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1 Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 9 Memory James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 9 Memory James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 9 Memory James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers

2 2 Which is a penny

3 3 Memory: Persistence of learning over time using 3 pillars of memory: 1.Encoding 2.Storage 3.Retrieval of info  Flashbulb Memory: Where were you when…?  a clear memory of an intense emotional moment or event  Pictures, others’ retelling, etc., can affect so “remember” things we didn’t really experience  Memory as Information Processing  How it is similar to a computer: 1.write to file (encoding) 2.save to disk (storage) 3.read from disk (retrieve)

4 4 1 way it is NOT similar: We___ process…computers ___ process Encoding: placing info into memory systems  i.e., extracting meaning (comprehend it so can process…) EX: New word suddenly appears everywhere? Storage  retention of encoded info over time…  putting it into neural networks…making connections, etc. Retrieval: accessing the info:  process of getting info out of memory

5 5 Memory: 4 different types: Sensory Memory  immediate, 1 st recording of sensory info in memory systems  In bits, quick…& most NOT stored  EX: ppl walking down the hallway…do you see all of them? Hear all? Or just “flashes”? What do you keep (retain)? Short-Term Memory (STM)  activated memory that holds a few items briefly  look up a phone #, then quickly dial b4 the info is forgotten

6 6 Memory: 4 types continued…  Working Memory  Newer term…extension of STM  processing of briefly stored info: What’s on your “desktop” at a given moment to work w/  What about working on a paper/essay?  Longer time on “desk-top” : beginning to make connections to enable storage  Long-Term Memory (LTM)  the relatively permanent & limitless storehouse of the memory system

7 7 A Simplified Memory Model: Where would working memory fit in here? External events Sensory memory Short-term memory Long-term memory Sensory input Attention to important or novel information Encoding Retrieving

8 8 Encoding: Getting Info In: 2 ways 1. Effortful: rehearsing to try to encode… EX’s? 2. Automatic: just sorta’ happens that we recall EX’s? EBBINGHAUS: study of memory Encoding EffortfulAutomatic

9 9 Encoding  Automatic Processing  unconscious encoding of incidental info  Space  Frequency  Time  Daily events  well-learned info : hard to shut off  word meanings…someone calls you a name?  Using effortful, we can change it into automatic processing  Ex: reading backwards: do it enough, begins to be automatic; typing

10 10  Effortful (putting effort into it) Processing  requires attention & conscious effort… …& often requires…  Rehearsal  conscious repetition of information  to maintain it in consciousness  to encode it for storage Over-learning: Even after have learned it, still practice & rehearse = v. good retention …know it backwards & forwards…

11 11 Ebbinghaus (348): used nonsense syllables  TUV ZOF GEK WAV  more times practiced Day 1, the less repetitions to relearn on Day 2…i.e., amt. remembered depends on amt. of time spent learning  Found nonsense syllables less effective in remembering than meaningful info WHY? connections in networks  Created “forgetting curve” (retention curve)  Spacing Effect: distributed practice gives better long- term retention than massed  i.e., shorter but more frequent sessions = better learning than long, cramming sessions! * This is a VERY important piece of info 4 U !!!!

12 12 Encoding: Ebbinghaus’s retention curve Time in minutes taken to relearn list on day 2 Number of repetitions of list on day 1

13 13 Encoding: Serial Position Effect (Place in a series…)  How could you use this info? 12 Percent age of words recalled Position of word in list Serial Position Effect: Tendency to recall best the last items & the first items in a list Those in the middle tend to blend (or blur) together…ALSO.. *Availability *Frequency

14 14 What We Encode: 3 types: 1. Semantic Encoding  encoding of meaning  including meaning of words + how it relates to other things  Tends to create deeper levels of processing 2. Acoustic Encoding  encoding of sound, especially sound of words  EX: Rhymes easily remembered (“If the glove don’t fit…!”) 3. Visual Encoding  encoding of picture images  Creates more shallow processing

15 15 Encoding: See p. 350: Sample ?’s: Visual often = shallow processing But semantic tends to be deeper processing

