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 Background:  10yr old Active, healthy male  SYMPTOMS: General Malaise, always in pain, joints hurt, developed Juvenile Arthritis Severe headaches;

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Presentation on theme: " Background:  10yr old Active, healthy male  SYMPTOMS: General Malaise, always in pain, joints hurt, developed Juvenile Arthritis Severe headaches;"— Presentation transcript:

1  Background:  10yr old Active, healthy male  SYMPTOMS: General Malaise, always in pain, joints hurt, developed Juvenile Arthritis Severe headaches; unable to attend school Extremely tired, drowsiness, apathy and general weakness Loss of appetite, losing weight; when ate food/water got severe stomach cramps Lost urge to thrive, listless, just laid in bed all day Blood work: elevated TA1 cells, decreased B lymocytes, markers for autobodies rheumatoid arthritis markers Result: Saw 9 specialists at Children's and UW : “flu” Case study #1: “Medical Mystery”

2 Risk Assessment for the Exposure to Isocyanates (in carpets) Isocyanate Monitoring System By Vickie Carper & Mary Tseng Methyl Isocyanate

3 What are Isocyanates? The Compound  Carpets (newly installed)  Upholstery  Foam  Mattresses  Paints/Auto finish  Surface coatings (laminates)  Adhesives Isocyanate molecules have the functional group -N=C=O.

4 Stake Holders Who is at Risk?  Carpet Industry  Consumers  Health Department  EPA  Americans/Everyone  Children and Infants  Adults  Carpet Layers

5 Dream HOME ? “I wanted the house to be so nice, and then I poisoned my son with it.”

6 Partial list of Some of the Over 200 Chemicals Found in Manufactured Carpet  ethylbenzene formaldehyde methacrylate acid methyl methacrylate acrylic oligomers tetrachloroethylene toluene xylenes 4-phenylcyclohexene acetonitrile azulene benzene biphenyl 2-butyloctanol-1 cyclopentadiene-ethenyl- 2-ethylene 1,3,5-cycloheptatriene 1-chloronaphthalene diphenyl ether dodecane 1,4- dihydroxyacenophthene ethylxylene 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene hexadecanol hexamethylene triamine 1-h-indene 1-methylnaphthalene 2-methylnaphthalene 1-methyl-3 propylbenzene 2-methyl-4-tridecene 5-methyltridecane octadecenyl amine (oleylamine) oxarium polyacrylates 1-phenylcyclopentanol 2-propylheptanol phthalic esters styrene 1,2,3,-trimethylbenzene 1,2,4,-trimethylbenzene tetradecene 2,3,7-trimethyldecane undecane,2,6-dimethyl (provided by a carpet manufacturer)

7 *By selecting Green Label Plus carpet or adhesive, you are assured one of the lowest emitting products on the market, and you may be able to earn LEED or Green Guide for Health Care points.

8 !! HAZARDS!! eye irritation throat cancer blurred vision eyes sensitive to light throat irritation loss of voice cough dry or thirsty mouth lips burning tongue burning nose burning or bleeding loss or increase of smell moodiness respiratory tract irritation rash or itching hair loss weight loss or gain flu-like symptoms aggravated asthma aggravated allergies joint pain muscular aches abdominal pain memory loss poor concentration nervous system disorders unusual depression Irritability headaches dizziness, disorientation vomiting nausea chest pains shortness of breath irregular heart beat high blood pressure drowsiness unusual fatigue chemical sensitivity jerking in sleep menstrual irregularities sexual dysfunction Symptoms associated with exposure to the chemicals (provided by industrial hygienists)

9 ChemicalHealth Effects Benzene, formaldehyde, ethyl benzene, styrene, acetone CANCER 4-PC (used in the latex backing of 95% of US carpets) Eye, nose and upper respiratory problems Scotchgard (perflouro-octanyl salphonate) Reproductive problems in rats Naphthalene (mothproofing chemicals)Produce toxic reactions, especially in newborns PBDE’s (fire retardants)Damage to thyroid, immune system and brain development functions in humans

10 Catastrophic Chemical Leak and Explosion Bhopal, India 1984

11 Bhopal Gas Tragedy – Dec. 3, 1984 Cause Effect  Union Carbide India Limited plant  Water deliberately introduced into methyl isocyanate tank, forced gas leak to relieve pressure  Mixed with other gases, ignited and exploded  Sabotage?  3, 800 people died  Thousands left with permanent or partial disabilities  Union Carbide paid around $0.5 billion  Indian government paid a $327 million settlement to victims

12 Bhopal, India Gas Leak Disaster 1984

13 Cauldron of Chemical Soup Isocyanates BENZENE acetonitrile P.B.D.E. PFC’ s PFOA Micron(pesticide) Toxic “ Cocktail ” C-8

14 Case study #2: Mr. Braithwaite: -Started laying carpets at 10 with father -Disabled at 39 yrs. old -Father died of lung cancer at 58 Symptoms: -severe concentration problems -memory loss -ringing in his ears -erratic heartbeats -shortness of breath -recurring nosebleeds -coordination problems -gastrointestinal problems -numbness in lower arms/hands. Neurological testing: -SPECT scan verified damage to his brain - Doctors convinced solvents/other chemicals in carpets/glues he worked with are cause

