Presentation on theme: "and Framing the Message"— Presentation transcript:
1 and Framing the Message Chapter 12:Public Relationsand Framing the Message
2 Some guiding questions How did modern public relations develop?What are some approaches to corporate public relations?What are some common PR strategies?What has been the relationship between journalism and PR?What are some issues facing PR today?
3 PUBLIC RELATIONS CAREFULLY CRAFTING AN IMAGE of a corporation, individual, service,or institution
5 ADVERTISING versus PUBLIC RELATIONS (PR) ADVERTISING is controlled publicity that a company or client buys.PR promotes a company or client through favorable media publicity (including news media).PR uses a wide range of media strategies, including advertising.
6 Social and Cultural Impact of Public Relations Helped define the relationship between businesses and their purchasers (the “public”)Set tone for corporate image-buildingTransformed profession of journalismTransformed the political process
7 PR in Twentieth-Century America Accompanied the Industrial Era and the shift to a consumer-oriented society
8 PR as a profession (19th century) Early press agents promoted and publicized clients.Promoters used stunts and a variety of existing media channels to shape myths.Railroads used government lobbyists and bribed reporters to insure good publicity.Utility companies used questionable publicity tactics to mislead the public.
9 IVY LEDBETTER LEE Founder of modern PR Advocated honesty and directnessRealized that facts were open to different interpretationsClients included Penn Railroad, John D. Rockefeller and his oil interests
10 EDWARD BERNAYSFormer journalist; applied psychology and sociology to PRClients included major corporations (GE, GM, P&G, RCA, American Tobacco)Taught PR at New York UniversityDeveloped propaganda during WWIMaster at engineering public opinion
11 Modern PR changed the relationship between corporations, politics, journalism and the public
12 PSEUDO-EVENTS AND MANUFACTURING NEWS Pseudo-event: any circumstance created for the purpose of gaining media coverageExamples: interviews, press conferences, talk shows, rallies, and so on
13 Formal PR Education Growth since 1980s in colleges and universities Courses consider professional ethics and issues managementPrograms prepare students to be responsible PR professionals in growing industry.
14 The PR Industry Today Independent PR agencies and firms In-house PR services in companies and organizations
17 What is PROPAGANDA?Communication strategically placed to gain public support for a special issue, program, or policy
18 WRITING AND EDITING FUNCTIONS Preparing press releases to distribute to the news mediaPreparing video news releases (VNRs)Preparing public service announcements (PSAs)Creating brochures, newsletters, and annual reports
19 MEDIA RELATIONSMedia relations = securing favorable coverage in the news media for a client or organization.Involves arranging publicityAlso involves damage control or crisis managementMay involve paid advertising.
20 COORDINATING SPECIAL EVENTS Corporate-sponsored festivals and eventsCorporate sponsorship of community activities or programsAligns company image with a causeShows company’s commitment to local community
21 MARKET RESEARCHLike advertising, PR needs to know its audience and create effective strategies to reach them.Mail and telephone surveysFocus groupsOther feedback from public
22 COMMUNITY/CONSUMER RELATIONS Involves building relationships between companies and their communitiesInvolvement of employees in community activitiesCharitable donations to local causesStrong customer service and consumer-related education
23 GOVERNMENT RELATIONS & LOBBYING Need to maintain good relationships with regulatory agenciesMonitoring of legislation issuesLobbying = the process of attempting to influence the votes of lawmakers to support a client’s best interests.
24 TENSIONS BETWEEN PUBLIC RELATIONS and JOURNALISM: A mutually dependent and antagonistic relationship
25 In what ways are journalism and PR dependent upon each other? How are they antagonistic?
26 What are some ethical issues in Public Relations?
27 Examples of PR Crisis Management ExxonTylenolWal-martLevi Strauss
28 What do you think is the socially responsible role of the PR industry in our democratic society?