3 Memory: Persistence of learning over time using 3 pillars of memory:EncodingStorageRetrieval of infoFlashbulb Memory: Where were you when…?a clear memory of an intense emotional moment or eventPictures, others’ retelling, etc., can affect so “remember” things we didn’t really experienceMemory as Information ProcessingHow it is similar to a computer:write to file (encoding)save to disk (storage)read from disk (retrieve)
4 Retrieval: accessing the info: 1 way it is NOT similar:We___ process…computers ___ processEncoding: placing info into memory systemsi.e., extracting meaning (comprehend it so can process…)EX: New word suddenly appears everywhere?Storageretention of encoded info over time…putting it into neural networks…making connections, etc.Retrieval: accessing the info:process of getting info out of memory
5 Memory: 4 different types: Sensory Memoryimmediate, 1st recording of sensory info inmemory systemsIn bits, quick…& most NOT storedEX: ppl walking down the hallway…do you see all of them? Hear all? Or just “flashes”? What do you keep (retain)?Short-Term Memory (STM)activated memory that holds a few items brieflylook up a phone #, then quickly dial b4 the info is forgotten
6 Memory: 4 types continued… Working MemoryNewer term…extension of STMprocessing of briefly stored info: What’s on your “desktop” at a given moment to work w/What about working on a paper/essay?Longer time on “desk-top” : beginning to make connections to enable storageLong-Term Memory (LTM)the relatively permanent & limitless storehouse of the memory system
7 A Simplified Memory Model: Where would working memory fit in here? ExternaleventsSensorymemoryShort-termLong-termSensory inputAttention to importantor novel informationEncodingRetrieving
8 Encoding: Getting Info In: 2 ways 1 Encoding: Getting Info In: 2 ways 1. Effortful: rehearsing to try to encode… EX’s? 2. Automatic: just sorta’ happens that we recall EX’s? EBBINGHAUS: study of memoryEncodingEffortfulAutomatic
9 Encoding Automatic Processing unconscious encoding of incidental info Space Frequency Time Daily eventswell-learned info: hard to shut offword meanings…someone calls you a name?Using effortful, we can change it into automatic processingEx: reading backwards: do it enough, begins to be automatic; typing
10 Effortful (putting effort into it) Processing requires attention & conscious effort……& often requires… Rehearsalconscious repetition of informationto maintain it in consciousnessto encode it for storageOver-learning: Even after have learned it, still practice & rehearse = v. good retention …know it backwards & forwards…
11 Ebbinghaus (348): used nonsense syllables TUV ZOF GEK WAVmore times practiced Day 1, the less repetitions to relearn on Day 2…i.e., amt. remembered depends on amt. of time spent learningFound nonsense syllables less effective in remembering than meaningful info WHY? connections in networksCreated “forgetting curve” (retention curve) Spacing Effect: distributed practice givesbetter long- term retention than massedi.e., shorter but more frequent sessions = better learning than long, cramming sessions!*This is a VERY important piece of info 4 U !!!!
12 Encoding: Ebbinghaus’s retention curve 20151058162432425364Time in minutestaken to relearnlist on day 2Number of repetitions of list on day 1
13 Tendency to recall best the last items & the first items in a list Encoding: Serial Position Effect (Place in a series…) How could you use this info?Serial Position Effect:Tendency to recall best the last items & the first items in a listThose in the middle tend to blend (or blur) together…ALSO..*Availability *Frequency12Percentage ofwords recalled908070605040302010Position of word in list12345678911
14 What We Encode: 3 types: 1. Semantic Encoding encoding of meaning including meaning of words + how it relates to other thingsTends to create deeper levels of processing2. Acoustic Encodingencoding of sound, especially sound of wordsEX: Rhymes easily remembered (“If the glove don’t fit…!”)3. Visual Encodingencoding of picture imagesCreates more shallow processing
15 Encoding: See p. 350: Sample Encoding: See p. 350: Sample ?’s: Visual often = shallow processing But semantic tends to be deeper processing
16 Imagery: “A picture is worth…” Mental pictures: seeing w/ wordsCan be powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding“wreck” vs. “crash”? Creating visual images in your head, not w/ real picsMnemonics: “stupid memory tricks…”Greek, Mnemos (goddess of memory)memory aids, espec. techniques using vivid imagery & organizational devicesNames of the Great Lakes? Planets?In 10 seconds, memorize the #’s next SL
18 Chunking: a type of Mnemonic Method of Loci:Chunking: a type of Mnemonicorganizing items into familiar, manageable unitsLike horizontal organizationWe often do this automaticallyPhone #’s or SSN’s: Not butuse of acronyms: word or sentences to rememberEX: HOMES: Huron, Ontar., Michig., Erie, Superi.Colors of the rainbow in order of wavelengths? Planets?Which is easier to remember?OR
19 Organized info is more easily recalled Encoding: ChunkingOrganized info is more easily recalled2 better than 1… 4 better than 3, etc.