15 Case Study #2: (cont.)

16 Exposure: foam mattress Worked at a foam mattress factory, the chemicals used are quite nasty Main chemical to worry about: TDI, which I believe is from the isocyanate family Remnants of this chemical remain in the mattress Have regular drills in case of a spill or a leakage. The gas given off by this chemical was odorless and lethal Carry a gas mask Sirens during leakage 100 yards long ventilation warehouse, emergency exits every 10 yards to escape!! Case Study #3:

17 Case Study #4 10 month boy, Christopher, on the carpet. Went into strange seizure-like reaction Upper body tensed up, arms started shaking, and his jaw moved awkwardly Doctors ruled out multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, and tumors "tremors of unknown origin" Doctors tried drugs but didn't stop the tremors. Parents had carpet tested in a lab: “the mice were rolling over and shaking just like Christopher Ripped out the carpet, the tremors stopped. Testing on Christopher showed: Immune system damage consistent with chemicals exposure, Autoimmune disease, myelin in his nervous system -- a sign of nerve tissue damage

18 Our Own Risk Assessment

19 Chronic Human Respiratory and Immune Exposure to Isocyanates

20 Isocyanates Inhalation Exposure Human Immune NOAEL..0006ppm =.oo14mg/ m3 Human Resp. NOAEL.0002ppm =.0061 mg/m 3

21 Conversions for human Inhalation Exposure  1 ppm = 2.34 mg/m 3  1 mg/m 3 =.4274 ppm  Example: LOAEL for respiratory system is.0006ppm.0006ppm x 1mg/m 3 /.4274 ppm =.0014mg/m 3

22 NOAEL / Uncertainty Factors  NIOSH REL & OSHA PEL  0.05 mg/m3 = 50ug/m3  Human Immune NOAEL  0.0014mg/m3 = 1.4ug/m3  Human Respiratory NOAEL  0.0061mg/m3 = 6.1ug/m3 Uncertainty Factors: Human variability: 3 Children: 10 Subchronic to chronic extrapolation: 3 Database uncertainty: 10 TOTAL UNCERTAINTY: x 900 Use: 50ug/m3 NIOSH REL/OSHA PEL 50ug/m3 / 900 = 0.06ug/m3

23 Precautionary Risk Assessment Hazard, Community, Exposure Issues

24 Community/Social Issues ParameterScore G = Goal3 – does NOT move forward the goal of human and environmental health N = Need3 – we do NOT need this F = Future generations3 – there is VERY HIGH potential impact on future generations D = Democratic community based process 3 – hardly anyone knows about the risks and hazards A = Alternatives3 – some companies switched out formaldehyde for isocyanates... Total15/15 – NOT SUPPORTIVE OF HEALTH OR COMMUNITY

25 Exposure Issues ParametersScore E = Exposure1 – we have LITTLE control over exposure from carpets M = Multiple exposure3 – very WIDE range of chemicals in carpets Ch = Children exposed5 – children, especially infants are at the greatest risk, in their breathing zone CP = Consumer products3 – carpets are in almost every home/work place, and many other products O = Occupational exposure3 – insocyanates are everywhere F = Food exposure0 – not found in food Total15/20 – serious concern

26 Hazard/Toxicity Issues ParametersScore H = Hazard10 – very toxic, very hazardous IS = Individual sensitivity3 – young children, infants sick within a couple hours EC = Ecological hazard3 – same health effects seen in mammalian studies V = Volume5 – extreme concentrations in carpets P = Persistent3 – extremely high concentrations even after 240 hours w/ ventilation B = Bioaccumulation2 – some, most neurotoxins UC = Uncertainty2 – not very much official research, but many real-life case studies Total28/30 – LIKE SO HAZARDOUS!!

27 Assessment/Exposures : using BioMarkers notes from Dr.Costa’s lecture Feb 10, 2010 Adverse Affects: Nervous system, O 2 and glucose requirements Memory loss Cognitive Impairment Humans now have this “ neurotox index”. Neurotoxins affect cell to cell interaction biomarkers: Polymorphisms On cell surface have structures made out of glycoprotein, that after toxic exposures: have missing parts. If our body can not replace those missing parts (called glyconutrients) then it destroys those structures. This is what causes “auto-immune” (where body attacks itself). It’s a response that a lot of people have and most carpet layers have. sugars that a stressed body can’t make, then have to come from our food, which can be depleted of these sugars. (Castor). Mannose is one of those key sugars, our body uses to repair and restore the cell- cell communication. Stop body self-destruction, or auto immune response }. 5 of the 8 necessary sugars are present in human breast milk. * Manifests: chronic fatigue, lupus, fibromyalgia, brain fog, severe headaches, Multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS), hearing loss, memory loss (see symptom list)

28 Study of Glycobiology One solution of toxic exposures "Carbohydrates are the glue that pulls things together, the cell surface matrix in which cells communicate, and they provide the connections for signal transduction. It's only been within the last decade that we've realized that such structures are critical for all kinds of biological function." May 15, 2008 In 1996 Harper's Biochemistry, a medical text, introduced "the eight principal sugars found in human glycoproteins." Eight specific sugars were identified on human cell surface glycoforms which are involved in cellular recognition processes.

