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Civil War Begins. “A Divisive Symbol” Southern Mobilization After lower south seceded they mobilized as if at war –Seized forts, Arsenals, customs houses,

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Presentation on theme: "Civil War Begins. “A Divisive Symbol” Southern Mobilization After lower south seceded they mobilized as if at war –Seized forts, Arsenals, customs houses,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Civil War Begins

2 “A Divisive Symbol” Southern Mobilization After lower south seceded they mobilized as if at war –Seized forts, Arsenals, customs houses, & federal buildings –Buchanan never blinked an eye to the seizure of federal possessions except - »Refused to give up Fort Sumter Lincoln’s “Conundrum” Fort Sumter 1861 –Fort needed supplies – S. Carolina had called for forfeiture of all forts in the state –Inauguration stated to maintain & “posses the property” of federal gov. »Northerners in general opposed more concessions –Southerners wanted the fort (for their own) & to avoid further tension/conflicts Fort Sumter - battle of wills –Lincoln - chose to relieve the forth with supplies; despite only two opposing his decision –Force was to re-supply not re-enforce

3 “A Divisive Symbol” The Challenge Re-supply was a challenge to Southerners authority –Considered the re-supply a ruse – to place a garrison Others – a welding link of Confederacy –“Sir, unless you sprinkle blood in the face of the people of Alabama they will be back in the union in less than 10 days” South raises the ante –C.S.A. gov. demanded the surrender of the fort – having learned of Lincoln's expedition –“If Major Anderson will state time at which…he will evacuate, you are authorized to avoid blood shed. If this, or its equivalent, be refused, reduce the fort..” Series of conferences occur between Anderson & C.S.A. commanders – –Anderson refuses to evacuate –Sumter attacked April 12,1861

4 Advantages vs Disadvantages Fort Sumter Came under fire from the harbor cannon –40 hours of bombardment –No one was killed »Relief crew could do nothing but carry off the dejected soldiers Southern Border states united with C.S.A. quickly there after Lincoln calls for a draft of 75,000 troops two days later South mobilizes for war as well North 22 million 4:1 pop. Advantage - 3 ½ times the man power of the South –3,500,000 men All South’s industry & Banking were in the North –7-1 or 9-1 advantage in terms of materials produced (pig- iron, firearms, rail road tracks) Large infrastructure –Largest arms manufacturing in the U.S. South 9 million Half pop. is slaves 1:4 pop. Advantage 1,000,000 men Limited infrastructure

5 Advantages vs Disadvantages Physical advantage Defensive Position –North has to expend man power on the South – invasion »Holding occupied territory –North has to invade South to “restored” the Union »North expend resources maintain presence –South – long coastline – possibility of trade with foreign nations »South has interior lines – rapid mobilization Psychological; –Greater cause for fighting »North – unification of the union – noble & emotional »South – fighting for independence –Patriotism - sentiments »Believing in what your fighting in – Southern sentiments ran high »Northern sentiments – inarticulate and disjointed –Better leadership »South has better generals than the North – most if not all top West point grads. Each saw the war as being small and short

6 North & South Strategies North: Winfield Scott (Anaconda Plan) Capture and hold Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee –Control Mississippi River – Detaching Southern-Western states of the south Implement a blockade of south –Protect Wash. D.C. –Fresh & new equip. –Minimize southern destruction of resources – »Creating voluntary re-union of the South South: Passive role Defend Richmond Interior lines – deny Northern “Conquerability” Provide surprise attacks –Mystify and mislead the Union Forces.

7 First Campaigns Bull Run – July 1861 –McDowell urged to defend D.C. Offensive – thrust (Mannasas) –Push against South; at railroad junction Operated off the premise that CSA P.G.T. Beauregard not be reinforced –Attempted to Isolate Joseph E. Johnston; CSA troops –Union sends 69 yr old General Patterson to isolate Johnston Johnston Slipped away from Patterson; reinforced Beauregard's troops Beauregard expected attack from right (along railroad) North advanced to the left of CSA – caught them be surprise (temporary victory) –South only had to defend their position – not make long advances –Reinforcements arrived from behind the CSA Lines Union pushed back South to Henry House Hill Thomas Jonathan “Stonewall” Jackson –Stonewall and his brigade maintained their position and he rallied the left flank; Rebel Yell McDowell failed to deploy to Union reserve brigades to help; South pushed back the Union and caused them to retreat –Orderly retreat becomes disorderly; turns into a mob –“There was never anything like it for causeless, sheer, absolute, absurd cowardice, or rather panic, on this miserable earth before. Off they went, one and all; down the highway, over across the fields, towards the woods, anywhere, everywhere to escape”

