Presentation on theme: "Journal How did the Catholic Church reform itself during the Counter-Reformation (Catholic Reformation)?"— Presentation transcript:
1 JournalHow did the Catholic Church reform itself during the Counter-Reformation (Catholic Reformation)?
2 Homework Protestant Action Catholic Reaction Relative Success in achieving Catholic/ Protestant aimsGeographic Area Contested1. 95 Theses postedLuther is threatened with ExcommunicationSparked popular movement among German ProtestantsHoly Roman Empire
3 Protestant ActionCatholic ReactionRelative Success in achieving Catholic/ Protestant aimsGeographic Area Contested2. Protestants gained control of large numbers of Church faithfulCouncil of TrentNumerous church reformsNorthern and Western Europe
4 Protestant ActionCatholic ReactionRelative Success in achieving Catholic/ Protestant aimsGeographic Area Contested3. Dutch become CalvinistsSpanish InquisitionConveyed the impression that the Church had gone too far to silence those who did not agree (Protestants controlled the Netherlands)Netherlands
5 Protestant ActionCatholic ReactionRelative Success in achieving Catholic/ Protestant aimsGeographic Area Contested4. Protestant pamphlets become widespreadThe Index of Forbidden Books is createdMore sense of going too farProtestant Western Europe
6 Protestant ActionCatholic ReactionRelative Success in achieving Catholic/ Protestant aimsGeographic Area Contested5. Protestants failed to spread their faith in the Hapsburg statesJesuits foundedChurch was able with the help of the Jesuits to re- Catholicize Eastern EuropeEastern Europe
7 Catholic ReformationSpain was among the first to address clerical abuses under Cardinal Ximenes de CisnerosUnder pontiff Paul III ( ) issues like the Protestant Reformation were addressed on a larger scaleCatholic Reformation was born
8 Catholic Reformation vs. Counter- Reformation Catholic Reformation= actions designed to revive Catholic spiritualityCounter Reformation= negative actions designed to stop the spread of the Protestant Reformation
9 List of Actions taken by the Catholic Church: New religious ordersCouncil of TrentStrengthening the Papacy and InquisitionIndex of Prohibited BooksBaroque Art
10 1. New Religious Orders“A religious orders are organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion”They usually live in monasteries under strict rules
11 Jesuits Society of Jesus (aka Jesuits) Founded by Ignatius Loyola ( ) in the 1540sLike Luther, Loyola underwent a spiritual conversionWrote a book entitled Spiritual Exercises which contains his famous phrase “If I see a thing to be white but the institutional church commands it to be black, I will see it as black”No national base; saw themselves as the “troops of the Pope”Also considered themselves missionaries to “those who did not know Christ”
12 Jesuit contributions to the Catholic Reformation They re- Catholicized large parts of Eastern Europe in particular Poland and HungaryFocused on education and charitable works
13 Other Catholic OrdersAngela Merici founded the Ursulines to educate girlsTeresa of Avila founded the Carmelites who dedicated themselves to a life of service and meditationOratory of Divine Love a group formed by lay people, pushed for church reform and assisted one another in leading lives of simplicity
14 New breed of strict and hardworking bishops emerge Gian Matteo Giberti of Verona, ItalyCardinal Charles Borromeo of Milan
15 2. Council of TrentMeeting was a poorly attended late reaction to the Protestant reformationAccomplishments:1.Cardinals (most of them Italian and Spanish) eliminated many church abuses and provided a better education and regulation for local priests2. Church refused to come to an agreement with Protestants on religious doctrine. Instead it reaffirmed distinctive Catholic practices like celibacy, the authority of the Pope and transubstantiation
16 3. Strengthening the Papacy and Inquisition Papal bureaucracy was centralized and strengthenedAltered the creation of the Roman InquisitionDesigned to root out perceived heresies
17 4. Index of Prohibited Books Under the pontificate of Pope Paul IV “the Church clamped down on any printed materials that threatened to mislead the faithful away from the orthodox (conservative) interpretations of the magisterial (teaching authority)”
18 5. Baroque ArtChurch patronized an artistic movement that focused on the following:GrandeurIllusionDramatic religiosityGiovanni Lorenzo Bernini was a very important and commissioned artist at this time
20 How successful was the Catholic Response? By 1560 religious divide was evident, Catholic response was “too little too late”Some parts of Europe had been re- CatholicizedFact: After the Council of Trent in 1564, religious agreements were no longer possible.
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