29 Green Tag "The carpet industry has mounted a massively deceptive merchandising campaign that intentionally mislead the public by implying that all carpets with the green tag have met safety standards," says New York Attorney General Robert Abrams. CPSC (Consumer Product Safety Commission ) refused to even consider their petition for label warnings There are no such recognized standards of safety. The Carpet and Rug Institute its own arbitrary standards. CRI's testing program is completely inadequate because it measures only a small percentage of the chemicals emitted from carpets. Manufacturer can get a green tag for an entire product line simply by having one small piece of carpet tested once a year." One of the carpets to pass the green tag testing is associated with disabling the members of the Charles Fitzgerald family of West Friendship, Maryland,who were exposed to it in their lighting store in 1992. When tested by Anderson Labs, the Fitgeralds' carpet caused gross nervous system abnormalities in mice." the government has chosen to sweep this problem under the rug by ignoring the public's health concerns as well as my request to disseminate meaningful information about potential carpet hazards." “Nothing has been proven to date that links carpet and ill health effects," says the CRI's Kathryn Wise. COVER UP: by the CRI (Carpet Rug Institute)

30 Cover up EPA cover-up new carpet in the EPA headquarters building made over 1000 people ill. Despite its own study, and the removal of 27,000 square yards of carpet from the EPA headquarters building in 1989, EPA published a public information brochure, "Indoor Air Quality and New Carpet: What You Should Know,“ which states, "Limited research to date has found no links between adverse health effects and the levels of chemicals emitted by new carpet.” When EPA returned to its own labs, "instead of duplicating what Anderson labs did, as they were charged to do at the October '92 carpet hearing, EPA created its own protocol," bottled air in their own lab and bubbled it through water to add humidity, the humidity changed the result. After Anderson Labs changed their protocol to humidify the air in the same manner as EPA had done," we found it removed the toxic effect as well," said Anderson. When Anderson labs took at water and exposed the mice to it in the form of a mist. Saw the same neurotoxic effects from the water, including death, said Anderson. Recommendation: Do not contact the EPA or Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) with the expectation of getting help with the problem. While they may do good work on other issues, they are in bed with the industry on this issue, so do not trust anything they say.

31 Cindy Duehring (1962 - 1999) Researcher, Activist, Writer, Editor 1997 Right Livelihood Award Winner 1986 Duehring founded the Environmental Access Research Network (EARN). 1991, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry designated CIIN a clearinghouse to aid communities and individuals on the toxic health effects associated with low levels of chemical exposure 1994 became Chemical Injury Information Network (CIIN ). CIIN is a support and advocacy organization for the benefit of the chemically injured with over 5,000 members in 35 countries. Its primary focus is education, credible research, multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), and the empowerment of the chemically injured. She was awarded The Right Livelihood Award “...for putting her personal tragedy at the service of humanity by helping others understand and combat the risks posed by toxic chemicals.” CIIN works with healthcare professionals and governments in many countries, and the United Nations Environment Program and the European Union have both recognized CIIN/EARN's work..

32 Resources: To understand how PR techniques are sometimes used to by Monsanto, Dupont and others to con the general public, please purchase and read the excellent new book: Toxic Sludge is Good For You! (Lies, Damn Lies and the Public Relations Industry by John Stauber and Sheldon Rampton Common Courage Press, Monroe, Maine (USA), c1995 ISBN 1-56751-061-2 or ISBN 1-56751-060-4 (pbk.) This book will help you understand what tricks to expect from Monsanto, Dupont, and others as scientists and the general population recognizes the dangers from exposure to toxic carpeting. Doubt is Their Product David Michaels, 2008 by Oxford Press Peer –reviewed articles and journals are mistakenly presented to be of high quality.Product defense firms establish their own journals, using their own scientists, that present themselves to the unwary as independent sources of information and science. Examples: JOURNAL: Indoor and Built Environment, financed by the tobacco industry to promote that inadequate ventilation, not second hand smoke, is the problem. JOURNAL : Regulations, Toxicology and Pharmacology An association dominated by scientist who work for industry trade groups and consulting firms.

33 Sources  The Chemical Center Information Network   Natural Home Design Center  Journal of nutritional medicine ISSN 0955-6664 Source / Source 1995, vol. 5, n o 4, pp. 375-386 (24 ref. ) 111/aol-1/en-us/Suite.aspx 111/aol-1/en-us/Suite.aspx  CARPET CONCERNS: Carpet Installers Speak Out As the Medical Evidence Cindy DuehringCindy Duehring  Methyl Isocyanate. Technology Transfer Network., EPA. November 6, 2007. January 32, 2010.  Lecture: Sam Castor, On History of Glycoproteins, a New Biology. Feb 19, 2010. Seattle, WA  Lecture: Dr. Costa, UW, Seattle, WA Feb 17, 2010    summary of cover-up,examples of disable carpet layers

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