16 16  Imagery: “A picture is worth…”  Mental pictures: seeing w/ words  Can be powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding  “wreck” vs. “crash”? Creating visual images in your head, not w/ real pics  Mnemonics: “stupid memory tricks…”  Greek, Mnemos (goddess of memory)  memory aids, espec. techniques using vivid imagery & organizational devices  Names of the Great Lakes? Planets? In 10 seconds, memorize the #’s next SL

17 17 Take 10 seconds to memorize this series of #’s

18 18 Method of Loci: Chunking: a type of Mnemonic  organizing items into familiar, manageable units  Like horizontal organization  We often do this automatically  Phone #’s or SSN’s: Not but  use of acronyms: word or sentences to remember EX: HOMES: Huron, Ontar., Michig., Erie, Superi.  Colors of the rainbow in order of wavelengths? Planets? Which is easier to remember? OR

19 19 Encoding: Chunking  Organized info is more easily recalled 2 better than 1… 4 better than 3, etc.

20 20 Hierarchies: Categorizing related items zListed items remembered better in categories -poorer recall if randomly zEven if list is random, ppl still organize info into some logical pattern *Break complex info down into broad concepts & subdivide more into categories & subcategories Encoding (automatic or effortful) Imagery (visual Encoding) Meaning (semantic Encoding) Organization ChunksHierarchies

21 21 Storage: Retaining Info  Iconic Memory  momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli…EX?  photographic or pic. image memory lasting few tenths of a second  Echoic Memory  momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli

22 22 Storage: Short-Term Memory  STM:  limited in duration & capacity  “Magical” number: 7 (+/-) 2 (5 or or 9) Time in seconds between presentation of contestants and recall request (no rehearsal allowed) Percentage who recalled consonants

23 23 Storage: Long-Term Memory  How storage works:  Karl Lashley (1950): cut out part of rats’ brains 1.rats learn maze 2.lesion in cortex 3.test memory  **Synaptic changes  Long-term Potentiation (remember action potentials??)  increase in synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation  Strong emotions = stronger memories  some stress hormones boost learning & retention

24 24 Long-Term Memory (LTM)  Amnesia--the loss of memory  Explicit Memory (aka “declarative”)  memory of facts & experiences we can consciously know & declare  hippocampus--neural center in limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage  Implicit Memory (aka procedural):  retention independent of conscious recollection  EX: a skill…typing

25 25 LTM Subsystems (B. p. 359): ( Chart = EX of what mnemonic??) Types of long-term memories Explicit (declarative ) With conscious recall Implicit (nondeclarative or procedural) W/o conscious recall Facts-general knowledge (“ semantic memory ”) Personally experienced events (“episodic memory ”) Skills-motor & cognitive Dispositions- classical & operant conditioning effects

26 26 LTM Storage:  MRI scan of hippocampus (in red)  Hippocampus = brain area that converts info from STM & WM into LTM…works in conjunction w/ areas of frontal lobe  Hippocampus, just like hemispheres, is lateralized (left & right side w/ differ. functions for each) Hippocampus

27 Various categories of memory 27

28 Another memory model including the “Central Executive” 28

29 29 Retrieval: Getting Information Out (Use EX’s for each!) (R = 3 R’s + a P!)  Recall  measure of memory in which the person must retrieve info learned earlier EX’s?  Recognition  Measure of memory in which the person has only to ID items previously learned EX’s?  Relearning: L ooking at how much time saved when learning material 2nd time EX’s?  Priming: using cues (or clues) to activate, often unconsciously, particular associations in memory… i.e., connections to networks… EX’s?

30 30 Retrieval Cues (X) Water/ land Land/ water Water/ water Different contexts for hearing & recall Same contexts for hearing & recall Land/ land Percentage of words recalled

31 31  Deja Vu (French: already seen)  cues from current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of earlier similar experience  "I've experienced this before.“  However, ppl resist believing this answer… b/c = “it’s so real!”  Mood-congruent Memory: We recall experiences consistent w/ our current mood  memory, emotion, & moods become retrieval cues -sad? remember things you felt when sad b4 -angry? recall memories when last angry State-dependent Memory: What’s learned in one state [condition] (like high, drunk, or depressed) is remembered more easily later in same situation EX: If practice on field rather than gym, will remember new skill better --SAT at GHS?

