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Bridging the gap to year 12 with Weimar and Nazi Germany

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1 Bridging the gap to year 12 with Weimar and Nazi Germany
Alexis Watson Ian Lyell

2 Resources Sample assessment tasks, student responses, and learning activities have been made available in the DropBox account. for access to the sample learning tasks discussed in this session

3 Challenges of Year 12 History
“Writing an essay within the time frame… It is also hard to structure the response in Section A Part B and Section B Part A - visual / source analysis. I also found it hard to link significance and effects to events as well as memorising the multiple dates…” What did you find most challenging about History: Revolutions this year? (John Monash 2012) “Keeping on top of revision and making sure I understand the events properly… It’s also really difficult to remember historiography and bullets for evidence. I’m still finding it hard to remember the timelines and statistics for the two revolutions.”

4 Challenges of Year 12 History
Managing the information overload! Memorising historians’ views Memorising dates What did you find most challenging about History: Revolutions this year? (CGGS 2013) Writing to time limits Memorising historians’ views Staying up to date with revision notes

5 The weight of Year 12 assessment falls on high-order questions
While we want to focus on good history teaching, we also need to keep in mind that part of our job is to help students attain the strongest possible results in VCE. The weight of Year 12 assessment falls on high-order questions Synthesis Evaluation Analysis Application Comprehension Recall

6 Links to Year 10 Study of Weimar and Nazi Germany can supplement the existing Australian Curriculum content, adding engaging and rigorous material. Overview Inter-war years between World War I and World War II, including the Treaty of Versailles, the Roaring Twenties and the Great Depression  World War II An overview of the causes and course of World War II An examination of significant events of World War II, including the Holocaust

7 Links to VCE 20th Century Study of Weimar and Nazi Germany can satisfy all three outcomes Unit 1 Twentieth Century History. Crisis and Conflict New political ideas about social and economic order Methods used to establish and legitimise new ideas Conflict which resulted from attempts to implement new ideas Social Life Experience of different social groups or classes Factors influencing change in social life Groups who sought to effect change in social life Media representations of change in social life Cultural Life Examples of cultural leaders or movements Responses to cultural leaders or movements Relationship between cultural movements and their historical contexts

8 Why Modern Germany? Easy to implement
Engaging and popular subject matter – high student interest Extensive resources Content similarity to VCE History: Revolutions Collapse of Weimar Republic = study of revolutionary ideas, leaders, movements and events Nazi Germany = evaluation of creation of a new society by revolutionary movement Extensive opportunities for students to debate causes, predict outcomes, and speculate about alternatives – good historical teaching!

9 Goals of the unit Generate interest in continuing the study of history through to Year 12 Help students develop useful study and revision skills for managing large volume of content in VCE History: Revolutions Acclimatise students to the style of assessment used in Year 12 Build historical analysis and writing skills to a level suitable for Year 12 assessment

10 Unit Outline Main Content German Revolution (1918)
Treaty of Versailles (1919) Political/economic crises of Weimar Republic ( ) Origins and rise of the Nazi Party ( ) Creation of the dictatorship and police state (1933-4) Changes in everyday life in Nazi Germany ( ) Path to war in Europe ( ) The Holocaust ( ) Assessment Test 1 - Revolutions-style Extended Response Test 2 – Revolutions-style Source Analysis Formal research essay

11 Extended Response questions
Example: Using three or four main points, explain how Lenin’s ‘April Theses’ contributed to a revolutionary situation in Russia up to and including October (2013 exam) Assesses: Knowledge Ability to make causational links Ability to analyse historical processes Challenges students encounter in Year 12: Students write either one sentence per point (low extreme) or an entire essay (high extreme) Students unaccustomed to providing specific evidence Students unaccustomed to analysing historical processes

12 Extended Response questions
The best…answers usually successfully signposted with ‘firstly’, ‘secondly’ and ‘thirdly’, which set up an excellent structure for the answer and gave events in chronological order. Many students commenced their answer with a brief contention that touched on their main points and this was also an excellent way to begin a response. The most successful responses used accurate, specific historical terms and included dates, places and names. VCAA Assessment Report, 2013 VCE History: Revolutions Exam

13 Adapted questions Using three or four main points, explain the events which allowed Hitler to become Chancellor of Germany in Provide evidence to support your answer. (Easy) Using three or four points, explain how the Great Depression contributed to the rise of the Nazis between 1929 and Provide evidence to support your answer. (Medium) Using three or four points, explain how Hitler used his powers as Chancellor from January 1933 onwards to become a dictator by the end of Provide evidence to support your answer. (Challenging)

14 Extended Response strategies
Basics: Aim to have 4 points. Use the space that is provided. Going over the page means that you are writing too much. Your answers must consist of – Accurate and precise knowledge of context + Use of evidence Ability to make a judgment – “Explain the importance of…” = Evaluation Source: Elisabeth Morgan

15 Extended Response strategies
Teach students to identify and select relevant information (highlighting, note-taking, mindmapping) Emphasise causation and outcomes (timelines are helpful) Emphasise regular planning and writing practice Provide many sample questions and responses

16 Activity 1: Timeline Create a timeline of events leading up to the creation of Hitler’s dictatorship Explain how each event contributed to the creation of Hitler’s dictatorship Which four were the most important? Justify your answer.