20 Hierarchies: Categorizing related items Listed items remembered better in categories-poorer recall if randomlyEven if list is random, ppl still organize info into some logical pattern*Break complex info down into broad concepts & subdivide more into categories & subcategoriesEncoding(automaticor effortful)Imagery(visualEncoding)Meaning(semanticOrganizationChunksHierarchies
21 Storage: Retaining Info Iconic Memorymomentary sensory memory of visual stimuli…EX?photographic or pic. image memory lasting few tenths of a secondEchoic Memorymomentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
22 Storage: Short-Term Memory 102030405060708090369121518Time in seconds between presentationof contestants and recall request(no rehearsal allowed)Percentagewho recalledconsonantsSTM:limited in duration & capacity“Magical” number:7 (+/-) 2(5 or or 9)
23 Storage: Long-Term Memory How storage works:Karl Lashley (1950): cut out part of rats’ brainsrats learn mazelesion in cortextest memory**Synaptic changesLong-term Potentiation (remember action potentials??)increase in synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulationStrong emotions = stronger memoriessome stress hormones boost learning & retention
24 Long-Term Memory (LTM) Amnesia--the loss of memoryExplicit Memory (aka “declarative”)memory of facts & experiences we can consciously know & declarehippocampus--neural center in limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storageImplicit Memory (aka procedural):retention independent of conscious recollectionEX: a skill…typing
25 LTM Subsystems (B. p. 359): (Chart = EX of what mnemonic??) Types oflong-termmemoriesExplicit(declarative)With consciousrecallImplicit(nondeclarativeor procedural)W/o conscious recallFacts-generalknowledge(“semanticmemory”)Personallyexperiencedevents(“episodicSkills-motor& cognitiveDispositions-classical &operantconditioningeffects
26 MRI scan of hippocampus (in red) LTM Storage:MRI scan of hippocampus (in red)Hippocampus = brain area that converts info from STM & WM into LTM…works in conjunction w/ areas of frontal lobeHippocampus, just like hemispheres, is lateralized(left & right side w/ differ. functions for each)Hippocampus
28 Another memory model including the “Central Executive”
29 Retrieval: Getting Information Out (Use EX’s for each Retrieval: Getting Information Out (Use EX’s for each!) (R = 3 R’s + a P!)Recallmeasure of memory in which the person must retrieve info learned earlier EX’s?RecognitionMeasure of memory in which the person has only to ID items previously learned EX’s?Relearning: Looking at how much time saved when learning material 2nd time EX’s?Priming: using cues (or clues) to activate, often unconsciously, particular associations in memory…i.e., connections to networks… EX’s?
30 Retrieval Cues (X) Percentage of words recalled Different contexts for 10203040Water/landLand/waterDifferent contexts forhearing & recallSame contexts for hearing & recallPercentage ofwords recalled
31 Deja Vu (French: already seen) cues from current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of earlier similar experience"I've experienced this before.“However, ppl resist believing this answer… b/c = “it’s so real!”Mood-congruent Memory: We recall experiences consistent w/ our current moodmemory, emotion, & moods become retrieval cues-sad? remember things you felt when sad b4-angry? recall memories when last angryState-dependent Memory: What’s learned in one state [condition] (like high, drunk, or depressed) is remembered more easily later in same situationEX: If practice on field rather than gym, will remember new skill better --SAT at GHS?
