains involving both forward and reverse activities, is very important. Particularly, in the case of alternative supply chain management policies or scenarios, life cycle analysis may significantly help to quantify the environmental result of these alternatives for the purpose of comparison and decision making. It is debatable, however, whether such comparison is always possible. Indeed, life cycle analysis has often raised discussion and disagreements, especially regarding the stage of Impact Assessment (valuation), and, until now, there is no generally accepted framework of analysis. In this paper, different models are used in order to extend the usability of the Environmental Design of Industrial Products method of Impact Assessment. Furthermore, research results that are produced by applying different methods of Impact Assessment are examined in the cases of the recovery and disposal chains of lead–acid batteries. Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X04000160 ……. 6/1/2013 Aggregating and evaluating the results of different Environmental Impact Assessment methods Stavros E Daniel, Giannis T Tsoulfas, Costas P Pappis, Nikos P Rachaniotis Ecological Indicators. Volume 4, Issue 2, June 2004, Pages 125–138Volume 4, Issue 2

195 LCA polygon of the reverse supply chain resources consumption. Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X04000160 ……. 6/1/2013 Aggregating and evaluating the results of different Environmental Impact Assessment methods Stavros E Daniel, Giannis T Tsoulfas, Costas P Pappis, Nikos P Rachaniotis Ecological Indicators. Volume 4, Issue 2, June 2004, Pages 125–138Volume 4, Issue 2

196 LCA polygon of the disposal chain resources consumption. Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X04000160 ……. 6/1/2013 Aggregating and evaluating the results of different Environmental Impact Assessment methods Stavros E Daniel, Giannis T Tsoulfas, Costas P Pappis, Nikos P Rachaniotis Ecological Indicators. Volume 4, Issue 2, June 2004, Pages 125–138Volume 4, Issue 2

197 LCA polygon of the reverse supply chain ecological impacts. Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X04000160 ……. 6/1/2013 Aggregating and evaluating the results of different Environmental Impact Assessment methods Stavros E Daniel, Giannis T Tsoulfas, Costas P Pappis, Nikos P Rachaniotis Ecological Indicators. Volume 4, Issue 2, June 2004, Pages 125–138Volume 4, Issue 2

198 LCA polygon of the disposal chain ecological impacts. Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X04000160 ……. 6/1/2013 Aggregating and evaluating the results of different Environmental Impact Assessment methods Stavros E Daniel, Giannis T Tsoulfas, Costas P Pappis, Nikos P Rachaniotis Ecological Indicators. Volume 4, Issue 2, June 2004, Pages 125–138Volume 4, Issue 2


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