17 Activity 2: Fill in the grid
With a partner, fill in the cause-effect-significance grid. Ensure that the ‘significance’ column helps explain why Hitler was able to become dictator in 1934. Event Cause Effect Significance Treaty of Versailles Munich Putsch Great Depression Reichstag Fire Decree

18 Activity 3: Peer review Prior to teaching students the structure of Part A responses I gave them a sample. As a class, students shared their thoughts and opinions on the document. They were able to work on the one document at the same time and see all responses. The sample was presented in a Google doc. with a series of questions to answer. It allowed the more passive students to have a voice and share. Annotating Student Responses Using Google Docs.

19 Google Docs peer review
Students were given the following questions: What do you notice about the style of question? Identify the key words and/or phrases. Comment on the structure of the student's response. Are there any common features? Identify things you think the student has done well. Identify things that you think the student can improve on. Assign the student a mark out of 10. Students were given an assessment rubric to assist them in completing number 5.

20 Google Docs peer review
This task generated a highly valuable discussion: Students had a good understanding of what was expected of them in this particular style of response. The class recognised the importance of identifying the key terms of the question, for example, ‘explain’ and the need to use a variety of specific evidence including dates, events, leaders / people, ideologies, figures and statistics etc. More importantly, they identified the structure of the response (cause → event → effect) and acknowledged the need to PLAN!

21 Sample response The Treaty of Versailles, known as the ‘Diktat’ was signed on 28 June 1919, and was resented by most Germans for its unduly harsh terms. Firstly, Germany was forced to pay 132 billion gold marks in reparations to the victorious allied nations over 50 years. Germany’s economy had already been devastated by WWI, and the additional burden of these payments magnified Germany’s economic issues. In 1923, Germany could not afford to pay anymore and so the French occupied the Ruhr – an industrial region of Germany. The loss is productivity was a major setback for Germany and hyperinflation ensued. Secondly, Clause 231, known as the ‘war guilt clause’ greatly humiliated Germany and damaged the citizens’ national pride…. Signpost phrases Specific factual evidence Analysis of significance Unedited response: The main aspects which were considered to be particularly burdensome were the reparations, the ‘war guilt’ clause, the loss of land and the military restrictions. These terms reflected some of the desires of the ‘Big Three’.

22 Source Analysis Unknown artist ‘The traitor Liu Shaoqi must forever be expelled from the Party!’ November 1968 (2013 exam) Identify two groups that are depicted in the representation. (2 marks) Identify two ways in which the artist emphasises the revolutionary endeavour of the Party members in the representation. (2 marks) By referring to parts of the representation and using your own knowledge, explain the political challenges facing the Chinese Communist Party by (6 marks) Evaluate to what extent this representation provides an accurate depiction of the challenges facing the Chinese Communist Party in the consolidation of the new society. In your response, refer to parts of the representation and to different views of the Revolution. (20 marks)

23 Teaching analytical skills
How to work with and assess understanding of sources: Provide scaffolds for working with sources Assessment should rely on questions of graduated complexity per Bloom’s – sources are not just for reading comprehension! Assessment should require students to synthesise own knowledge with information presented in sources - this is good historical practice!

24 Source Analysis part c. questions
Typical example: By quoting from the source and using your own knowledge, explain how the Wuchang Uprising contributed to Revolution of (2013 exam) Assesses: Knowledge Ability to contextualise and interpret the source Ability to synthesise evidence from source and own knowledge Challenges students encounter in Year 12: Students have difficulty synthesising - they are confident in EITHER discussing the source OR their own knowledge.