32 State Dependent Learning: After learning to move a mobile by kicking, learning reactivated most strongly when retested in the same rather than a different context EX: If we move kid to playpen, less likely to show this activity as quickly.
34 7 Sins of memory: Ways memory fails us (365-6): a) 3 of forgetting:Absent-mindedness: inattentionTransience: unused fadesBlocking: interference…tip-of-the-tongueb) 3 of distortion: We mislead selves or others misleadMisattribution: confusing the sourceSuggestibility: effects of mis-info (false mem.)Bias: pre-conceived ideas control mem.c) 1 of intrusion: Persistence: unwanted mem.’s are just not “filed” (motivated forgetting)
35 Forgetting: (365)1. Encoding failure 2. Storage decay 3. Retrieval failure1. Forgetting as encoding failure: Info doesn’t go to LTM b/c of inattention…or bias…or misattribution, etc. EX: Which is the Penny?2… Storage decay: Use it or loose it…EX: foreign lang. use?3… Retrieval failure (368) Can’t retrieve info from LTM b/c of blocking, interference, etc.Motivated Forgetting (370)ppl unknowingly revise memories b/c it is what you would rather believe (denial?)Repression: Freud’s term for “defense mechanism” that removes from consciousness upsetting thoughts, feelings, & memories
36 Retrieval failure leads to forgetting OR Encoding failure leads ExternaleventsAttentionEncodingRetrieval failureleads to forgettingRetrievalSensorymemoryShort-term& workingMemoryLong-termExternaleventsSensorymemoryShort-termLong-AttentionEncodingOR Encodingfailure leadsto forgetting
37 Forgetting Ebbinghaus’ forgetting curve over 30 days– 123451015202530405060Time in days since learning list% of listretainedwhenrelearningEbbinghaus’ forgetting curve over 30 days–Initially rapid, then levels off with time
38 Time in yrs after completion of Spanish course ForgettingThe forgetting curve for Spanish learned in schoolRetentiondrops,then levels off½ 14½ ½ ½Time in yrs after completion of Spanish course100%908070605040302010% oforiginalVocab.retained
39 Forgetting as Interference (369) Learning some items may disrupt retrieval of other infoCan go 1 of 2 ways…1) Proactive (forward acting) Interferencedisruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new information…old interrupts neEX: Knew Judy…meet Julie……keep calling her Judy2) Retroactive (backwards acting)InterferenceLearning new info interrupts recall of oldbut now if you see Judy, you call her Julie
40 Forgetting as Interference 2nd example: Learn French…then Spanish
41 Hours elapsed after learning syllables Forgetting: Going for a walk or sleeping can limit retro interference -new info makes old info hard to retrieveRetroactive InterferenceWithout interferingevents, recall isbetterAfter sleepAfter remaining awakeHours elapsed after learning syllables90%8070605040302010Percentageof syllablesrecalled
42 EX: Latin helps us learn French…or advanced English words Positive transfer:Opposite of interference …b/c old info can often HELP (or facilitate) rememberingEX: Latin helps us learn French…or advanced English wordsWhy might advertisers NOT want to advertise during violent TV shows? (b-369)
43 Forgetting can occur at any memory stage As we process info, we filter, alter, or lose much of itMeta-cognition: what we know about what we know or can remember…Most ppl. over-estimate ability in this!!
44 Memory Construction We filter info & fill in missing pieces Misinformation Effect: incorporating misleading info into our memory of an event (wreck/crash?)Source Amnesia (misattribution): attributing to the wrong source an event that we experienced, heard about, read about, …or even imaginedEyewitness testimonyEyewitnesses reconstruct memories when questioned …..?’s can affect mem.E-W memory CAN be unreliableEmotion can affectEX: Priest & Gentleman Bank Robber? “Evil Salsa man?”
