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How did the Catholic Church reform itself during the Counter- Reformation (Catholic Reformation)?

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Presentation on theme: "How did the Catholic Church reform itself during the Counter- Reformation (Catholic Reformation)?"— Presentation transcript:

1 How did the Catholic Church reform itself during the Counter- Reformation (Catholic Reformation)?

2 Protestant Action Catholic Reaction Relative Success in achieving Catholic/ Protestant aims Geographic Area Contested Theses posted Luther is threatene d with Excommu nication Sparked popular movement among German Protestants Holy Roman Empire

3 Protestant Action Catholic Reaction Relative Success in achieving Catholic/ Protestant aims Geographic Area Contested 2. Protestants gained control of large numbers of Church faithful Council of Trent Numerous church reforms Northern and Western Europe

4 Protestant Action Catholic Reaction Relative Success in achieving Catholic/ Protestant aims Geographic Area Contested 3. Dutch become Calvinists Spanish Inquisitio n Conveyed the impression that the Church had gone too far to silence those who did not agree (Protestants controlled the Netherlands) Netherlands

5 Protestant Action Catholic Reaction Relative Success in achieving Catholic/ Protestant aims Geographic Area Contested 4. Protestant pamphlets become widespread The Index of Forbidde n Books is created More sense of going too far Protestant Western Europe

6 Protestant Action Catholic Reaction Relative Success in achieving Catholic/ Protestant aims Geographic Area Contested 5. Protestants failed to spread their faith in the Hapsburg states Jesuits founded Church was able with the help of the Jesuits to re- Catholicize Eastern Europe Eastern Europe

7  Spain was among the first to address clerical abuses under Cardinal Ximenes de Cisneros  Under pontiff Paul III ( ) issues like the Protestant Reformation were addressed on a larger scale  Catholic Reformation was born

8  Catholic Reformation= actions designed to revive Catholic spirituality  Counter Reformation= negative actions designed to stop the spread of the Protestant Reformation

9 1. New religious orders 2. Council of Trent 3. Strengthening the Papacy and Inquisition 4. Index of Prohibited Books 5. Baroque Art

10  “A religious orders are organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion”  They usually live in monasteries under strict rules

11  Society of Jesus (aka Jesuits)  Founded by Ignatius Loyola ( ) in the 1540s Like Luther, Loyola underwent a spiritual conversion Wrote a book entitled Spiritual Exercises which contains his famous phrase “If I see a thing to be white but the institutional church commands it to be black, I will see it as black”  No national base; saw themselves as the “troops of the Pope”  Also considered themselves missionaries to “those who did not know Christ”

12  They re- Catholicized large parts of Eastern Europe in particular Poland and Hungary  Focused on education and charitable works

13  Angela Merici founded the Ursulines to educate girls  Teresa of Avila founded the Carmelites who dedicated themselves to a life of service and meditation  Oratory of Divine Love a group formed by lay people, pushed for church reform and assisted one another in leading lives of simplicity

14  Gian Matteo Giberti of Verona, Italy  Cardinal Charles Borromeo of Milan

15  Meeting was a poorly attended late reaction to the Protestant reformation  Accomplishments: 1.Cardinals (most of them Italian and Spanish) eliminated many church abuses and provided a better education and regulation for local priests 2. Church refused to come to an agreement with Protestants on religious doctrine. Instead it reaffirmed distinctive Catholic practices like celibacy, the authority of the Pope and transubstantiation

16  Papal bureaucracy was centralized and strengthened  Altered the creation of the Roman Inquisition Designed to root out perceived heresies

17  Under the pontificate of Pope Paul IV “the Church clamped down on any printed materials that threatened to mislead the faithful away from the orthodox (conservative) interpretations of the magisterial (teaching authority)”

18  Church patronized an artistic movement that focused on the following: Grandeur Illusion Dramatic religiosity  Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini was a very important and commissioned artist at this time

19

20  By 1560 religious divide was evident, Catholic response was “too little too late”  Some parts of Europe had been re- Catholicized  Fact: After the Council of Trent in 1564, religious agreements were no longer possible.


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