32 32 State Dependent Learning:  After learning to move a mobile by kicking, learning reactivated most strongly when retested in the same rather than a different context EX: If we move kid to playpen, less likely to show this activity as quickly.

33 33 State Dependent Learning…?

34 34 7 Sins of memory: Ways memory fails us (365-6): a) 3 of forgetting: 1.Absent-mindedness: inattention 2.Transience: unused fades 3.Blocking: interference…tip-of-the-tongue b) 3 of distortion: We mislead selves or others mislead 1.Misattribution: confusing the source 2.Suggestibility: effects of mis-info (false mem.) 3.Bias: pre-conceived ideas control mem. c) 1 of intrusion: Persistence: unwanted mem.’s are just not “filed” (motivated forgetting)

35 35 Forgetting: (365) 1. Encoding failure 2. Storage decay 3. Retrieval failure 1. Forgetting as encoding failure: Info doesn’t go to LTM b/c of inattention…or bias…or misattribution, etc.EX: Which is the Penny? 2… Storage decay: Use it or loose it… EX: foreign lang. use? 3… Retrieval failure (368) Can’t retrieve info from LTM b/c of blocking, interference, etc.  Motivated Forgetting (370)  ppl unknowingly revise memories b/c it is what you would rather believe (denial?)  Repression: Freud’s term for “defense mechanism” that removes from consciousness upsetting thoughts, feelings, & memories

36 36 External events Attention Encoding Retrieval failure leads to forgetting Retrieval Sensory memory Short-term & working Memory Long-term memory External events Sensory memory Short- term memory Long- term memory Attention Encoding OR Encoding failure leads to forgetting

37 37 Forgetting  Ebbinghaus’ forgetting curve over 30 days–  Initially rapid, then levels off with time Time in days since learning list % of list retained when relearning

38 38 Forgetting  The forgetting curve for Spanish learned in school Retention drops, then levels off ½ 14½ 25 35½ 49½ Time in yrs after completion of Spanish course 100% % of original Vocab. retained

39 39 Forgetting as Interference (369)  Learning some items may disrupt retrieval of other info Can go 1 of 2 ways… 1) Proactive (forward  acting) Interference  disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new information…old interrupts ne EX: Knew Judy…meet Julie… …keep calling her Judy 2) Retroactive (backwards  acting) Interference  Learning new info interrupts recall of old EX: Knew Judy…meet Julie… but now if you see Judy, you call her Julie

40 40 Forgetting as Interference 2 nd example: Learn French…then Spanish

41 41 Forgetting: Going for a walk or sleeping can limit retro interference -new info makes old info hard to retrieve  Retroactive Interference Without interfering events, recall is better After sleep After remaining awake Hours elapsed after learning syllables 90% Percentage of syllables recalled

42 42 Positive transfer: Opposite of interference …b/c old info can often HELP (or facilitate) remembering EX: Latin helps us learn French…or advanced English words zWhy might advertisers NOT want to advertise during violent TV shows? (b-369)

43 43 Forgetting  Forgetting can occur at any memory stage  As we process info, we filter, alter, or lose much of it  Meta-cognition: what we know about what we know or can remember…Most ppl. over-estimate ability in this!!

44 44 Memory Construction  We filter info & fill in missing pieces  Misinformation Effect: incorporating misleading info into our memory of an event (wreck/crash?)  Source Amnesia (misattribution): attributing to the wrong source an event that we experienced, heard about, read about, …or even imagined Eyewitness testimony  Eyewitnesses reconstruct memories when questioned …..?’s can affect mem.  E-W memory CAN be unreliable  Emotion can affect EX: Priest & Gentleman Bank Robber? “Evil Salsa man?”