45 Eyewitness testimony. “…When they hit =14%” “…When they smashed = __ Depiction of actual accidentLeading question:“About how fast were the carsgoing when they smashed intoeach other?”Memoryconstruction
46 2 Types of amnesia: A) Retrograde: Forget your past: Who am I 2 Types of amnesia: A) Retrograde: Forget your past: Who am I? Where am I from? B) Anterograde: Forget the present …can’t form new memories: No STM gets to LTM Damage to what part of limbic system?
47 Memory Construction Memories of Abuse False Memory Syndrome Repressed or Constructed?Child sexual abuse does occurSome adults do actually forget such episodes“repressed” = Freud’s term for it…aka “blocked”False Memory SyndromeCondition where a person’s identity & relationships center around a false but strongly believed memory of traumatic experienceSometimes induced by well-meaning therapistsGuidelines are now set to try to stop or limit these
48 Memory Construction: Mem. of abuse: RE: the Memory Construction: Mem. of abuse: RE: the ? of recovered (repressed) memories:Injustice happens….Incest happensForgetting happensRecovered memories are commonplaceUnpleasant memories…false OR real…are upsettingBut most ppl. (& psy.) do agree on the following:Memories recovered under hypnosis or drugs are especially unreliable …meaning they must be looked at carefullyMemories of things happening b4 age 3 are unreliable
49 9 Ways to Improve Your Memory Study repeatedly to boost recallMake material personally meaningful (relate to things you already know)Activate retrieval cues--mentally recreate situation & moodRecall events while they are fresh-- before you encounter misinformationMinimize interferenceUse mnemonic devicesassociate w/ “peg” words—something you’ve already storedmake up story about the info…or tell someone about the infoUse chunking & acronyms
50 7. Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material… 8. Take a break!9. Test your own knowledgerehearsedetermine what you do not yet knowAnd be sure to Use Elaboration: Ways…-Actively question new information-Think about its implications-Relate information to things you already know-Generate your own examples of concepts-Don’t just highlight passage as you read-Focus on the main or big ideas in the text-Organize these ideas hierarchically? Activity NEXT…. STOP!
51 Point 1: Thalamus: Should describe the role of the thalamus in the process, specifically that the neural message from the retina first passes through the thalamus, and that the thalamus routes the impulse elsewhere in the brain. Point 2: Retina: Should explain that the light that passes through the pupil, eventually reflected on the pupil, activating neurons in the retina. May use the terms rods and/or cones to describe these neurons, but they do not have to use these specific terms to earn this point.
52 Point 3: Pupil: Should describe how light reflects off the object, and some of the light passes thru pupil into the eye. Point 4: Transduction: Should explain that light waves that were reflected off object are changed into neural impulses (transduction) at the point of the retina, where neurons fire in response to light waves. Again, may use the terms rods and/or cones to describe these neurons, but they do not have to use these specific terms to earn this point. Point 5: Action potential: Should explain that action potentials are released when neurons fire, sending an electrical charge thru the neuron. Students can go on to explain this process in more detail (describing the role of neural structures such as dendrites & the axon) but they nt have to explain those details to earn the point.
53 Point 6: Feature detector: Should discuss the role of feature detectors in their visual perception.Should mention it comes from the thalamus, which routed the neural impulse to the feature detectors, and these groups of neurons organize the neural firings into a conscious visual perception of the object.Students can identify the specific location of the feature detectors (visual cortex in the occipital lobe), but they do not have to provide this detail to earn the point.
54 CH 8/9 FRQ’sContinuous: (Define!) When someone gives one response, they get something each time. An example would be putting $1 into a drink machine and getting a drink out (a reinforcer). But if you give the required response and do not get the reinforcer, then you quit immediately giving the response. Fixed: In this situation, you give a specific number of responses will take you longer to consistently give desired response, but if reinforcer does not come subject is more likely to keep giving the response at least for awhile.
55 Mattress List 1: 12 Night Bed Sheets Snooze sleep Alarm Avocado x Nap BlanketLightPillowPajamasMattress
56 List 2 creek flow delta meander flood branchX water River stream bridge Rocks fish banks
57 List 3: Thread Pin Thimble Sharp Injectionx Eye Prick Pain Bleed needle Sewing Point Knitting