Today’s Topics Dietary Supplements: – Vitamins and Minerals – Natural Health Products – Regulations and Claims Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Dietary Supplements: Vitamins and Minerals Various forms of dietary supplements: – Examples: Vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs, glandular extracts, enzymes, etc. 2 levels of vitamin and mineral supplementation: – Moderate doses: Similar amount to eating a nutrient-rich diet – Megadoses: Amount high enough that it cannot be reached by diet alone
Who should seek moderate supplementation? Those with increased nutrient needs and/or poor intake include:
Who should seek moderate supplementation? Those with increased nutrient needs and/or poor intake (cont.): – Infants – Others
When looking for moderate supplementation… If you are looking for moderate supplementation: 1.Look for brands that contain at least ____ ____________________ 2. No more than______ __________________ _____________________
Megadoses in Conventional Medical Management Situations in which doctors are likely to prescribe megadoses: A vitamin at megadose levels can have In general, there is not yet enough scientific evidence to prove that vitamins/minerals supplementation are solid forms of treatment.
Megadosing Beyond Conventional Medicine: Orthomolecular Nutrition Orthomolecular medicine: – Linus Pauling, 1968 – Achieving the “optimal nutrition” levels in the body by… Q: Does consuming a lot of Vitamin C prevent cold?
Drawbacks of Megadoses In general, more dangerous to megadose with minerals than vitamins
Dietary Supplements: Natural Health Products Natural health products – Used in __________________________________ – ________________________________________ All foods are made up of _________________ components – Advertisements use“100% Natural” (2 nd highest claim on food labels, 2008). – The general American consumer believes that natural foods are more “wholesome, nutritious, and healthy.” Traditional Herbalists vs. Conventional Medicine
Helpful Herbs, Harmful Herbs NCCAM and NIH mission: to investigate using science to make sure herbs, herbal therapy and related practices are safe and healthy Main idea:
Other Dietary Supplements Presently, there are more than just vitamins, minerals…now it includes: – Protein powders, amino acids, carotenoids, bioflavonoids [naturally occurring plant chemicals (esp from citrus fruits) that reduce the permeability and fragility of capillaries], digestive aids, fatty acid formulas and special fats, algae, garlic products, etc. Some supplement producers add dietary supplements with herbs and nutrients more complications in advertising and labeling
Dietary Supplement in the Marketplace Manufacturers _________________________ _____________________________________ _ – Thus, they are allowed to to a wide variety of claims for product effects Examples of advertising:
FTC and Supplement Advertising FTC (Federal Trade Commission) is responsible for ensuring that advertisements and commercials are truthful and do not mislead. – in the US Department of Commerce – Depends on______________________________ _________________________________________ FTC’s “Operation and Cure All” –
FDA and Supplement Regulation FDA has primary responsibility for regulating labeling and content of dietary supplements under So how do you know if it’s a dietary supplement? – Dietary supplements:
The FDA and Supplement Regulation Dietary supplements and their ingredients are Supplement approval by FDA is___________ – Thus, FDA must prove it isn’t safe AFTER it is on the market…
Supplement Labels Like food labels, supplement labels have mandatory and optional info. Mandatory requirements are: Supplement Facts panel can include substances for which no Daily Value has been established. An asterisk under %DV indicates that DV is not established for that ingredient.
Dietary Supplements and Claims 1.Health claims (associated with disease/health condition): – Examples: 2.Structure/functional claims: – Examples: – Must have 3.Nutrient content claims – Consistent with _____________________________________
Choosing Dietary Supplements Ask the following questions: – ___________________________________________ What does the studies say? Human or animal studies? Were there placebo studies? Consider type of preparation and the route of administration (pill vs. injectional herb) – ___________________________________________ There is little data on bioavailability __________________ __________________________________________of herbal preparations and other types of non-nutrient supplements.
Choosing Dietary Supplements Ask the following questions (cont.): – ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Prescription/OTC + supplement may have adverse effects Taken alone or with other supplements? – ___________________________________________ Too many benefits? “a low calorie, high energy drink?” – ___________________________________________ Is it the dieticians, physicians who recommended the supplement to you? Multilevel marketing: system of selling in which each salesperson recruits assistants who then recruit others to help them. The person at each level collects a commission on sales made by later recruits.
Choosing Dietary Supplement U.S. Pharmacopea (USP)
Fraudulent Products ~1/3 of herbal supplements on the market may be outright fraudulent. Remember, dietary supplements, unlike foods and drugs, are not reviewed/tested to be effective by the FDA. Examples of potential warning signs:
Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): – Alternative e.g. using herbs and megavitamins to treat AIDS – Complementary e.g. using herbs to combat diarrhea caused by conventional AIDS medications and taking supplements to replace lost vitamins 40% adults and 12% children in America use some form of CAM therapy.
CAM and Nutrition Alternative nutrition practices include diets to prevent and treat diseases not shown to be diet- related Usually alternative nutrition practices are:
CAM and Nutrition Nutrition in CAM – _________________________________________ Emphasizes ___________________________________ _____________________________________________ – Composition depends on a person’s health status and is associated with lifestyle, spiritual philosophy. Many advocates think this diet as a cure cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Those that follow it have healthier blood lipid levels and lower blood pressure; however, they have low levels of calcium and vitamin D (osteoporosis)
Vegetarian vs. Vegan Vegetarian “Diet” Don’t Eat: Meat, seafood Types: – Ovo-vegetarian: eats eggs – Lacto-vegetarian: eats dairy products Products: Don’t mind using animal-derived products. Vegan “Diet + Lifestyle” Don’t Eat: Meat, eggs, milk, honey, or any food derived from animals. Products: Avoids using animal-derived products including clothing, cosmetics, household, foods.
Food Restriction and Food Prescriptions Many societies use dietary changes to treat or prevent illness Fad diets most often____________________ _______________________________________ – The few that prove effective and have a scientific basis become integrated into conventional nutrition and diet therapy.