45 45 Eyewitness testimony? “…When they hit =14%” “…When they smashed = __?_%” Depiction of actual accident Leading question: “About how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?” Memory construction

46 46 2 Types of amnesia: A) Retrograde: Forget your past: Who am I? Where am I from? B) Anterograde: Forget the present …can’t form new memories: No STM gets to LTM Damage to what part of limbic system?

47 47 Memory Construction  Memories of Abuse  Repressed or Constructed?  Child sexual abuse does occur  Some adults do actually forget such episodes  “repressed” = Freud’s term for it…aka “blocked”  False Memory Syndrome  Condition where a person’s identity & relationships center around a false but strongly believed memory of traumatic experience  Sometimes induced by well-meaning therapists  Guidelines are now set to try to stop or limit these

48 48 Memory Construction: Mem. of abuse: RE: the ? of recovered (repressed) memories:  Injustice happens….  Incest happens  Forgetting happens  Recovered memories are commonplace  Unpleasant memories…false OR real…are upsetting But most ppl. (& psy.) do agree on the following:  Memories recovered under hypnosis or drugs are especially unreliable …meaning they must be looked at carefully  Memories of things happening b4 age 3 are unreliable

49 49 9 Ways to Improve Your Memory 1.Study repeatedly to boost recall 2.Make material personally meaningful (relate to things you already know) 3.Activate retrieval cues--mentally recreate situation & mood 4.Recall events while they are fresh-- before you encounter misinformation 5.Minimize interference 6.Use mnemonic devices a)associate w/ “peg” words—something you’ve already stored b)make up story about the info…or tell someone about the info c)Use chunking & acronyms

50 50 7. Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material… 8. Take a break! 9. Test your own knowledge  rehearse  determine what you do not yet know And be sure to Use Elaboration: Ways… -Actively question new information -Think about its implications -Relate information to things you already know -Generate your own examples of concepts -Don’t just highlight passage as you read -Focus on the main or big ideas in the text -Organize these ideas hierarchically ? Activity NEXT….  STOP!

51 Point 1: Thalamus: Should describe the role of the thalamus in the process, specifically that the neural message from the retina first passes through the thalamus, and that the thalamus routes the impulse elsewhere in the brain. Point 2: Retina: Should explain that the light that passes through the pupil, eventually reflected on the pupil, activating neurons in the retina. May use the terms rods and/or cones to describe these neurons, but they do not have to use these specific terms to earn this point. 51

52 Point 3: Pupil: Should describe how light reflects off the object, and some of the light passes thru pupil into the eye. Point 4: Transduction: Should explain that light waves that were reflected off object are changed into neural impulses (transduction) at the point of the retina, where neurons fire in response to light waves. Again, may use the terms rods and/or cones to describe these neurons, but they do not have to use these specific terms to earn this point. Point 5: Action potential: Should explain that action potentials are released when neurons fire, sending an electrical charge thru the neuron. Students can go on to explain this process in more detail (describing the role of neural structures such as dendrites & the axon) but they nt have to explain those details to earn the point. 52

53 Point 6: Feature detector: Should discuss the role of feature detectors in their visual perception. Should mention it comes from the thalamus, which routed the neural impulse to the feature detectors, and these groups of neurons organize the neural firings into a conscious visual perception of the object. Students can identify the specific location of the feature detectors (visual cortex in the occipital lobe), but they do not have to provide this detail to earn the point. 53

54 CH 8/9 FRQ’s Continuous: (Define!) When someone gives one response, they get something each time. An example would be putting $1 into a drink machine and getting a drink out (a reinforcer). But if you give the required response and do not get the reinforcer, then you quit immediately giving the response. Fixed: In this situation, you give a specific number of responses will take you longer to consistently give desired response, but if reinforcer does not come subject is more likely to keep giving the response at least for awhile. 54

55 List 1: 12 Night Bed Sheets Snoozesleep Alarm Avocadox Nap Blanket Light Pillow Pajamas Mattress 55

56 List 2 creek flow delta meander flood branchX water River stream bridge Rocks branchX fish banks 56

57 List 3: Thread Pin Thimble Sharp Injectionx Eye Prick Pain Bleed needle Sewing Point Knitting 57


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