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Chapter 12: Public Relations and Framing the Message.

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1 Chapter 12: Public Relations and Framing the Message

2 Some guiding questions zHow did modern public relations develop? zWhat are some approaches to corporate public relations? zWhat are some common PR strategies? zWhat has been the relationship between journalism and PR? zWhat are some issues facing PR today?

3 PUBLIC RELATIONS CAREFULLY CRAFTING AN IMAGE of a corporation, individual, service, or institution

4 How does PR differ from advertising?

5 ADVERTISING versus PUBLIC RELATIONS (PR) zADVERTISING is controlled publicity that a company or client buys. zPR promotes a company or client through favorable media publicity (including news media). zPR uses a wide range of media strategies, including advertising.

6 Social and Cultural Impact of Public Relations zHelped define the relationship between businesses and their purchasers (the “public”) zSet tone for corporate image-building zTransformed profession of journalism zTransformed the political process

7 PR in Twentieth- Century America Accompanied the Industrial Era and the shift to a consumer- oriented society

8 PR as a profession (19th century) zEarly press agents promoted and publicized clients. zPromoters used stunts and a variety of existing media channels to shape myths. zRailroads used government lobbyists and bribed reporters to insure good publicity. zUtility companies used questionable publicity tactics to mislead the public.

9 IVY LEDBETTER LEE zFounder of modern PR zAdvocated honesty and directness zRealized that facts were open to different interpretations zClients included Penn Railroad, John D. Rockefeller and his oil interests

10 EDWARD BERNAYS zFormer journalist; applied psychology and sociology to PR zClients included major corporations (GE, GM, P&G, RCA, American Tobacco) zTaught PR at New York University zDeveloped propaganda during WWI zMaster at engineering public opinion

11 Modern PR changed the relationship between corporations, politics, journalism and the public

12 PSEUDO-EVENTS AND MANUFACTURING NEWS zPseudo-event: any circumstance created for the purpose of gaining media coverage zExamples: interviews, press conferences, talk shows, rallies, and so on

13 Formal PR Education zGrowth since 1980s in colleges and universities zCourses consider professional ethics and issues management zPrograms prepare students to be responsible PR professionals in growing industry.

14 The PR Industry Today zIndependent PR agencies and firms zIn-house PR services in companies and organizations


16 Activities associated with PR: zPublicity zMedia relations zCommunication zPublic affairs zIssues management zGovernment relations zFinancial PR z Community relations z Industry relations z Minority relations z Advertising z Press agentry z Promotion z Propaganda

17 What is PROPAGANDA? Communication strategically placed to gain public support for a special issue, program, or policy

18 WRITING AND EDITING FUNCTIONS zPreparing press releases to distribute to the news media zPreparing video news releases (VNRs) zPreparing public service announcements (PSAs) zCreating brochures, newsletters, and annual reports

19 MEDIA RELATIONS zMedia relations = securing favorable coverage in the news media for a client or organization. zInvolves arranging publicity zAlso involves damage control or crisis management zMay involve paid advertising.

20 COORDINATING SPECIAL EVENTS zCorporate-sponsored festivals and events zCorporate sponsorship of community activities or programs zAligns company image with a cause zShows company’s commitment to local community

21 MARKET RESEARCH zLike advertising, PR needs to know its audience and create effective strategies to reach them. yMail and telephone surveys yFocus groups yOther feedback from public

22 COMMUNITY/CONSUMER RELATIONS zInvolves building relationships between companies and their communities zInvolvement of employees in community activities zCharitable donations to local causes zStrong customer service and consumer- related education

23 GOVERNMENT RELATIONS & LOBBYING zNeed to maintain good relationships with regulatory agencies zMonitoring of legislation issues zLobbying = the process of attempting to influence the votes of lawmakers to support a client’s best interests.

24 TENSIONS BETWEEN PUBLIC RELATIONS and JOURNALISM: A mutually dependent and antagonistic relationship

25 In what ways are journalism and PR dependent upon each other? How are they antagonistic?

26 What are some ethical issues in Public Relations?

27 Examples of PR Crisis Management zExxon zTylenol zWal-mart zLevi Strauss

28 What do you think is the socially responsible role of the PR industry in our democratic society?

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