Presentation on theme: "Integrity and Professionalism University Council on Undergraduate Research Summer Research Students Dusty Layton Director, Office of Research Compliance."— Presentation transcript:
Integrity and Professionalism University Council on Undergraduate Research Summer Research Students Dusty Layton Director, Office of Research Compliance
Research Ethics Process of making moral decisions Right vs wrong Integrity and Trust Hallmarks of scientific discovery and publication process Influences on undergraduate students: Peers The student himself/herself
Temptations….. Source.. The Responsible Researcher: Paths and Pitfalls, Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society Removing required reading from libraries to make is more difficult for other students Services available to “ghost write” papers Archives of previous lab reports/tests make it possible for students to use “better data” and prepare for the exact questions rather than study all the material
Ethical Conduct Academia does not tolerate fraudulent activity ….only effective for those who accept professional norms Threat of punishment may deter some Professional codes of conduct The undergraduate with a sense of self worth and values will not succumb Easy? No Possible? Yes
Why Does Fraud Occur? Pressure for career advancement Pressure to get research funding Pressure to get a job Pressure for peer recognition Publish/perish pressure
Responsible Conduct in Research - Range of ethical issues in research- We believe we know, but we don’t always know
Responsible Research Conduct The Office of Research Integrity (ORI) defines research integrity as “adherence to rules, regulations, guidelines, and commonly accepted professional codes or norms.” Research integrity is essential to ensure the reliability of research results and to preserve public support for research.
Purpose of RCR Increasing knowledge and sensitivity to issues surrounding RCR Improving ability of participants to make ethical/legal choices in the face of conflicts involving research in their careers Developing an appreciation for the range of accepted practices across disciplines Acquiring information about the regulations, policies and guidelines that govern research Developing and fostering positive attitudes towards lifelong learning matters involving research ethics
In general terms….. RCR is simply good citizenship applied to professional life Individuals who report their work honestly, accurately, efficiently and objectively Researchers learn best practices in a number of ways and in different settings…. vary from field to field
RCR core areas Data Acquisition, Management, Sharing and Ownership Conflict of Interest and Commitment Human Subjects Animal Welfare Research Misconduct Publication Practices and Responsible Authorship Peer Review Collaborative Science
Data Acquisition, Management, Sharing and Ownership Data are the foundation of research and science….their integrity is paramount. Almost all types of research include records that should be kept in bound lab notebooks. At a minimum, notebooks can provide a listing: -The date of research, the investigators, what was done, and where the corresponding research products can be found. Notebook should be supplemented as needed by specialized methods of recordkeeping such as computer files, videotapes, and gels. Do not erase data
Conflict of Interest/Commitments Competing demands on time, effort and responsibilities Conflict of Interest Conflict of Commitments -Not inherently negative -Management of conflicts is important -Manage through full and regular disclosure -Identify/address conflicts with solutions (collect data but have someone else analyze it)
Human Subjects Research Research with human participants has proven invaluable: advancing knowledge in the biomedical, behavioral and social sciences Basic ethical principles: -Respect for Persons -Beneficence -Justice Institutional Review Board
Animal Care and Use Animal research provides a model for testing new procedures Knowledge gained provides answers to questions important to advancing the science of behavior and to improving the welfare of both humans and other animals IACUC – oversees the ethical and humane care and use of animals in research
Social Responsibility and Integrity Work in all disciplines (humanities to engineering to sciences) provides building blocks of knowledge Public funds and trust are placed in the hand of the research His/her findings may lead to new legislation, new treatments, new policies, etc. We trust the results obtained by others in order to develop new hypotheses This requires that professionals in all disciplines be objective, careful and honest
When Integrity Fails…… We mislead colleagues and the public in general Waste of funds entrusted to us and to others that may follow our ideas Hurt indirectly or directly other human beings If intentional, we will loose federal funding/job If not reported, the entire institution will loose federal funding
Publication Practices and Responsible Authorship Authorship is the means by which new work is communicated among scientists and peers Responsible authors adhere to guidelines (professional associations and editorial policies of professional journals) Authors have responsibility to avoid redundant or duplicate publications
Collaborative Science Trust and mutual responsibility is crucial Ways to assure successful collaboration Discuss ideas in advance Communication Form a partnering agreement (verbal vs. formal agreement) Objectives/goals; contributions; criteria for authorship/credits; participation at meetings writing required reports, etc..
Research Misconduct “Research misconduct means fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, performing, reviewing research or in reporting research results” PHS Policies: 42 CFR Parts 50 and 93 NSF Policy: 45 CFR Ch. VI ( edition)
Case Example - Pat J. Palmer Fabricated 6 interview records Fabricated claim of Ph.D. (B.S. and M.S. also) Falsified that she was co-author on 10 articles Did I say I have a Ph.D. in Epidemiology?
Questionable Research Practices Actions that violate traditional values of the research enterprise and that may be detrimental to the research process. o Failing to retain significant research data for a reasonable period o Maintaining inadequate research records o Using inappropriate statitisical or other methods to enhance research findings o Mispresentating speculations as fact or releasing preliminary research results (ie, in the public media)
WebGURU The Web Guide to Research for Undergraduates (WebGURU) interactive web-based tool intended to assist undergraduates navigate the hurdles of an undergraduate research experience Web-GURU project was originally funded by the National Science Foundation Division of Undergraduate Education's Educational Materials Development Program National Science Foundation Division of Undergraduate EducationEducational Materials Development Program