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Critical Thinking Strategies (addendum to our “Toolbox”) 1. Reconceptualize Issues in Multiple Way 11. Challenge Conspiracy Theories 2. Beware of Wishful.

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Presentation on theme: "Critical Thinking Strategies (addendum to our “Toolbox”) 1. Reconceptualize Issues in Multiple Way 11. Challenge Conspiracy Theories 2. Beware of Wishful."— Presentation transcript:

1 Critical Thinking Strategies (addendum to our “Toolbox”) 1. Reconceptualize Issues in Multiple Way 11. Challenge Conspiracy Theories 2. Beware of Wishful Thinking 12. Watch Out for Illusions of Control 3. Consider the Legitimacy of Authorities 13. Be Careful Not to Blame Victim 4. Seek Risky Tests, Not Weak Confirmation 14. Beware the Media Paradox 5. Don’t Be Mislead by Testimonials 15. Pay Attention to Base Rates 6. Keep in Touch with Reality 16. Accept Some Mistakes 7. Remember that Correlation does not Imply Causation 17. Take Advantage of the Power of Statistical Decision Making 8. Consider Both Positive and Negative Consequences of a Claim 18. Don’t Misinterpret Regression Toward the Mean 9. Formulate Multiple Working Hypotheses 19. Consider Both Costs and Benefits 10. Ask What Can Be Predicted 20. Practice Critical Thinking Bring this Handout with you to Final

2 7 Guidelines to Critical ThinkingConformity and Asch study Rosenhan’s 1973 study “Being Sane in Insane Places”Obedience and Milgram study 10 Characteristics of PseudosciencePower of the Situation and Prison Experiment Patricia Burgess and the Intergenerational cultSix Social Influence Tactics and Emotion Paranormal – Psychics, ESP, Fortune TellingControl and uncertainty Faith Healing and Psychic Surgery“The Secret” 6 Tools of Scientific ReasoningMemory and Bias Clever HansPost-hockery Water DiviningBible Code Popular Media: Psychology Journals, Mass Media, YouGraphology Media Paradox: Vividness and AvailabilityHot Hand Misleading Statistics and Research MethodsHypnosis, memory, and age regression HoroscopesSelf-help: Risks and Benefits Framing EffectsClinical versus Statistical Approach TestimonialsRorschach and TAT Homeopathy 10 Competing Explanations for self-deception UFO’s and Alien Abductions Sleep Paralysis and Contamination Effect Conspiracy theories: Moon landing, 9/11, Kennedy First half of the class Second half of the class

3 Writing Exercise #7 Applying the 20 Strategies


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