25 Source Analysis part c. questions
The extraction of information from sources and analysis in order to draw conclusions…is a very challenging part of the paper… The strongest responses showed comprehension of the main idea depicted in the source and were able to add detailed factual knowledge, containing dates and names… Many students did not add their own factual information and just explained what the image showed about the particular event or period in the Revolution. VCAA Assessment Report, 2013 VCE History: Revolutions Exam

26 Source Analysis part d. questions
Typical example: Evaluate to what extent this extract presents a complete depiction of the circumstances that led to the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. Assesses: Ability to compare and contrast perspectives of the past Ability to synthesise evidence from the source with own knowledge Ability to sustain original judgments with evidence Challenges students encounter in Year 12: Students rely on simplistic judgments (e.g. ‘this is biased’) Students have difficulty sustaining original arguments with factual evidence or elements of the source

27 Source Analysis part c. questions
The most successful students showed an understanding of a historical viewpoint... They compared it with their own view and supported their view with factual information and ideas from the source… Weaker responses struggled to place the source in its historical context… They tended to give descriptions of the source’s content [and] resorted to highly generalised discussion such as ‘this is biased because…’ Weaker answers were not well supported with factual evidence. VCAA Assessment Report, 2013 VCE History: Revolutions Exam

28 Source Analysis part d. strategies
Emphasise that all sources are potentially useful, but that no single source can ever provide a complete depiction Teach students to identify the medium (journalism, propaganda, historical) and then discuss the audience and purpose of source (to persuade? to inform?) Teach students to move beyond simplistic identification of primary/secondary sources and commentary on bias

29 More sophisticated evaluations
Concept Guiding question Sample prompt Accuracy Are all of the details in this source correct and true? This source correctly shows… This source offers the misleading belief that… Reliability Is this source balanced, fair and trustworthy? This source offers a balanced appraisal of… This source is essentially misleading propaganda… Complete-ness Does this source tell us everything? What is missing? This source provides a good overview of… This source overlooks the importance of…

30 Evaluating merits of sources
Benefits Limitations Accurate account Contains errors Balanced perspective Narrow or distorted perspective Intended to inform or educate Propaganda – intended to mislead Provides a valid or plausible explanation Provides a poorly supported or unpersuasive explanation Covers all relevant points Selective - omits important and relevant information Provides direct insight Lacks hindsight

31 Scaffolded evaluation
How is this helpful in understanding the Nazis’ rise to power? What other key information do I need to explain the Nazis’ rise to power?

32 Source Analysis sample
“I Shouldn't Be Surprised if Hitler Wins Der Election” Cartoon by David Low which was published in the Evening Standard on 27 Mar 1936 Identify two features of the image which suggest that Hitler had become a dictator by the end of 1934. Identify two features of the image which suggest that Germans were forced to accept Nazi ideas and beliefs after Hitler came to power.

33 Source Analysis sample
“I Shouldn't Be Surprised if Hitler Wins Der Election” Cartoon by David Low which was published in the Evening Standard on 27 Mar 1936 Explain how Hitler transformed Germany from a democracy into a dictatorship. Refer to parts of the cartoon and use facts from your own knowledge to support your response.

34 Source Analysis sample
“I Shouldn't Be Surprised if Hitler Wins Der Election” Cartoon by David Low which was published in the Evening Standard on 27 Mar 1936 How useful is this source in helping historians understand German society by August 1934? Discuss whether the source is reliable and accurate, and refer to parts of the cartoon and facts from your own knowledge to support your response.

35 Research skills Teach students practical research skills – there is not the luxury of time to do these in year 12 Give students an orientation of school/local library and introduce to librarians Recognising reliable sources (annotated bibliographies will help) Advanced google search functions Highlighting and note-taking strategies (prevents regurgitation of large slabs of text) Referencing – footnoting and bibliographies (will help in other subjects and beyond school)

36 Research assignment Essay Questions
Evaluate the impact of Nazi policy on one social group of your choice in Germany between 1933 and 1939. Evaluate to what degree the Nazis were successful in achieving their aims in one area of cultural life of your choice between 1933 and 1939. Evaluate the role of one institution or group in maintaining Nazi control over German society between 1933 and 1939. Suggested topics for discussion The experience of young people The experience of German Jews Suppression of religious freedom and Reich Church The role of the Gestapo in controlling the population Nazi Cinema (e.g. Leni Riefenstahl’s Triumph of the Will) Aryan Art and ‘Degenerate art’ exhibitions Many other choices…

37 Final Thoughts Coordinate with your school’s Year 12 History teacher(s) Set common, shared goals and expectations, such as: Weekly reading and revision notes Separate question/answer booklets for assessment Set rigorous, challenging assessments in common formats …not dioramas! Use appropriate rubrics / criteria sheets

38 Recommended resources
AlphaHistory.com Many GCSE texts from the UK, such as: Ben Walsh GCSE Modern World History 2nd ed Steve Waugh Essential Modern World History Dale Banham & Christopher Culpin Germany for SHP GCSE Tony Barta Nazi Germany: Understanding the Third Reich Greg Lacey & Keith Shephard, Germany : A Study in Depth Several good documentaries: Fatal Attraction of Adolf Hitler (BBC, 1989) Nazis: A Warning from History series (BBC, 2007)


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