8 Battle of Bull Run

9 McDowell & McClellan McDowell Failure Bull Run a non-decisive battle Promoted Southern Pride – Union humiliation (demoralized) McClellan advances Winfield Scott retired Nov. 1 1861 McDowell (Irvine) discredited Defenses of D.C “full of drunken men in uniform” Two Tasks –Defense of D.C. –Drilling & Discipline Brilliant Organizer –Absorbed in preparation South not any better Disorganized by victory (Bull Run) President Davis – grandeur of leading troops into battle –Mucked up communication – opposed a coordinated attack on McDowell before Bull Run

10 Lincoln vs. McClellan Lincoln & pressure 7 months McClellan assumed all military command –Devoted to communication & military signals –Building up his staff; writing up plans to be used Lincoln was under pressure to have something done McClellan’s disdain Lincoln though not militarily trained poured over books and strategies –McClellan hated listening to Pres. Advice –Believed the safety of nation rested with him (McClellan) He snubbed the president; wrote complaining letters; disregarded Commander & Chiefs requests Pres. General War Order No. 1 – call of union forces to advance Feb. 22 (Push McClellan) McClellan chose (obviously) a differing approach on Johnston’s (ignored War Order)

11 Peninsular Campaign - 1862 Peninsular Campaign - Union Attempts to attack Richmond from the south; Cut off the South from their capital Attacks from Fort Monroe/ Norfolk to York Town to outskirts of Richmond. McClellan advanced with 120,000 men towards Richmond: insisted on more South halts union advance at Williamsburg South General Jackson – tactics – mystify and mislead the Union forces (diversionary tactic) 16,000 vs. 45,000 He made a series of attacks 5 attacks towards D.C. This halted the advance of McClellan from South – Lincoln dispatched troops to capture Jackson (concern over D.C. assault) This left McClellan with limited troops; (still had 140,000 to South’s 85,000 Union Forces attempt weak assault Union forces become attacked; when crossing a river 40% of troops across river – South attacks – North routed Seven days war in which Union forces driven back and out of Richmond McClellan order back to Fredericksburg (Pope replaces McClellan) 1862

12 Antietam Union is in a bad case of affairs: Lost Peninsular Campaign; Lost Seven Days Campaign, Lost Second Bull Run Pope is replaced by McClellan (again) Sept. 1862 –Lee’s assault; live off land; destroy critical industries of the North Draw out union forces; Threaten vital union lines; Attack railroad Allow Confederacy to be recognized by foreign Empires South cross’s Potomac river; Northerners concerned capital will be captured –Order No. 191 – private found Lee’s orders dispatching Jackson to Harper’s Ferry –Military No-No; Never divide your troops Jackson & Harper’s Ferry Jackson’s U turn to come back and assist Lee who is able to fend off the Union advance –Jackson arrives on the battle field: this give Lee backbone to stay and fight

13 Antietam Confederate army has choice of ground since they arrived first Union attacks along Antietam Creek; along a ridge: flanking attacks on the South (vice) Union fighting disjointed from the right and left under Hooker & Burnside Allows Lee to send troops back and forth where ever needed Confederate center broken; McClellan refuses to send in reserve troops (Union can’t hold it) Burnside & Bridge fighting on the left is fierce Burnside takes the bridge on the Southern right; could allow a sweep of Southern flank –A.P. Hill to rescue arrives in time to push back the Union forces and save the Southern flank Antietam claimed more soldiers in a single battle than any other 12 – hours 12,401 (north) South – 10,318 (31% of their army)

14 Results of Antietam McClellan claimed victory but failed to capture the CSA army; who waited a day before retreating! –McClellan’s Failure Failed to gather intelligence w/ cavalry Sent driblets of reinforcements in the heat of the battle Failed to stop Lee’s retreat –He waited 5 weeks before moving –North Stops South on their first major assault McClellan asks for more men and supplies to venture after Lee Lincoln could stand no more; replaces McClellan with Burnside Lee’s failures –Accomplished none his goals: Failed to influence foreign powers Failed to get Lincoln out of office

15 Fredericksburg Burnsides colossal blunder (Nov - Dec 1862) North has an opportunity to take the south – take Jackson & Longstreet division – days previous Attacks at Fredericksburg – waits for pontoons to cross river North 110,000 vs. South 75,000 Burnsides cross’s river – takes Fredericksburg March’s against CSA – Marye’s heights (high hill position) CSA entrenched behind the sunken wall (Cobb, Cooke’s, Kershaw’s) 13 separate charges; made by Union army – across open field (nightfall stopped the slaughter) North’s loss 12,600 (1,284 killed 9,600 wounded) vs. South’s 5,300 (600 actually killed for CSA)

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