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Dane?. Enough said? No? The Longer Version… https://www.flickr.com/photos/hyper7/7287993694.

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Presentation on theme: "Dane?. Enough said? No? The Longer Version… https://www.flickr.com/photos/hyper7/7287993694."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dane?

2

3 Enough said?

4 No?

5 The Longer Version… https://www.flickr.com/photos/hyper7/

6 A Certificate Authority

7 A Bankrupt Certificate Authority

8 International Herald Tribune Sep 13, 2011 Front Page Front-Page News

9 What went wrong? Operation%20Black%20Tulip%20v1.0a.pdf

10 Online Certification Authority Server Compromise Multiple hacker tools on the servers Specialized PKI scripts Incomplete audit trails Fake certificate issued for *.google.com Fake certificate private key published Iran users of gmail are compromised by a mitm attack

11 Fake certificate issued for *.google.com Fake certificate private key published Any attacker-in-the-middle can intercept a connection request for mail.google.com, and initiate a “secure” connection using the fake certificate, and your browser could be fooled into believing that this was the genuine server! + =

12 Fake certificate issued for *.google.com Fake certificate private key published Any attacker-in-the-middle can intercept a connection request for mail.google.com, and initiate a “secure” connection using the fake certificate, and your browser could be fooled into believing that this was the genuine server! + = Was this a one- off? Or are there implications for the larger issue of our security framework on the Internet?

13 So much of the Internet relies on trust in security offered by domain name certs

14

15 But this is just not good enough

16 Two problems: 1. I may not have landed up where I wanted to be: DNS cache poisoning DNS resolver compromise Local host compromise Routing compromise 2. The domain name certificate may be fake The combination of the two implies that I, and the browser I use, may not even notice that we have been mislead. This is bad.

17 The 2011 mitm attack was evidently performed by a state-based organisation in Iran, with direct access to national infrastructure, exploiting a fake cert issued by a compromised CA You don’t need to be the NSA or its equivalent to play this game – this form of attack would work at any scale. Either the attacker is already on path to the intended site, or the attacker can use access to routing to inject routes that direct the data flows to the attack point How could it happen?

18 Why could it happen? The TLS session cannot say WHICH CA is to be used to validate the server certificate Your browser will allow ANY CA to be used to validate a digital signature Compromised CAs imperil the entire framework of security!

19 This is broken! Domain Name certification should use trust and integrity of operation as a differentiator If you pay more money you would expect to use a service that operates with greater levels of care and data protection of your data and users of your service would be “more secure” – right? But a compromised CA can issue a domain name certificate for ANY domain name If you trust this compromised CA then you are going to trust its products The entire Domain Name CA operation is only as good as the worst CA! It does not matter what CA service you use, because any compromised CA can compromise users of your service

20 Lets take a step back and talk about PKI

21 The role of a CA: 3rd party trust broker SubjectRequestsSubjectRequests RA performs checks RA tells CA to sign Browser trusts CA signed certificates

22 Browser trusts ~60 CAs And therefore ~1500 Subordinate CAs (~651 organizations) And therefore ~1500 Subordinate CAs (~651 organizations) See the EFF SSL observatory SSLiverse.pdf

23 SustainableSustainable TrustedTrusted OpenOpen ResilientResilient PrivacyPrivacy what succeeds in the market? Cheap!Cheap! SecureSecure In a commercial world...

24 An important motivation for using digital certificates with SSL was to add trust to online transactions by requiring website operators to undergo vetting with a certificate authority (CA) in order to get an SSL certificate. However, commercial pressures have led some CAs to introduce "domain validation only" SSL certificates for which minimal verification is performed of the details in the certificate. Most browsers' user interfaces did not clearly differentiate between low-validation certificates and those that have undergone more rigorous vetting. Since any successful SSL connection causes the padlock icon to appear, users are not likely to be aware of whether the website owner has been validated or not. As a result, fraudsters (including phishing websites) have started to use SSL to add perceived credibility to their websites. By establishing stricter issuing criteria and requiring consistent application of those criteria by all participating CAs, EV SSL certificates are intended to restore confidence among users that a website operator is a legally established business or organization with a verifiable identity. Some CAs don’t apply rigorous identity checks to issued domain name validation certificates

25 All these CA worker bees and all these manual checks are a tad expensive And the certificate market is undifferentiated Reduce CA costs through automation of the process

26 DV Domain Validation DV Subject: Please sign certificate for “example.com” “example.com” RA sends a mail to well When mail returned CA will sign

27 DV Domain Validation DV Subject: Please sign certificate for Example.com Example.com RA sends a mail to well When mail returned CA will sign All these checks are based on information fetched from the DNS Hold that thought!

