Presentation on theme: "BRAIN DEATH Dr. Tabatabaeifar SM. Professor of Neurosurgery Shahid Beheshti University Shohada Hospital Mehrad Hospital Dr. Tabatabaeifar."— Presentation transcript:
BRAIN DEATH Dr. Tabatabaeifar SM. Professor of Neurosurgery Shahid Beheshti University Shohada Hospital Mehrad Hospital Dr. Tabatabaeifar SM. Professor of Neurosurgery Shahid Beheshti University Shohada Hospital Mehrad Hospital
BRAIN DEATH Confirmation tests Apnea test Four vessels cerebral angiography Radionucleide cerebral angiography EEG
BRAIN DEATH Apnea test Preoxygenate, 10 minutes, 100% oxygen,Pco2 40mmHg Disconnect,Oxygenate by tracheal canula, 1o lit/min If hypotention or arrythmia develop,stop the test After 10 minutes,check Pco2,if it is above 60 mmHg And there is no respiratory movements the patient is BRAIN DEAD
BRAIN DEATH How to confirm? During initial 6 hours : Radionucleide angiography At the end of 6 hours :EEG At the end of 12 hours:Nothing (no hypoxia) At the end of 24 hours:Nothing At any time :Four vessels angiography Apnea test is mandatory to confirm all conditions
BRAIN DEATH Cautious states Age < 5 years Temprature<32,BP<90mmHg,drugs, Metabolic abnormalities COPD,CHF,Ethiology? Neurologic examination is unreliable or impossible Apnea test is unreliable or impossible
BRAIN DEATH Spinal cord reflexes Viseral or somatic Spontaneous or during apnea testing,mechanical or noxious stimulations These reflexes do not preclude the diagnosis of BRAIN DEATH
Reasons for declaration When to stop the intensive cares Organ transplantation
Who should declare brain death? Not only neurologists and neurosurgeons, but also intensivists, anesthesiologists, and other specialists staffing intensive care units and emergency departments are gaining expertise and experience in this area, and their ability in regard to this diagnosis should be recognized.
BRAIN DEATH General medical curricula and testing of physician qualifications should encompass brain death. Anyone with competence should be able to make this diagnosis.
BRAIN DEATH Some criteria (and state laws) suggest that two physicians must agree on the diagnosis of brain death, particularly when organ retrieval is being considered. If an electroencephalogram is done, the electroencephalographer may be the second physician.
BRAIN DEATH However, if the diagnosis is straightforward and clear, and if the physician involved is experienced and well trained, it would seem reasonable for a single physician to certify brain death.
BRAIN DEATH Once a patient is declared brain dead, support could legally be terminated. Some believe that the physician has the authority and the responsibility to stop the respirator and other life-sustaining treatment when a patient is dead and that the option to continue care should not be given to the family.
BRAIN DEATH Others believe that physicians should ask families for permission to stop care and turn off the respirator. In any case, when managing distraught or otherwise difficult families, it is prudent to listen for and consider objections.
BRAIN DEATH Many families may benefit from a short period of time to adjust to the sudden tragedy and hopelessness of the situation. They may need this opportunity to develop trust in their physician and the diagnosis. If the family objects to discontinuation of the respirator, particularly because of family stress or religious reasons, it may be wisest to delay until the family dynamics are clarified and family members feelings can be addressed.
BRAIN DEATH However, the physician should not mislead the family by implying any insecurity regarding the diagnosis and the fact that the patient is dead. Problems arise when a family becomes distrustful or irrational. A consultant may be called. Chaplains and ministers as well as ethics committees may be helpful in aiding such families. When brain death has been caused by criminal assault, thoughtful legal advice becomes essential.