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Complementary Nutrition: Functional Foods and Dietary Supplements BIOL 103, Chapter 3 (Part 2)

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Presentation on theme: "Complementary Nutrition: Functional Foods and Dietary Supplements BIOL 103, Chapter 3 (Part 2)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Complementary Nutrition: Functional Foods and Dietary Supplements BIOL 103, Chapter 3 (Part 2)

2 Today’s Topics Dietary Supplements: – Vitamins and Minerals – Natural Health Products – Regulations and Claims Complementary and Alternative Medicine

3 Dietary Supplements: Vitamins and Minerals Various forms of dietary supplements: – Examples: Vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs, glandular extracts, enzymes, etc. 2 levels of vitamin and mineral supplementation: – Moderate doses: Similar amount to eating a nutrient-rich diet – Megadoses: Amount high enough that it cannot be reached by diet alone

4 Who should seek moderate supplementation? Those with increased nutrient needs and/or poor intake include:

5 Who should seek moderate supplementation? Those with increased nutrient needs and/or poor intake (cont.): – Infants – Others

6 When looking for moderate supplementation… If you are looking for moderate supplementation: 1.Look for brands that contain at least ____ ____________________ 2. No more than______ __________________ _____________________

7 Megadoses in Conventional Medical Management Situations in which doctors are likely to prescribe megadoses: A vitamin at megadose levels can have In general, there is not yet enough scientific evidence to prove that vitamins/minerals supplementation are solid forms of treatment.

8 Megadosing Beyond Conventional Medicine: Orthomolecular Nutrition Orthomolecular medicine: – Linus Pauling, 1968 – Achieving the “optimal nutrition” levels in the body by… Q: Does consuming a lot of Vitamin C prevent cold?

9 Drawbacks of Megadoses In general, more dangerous to megadose with minerals than vitamins

10 Dietary Supplements: Natural Health Products Natural health products – Used in __________________________________ – ________________________________________ All foods are made up of _________________ components – Advertisements use“100% Natural” (2 nd highest claim on food labels, 2008). – The general American consumer believes that natural foods are more “wholesome, nutritious, and healthy.” Traditional Herbalists vs. Conventional Medicine

11 Helpful Herbs, Harmful Herbs NCCAM and NIH mission: to investigate using science to make sure herbs, herbal therapy and related practices are safe and healthy Main idea:

12 Other Dietary Supplements Presently, there are more than just vitamins, minerals…now it includes: – Protein powders, amino acids, carotenoids, bioflavonoids [naturally occurring plant chemicals (esp from citrus fruits) that reduce the permeability and fragility of capillaries], digestive aids, fatty acid formulas and special fats, algae, garlic products, etc. Some supplement producers add dietary supplements with herbs and nutrients  more complications in advertising and labeling

13 Dietary Supplement in the Marketplace Manufacturers _________________________ _____________________________________ _ – Thus, they are allowed to to a wide variety of claims for product effects Examples of advertising:

14 FTC and Supplement Advertising FTC (Federal Trade Commission) is responsible for ensuring that advertisements and commercials are truthful and do not mislead. – in the US Department of Commerce – Depends on______________________________ _________________________________________ FTC’s “Operation and Cure All” –

15 FDA and Supplement Regulation FDA has primary responsibility for regulating labeling and content of dietary supplements under So how do you know if it’s a dietary supplement? – Dietary supplements:

16 The FDA and Supplement Regulation Dietary supplements and their ingredients are Supplement approval by FDA is___________ – Thus, FDA must prove it isn’t safe AFTER it is on the market…

17 Supplement Labels Like food labels, supplement labels have mandatory and optional info. Mandatory requirements are: Supplement Facts panel can include substances for which no Daily Value has been established. An asterisk under %DV indicates that DV is not established for that ingredient.

18 Dietary Supplements and Claims 1.Health claims (associated with disease/health condition): – Examples: 2.Structure/functional claims: – Examples: – Must have 3.Nutrient content claims – Consistent with _____________________________________

19 Choosing Dietary Supplements Ask the following questions: – ___________________________________________ What does the studies say? Human or animal studies? Were there placebo studies? Consider type of preparation and the route of administration (pill vs. injectional herb) – ___________________________________________ There is little data on bioavailability __________________ __________________________________________of herbal preparations and other types of non-nutrient supplements.

20 Choosing Dietary Supplements Ask the following questions (cont.): – ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Prescription/OTC + supplement  may have adverse effects Taken alone or with other supplements? – ___________________________________________ Too many benefits? “a low calorie, high energy drink?” – ___________________________________________ Is it the dieticians, physicians who recommended the supplement to you? Multilevel marketing: system of selling in which each salesperson recruits assistants who then recruit others to help them. The person at each level collects a commission on sales made by later recruits.

21 Choosing Dietary Supplement U.S. Pharmacopea (USP)

22 Fraudulent Products ~1/3 of herbal supplements on the market may be outright fraudulent. Remember, dietary supplements, unlike foods and drugs, are not reviewed/tested to be effective by the FDA. Examples of potential warning signs:

23 Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): – Alternative  e.g. using herbs and megavitamins to treat AIDS – Complementary  e.g. using herbs to combat diarrhea caused by conventional AIDS medications and taking supplements to replace lost vitamins 40% adults and 12% children in America use some form of CAM therapy.

24 CAM and Nutrition Alternative nutrition practices include diets to prevent and treat diseases not shown to be diet- related Usually alternative nutrition practices are:

25 CAM and Nutrition Nutrition in CAM – _________________________________________ Emphasizes ___________________________________ _____________________________________________ – Composition depends on a person’s health status and is associated with lifestyle, spiritual philosophy. Many advocates think this diet as a cure cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Those that follow it have healthier blood lipid levels and lower blood pressure; however, they have low levels of calcium and vitamin D (osteoporosis)

26 Vegetarian vs. Vegan Vegetarian “Diet” Don’t Eat: Meat, seafood Types: – Ovo-vegetarian: eats eggs – Lacto-vegetarian: eats dairy products Products: Don’t mind using animal-derived products. Vegan “Diet + Lifestyle” Don’t Eat: Meat, eggs, milk, honey, or any food derived from animals. Products: Avoids using animal-derived products including clothing, cosmetics, household, foods.

27 Food Restriction and Food Prescriptions Many societies use dietary changes to treat or prevent illness Fad diets most often____________________ _______________________________________ – The few that prove effective and have a scientific basis become integrated into conventional nutrition and diet therapy.


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