28 An important motivation for using digital certificates with SSL was to add trust to online transactions by requiring website operators to undergo vetting with a certificate authority (CA) in order to get an SSL certificate. However, commercial pressures have led some CAs to introduce "domain validation only" SSL certificates for which minimal verification is performed of the details in the certificate. Most browsers' user interfaces did not clearly differentiate between low-validation certificates and those that have undergone more rigorous vetting. Since any successful SSL connection causes the padlock icon to appear, users are not likely to be aware of whether the website owner has been validated or not. As a result, fraudsters (including phishing websites) have started to use SSL to add perceived credibility to their websites. By establishing stricter issuing criteria and requiring consistent application of those criteria by all participating CAs, EV SSL certificates are intended to restore confidence among users that a website operator is a legally established business or organization with a verifiable identity. Not everyone Is honest! Not everyone Is honest!

29 Rogue Certificate Counter Measures BlacklistingBlacklisting WhitelistingWhitelisting CRLCRL OCSPOCSP Doesn’t scale well Only available when compromise is known to have happened Relies on OCSP use! Doesn’t scale well Only available when compromise is known to have happened Relies on OCSP use! Extended Validity DV-EV distinction cannot be made reliably without external knowledge

30 HSTSHSTS Leap of Faith Or use an alternative infrastructure What if you know before starting the TLS/SSL session that a certain certificate is to be expected? What if you know before starting the TLS/SSL session that a certain certificate is to be expected? WhitelistingWhitelisting

31 Domain Name System Independent Hierarchical Registration One root Scalable and Global Namespace maps 1:1 to PKI Use

32 DANE DNS-Based Authentication of Named Entities How to represent and authenticate “named entities” in the DNS, using DNSSEC Web Sites addresses Jabber IDs RFC 6394 RFC 6698

33 CA Cert EE Cert Trust Anchor RFC6394: TLSA RR

34 Valid CERTs and/or CAs are stored in the the DNS If DANE provides the CA’s identity, then DANE offers the protection that you are looking at a valid EV Certificate issued by the CA that performed the EV validation checks in the first place CA compromise then has limited liability to those certificates issued by the compromised CA i.e. your service is compromised only if your chosen CA is compromised!

35 Valid CERTs and/or CAs are stored in the the DNS If the DNS provides the EE cert, then DANE offers the protection that you are looking at a valid Certificate issued by the entity that holds the domain name in the first place Name Certificate publication is controlled by the zone authority – no CA intermediary is needed Security is “free” Security is “free” Name Certificate publication is controlled by the zone authority – no CA intermediary is needed Security is “free” Security is “free”

36 How does DNSSEC get into the picture?

37 DANE assumes a DNS that operates with integrity Is the certificate provided in a TLSA response genuine? To answer that you need to be able to validate the DNS response And to do that you need DNSSEC

38 DV Domain Validation DV All these checks are based on information fetched from the DNS Did you keep this thought? 0wn the DNS and the DV is yours Obtaining Rogue (DV) Certificates

39 DANE has the potential to solve important PKI/TLS problems in securing access to named entities And for DANE to work then DNSSEC is necessary

40 How are we going with DNSSEC?.. High levels of DNSSEC Use seen in Africa, Eastern and Northern Europe 11% of users send their DNS queries to DNSSEC- validating resolvers

41 Why invest in DNSSEC? Because the DNS represents a major point of vulnerability in today’s networks Cyber attacks are no longer just a teenage hobby or even petty crime Attacks on the DNS are highly effective for all kinds of reasons!

42 this is just not good enough any more

43 What needs to happen? The local name management infrastructure should support the use of DNSSEC in all aspects of name management

44 What needs to happen? The local name management infrastructure should support the use of DNSSEC in all aspects of name management ISPs should add DNSSEC validation to their forwarding resolvers

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48 What needs to happen? The local name management infrastructure should support the use of DNSSEC in all aspects of name management ISPs should add DNSSEC validation to their forwarding resolvers And if you want to push it a bit in the right direction... For secure named services using a domain name certificate, add the Issuer’s public CA cert as a DANE record into your DNSSEC-signed zone

49 That’s it!


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