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Part VII Part 7. This section investigates the characteristics of deviant acts All deviant acts consist of purposeful behavior intended to accomplish.

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Presentation on theme: "Part VII Part 7. This section investigates the characteristics of deviant acts All deviant acts consist of purposeful behavior intended to accomplish."— Presentation transcript:

1 Part VII Part 7

2 This section investigates the characteristics of deviant acts All deviant acts consist of purposeful behavior intended to accomplish a desired end, require the coordination of participants (when more than one), and depend on individuals reacting flexibly to unexpected events that may arise Deviant acts fall along a continuum of sophistication and organizational complexity Introduction Part 7


4 Some deviant acts may be accomplished by one individual without need for interaction with others For example, illicit drug users, stutterers, transvestites, the depressed, the obese, and the homeless Individual deviance overlaps with but is different from loner deviance since loners may have victims: rapists, murderers, embezzlers, obscene phone callers Turvey’s study (Chapter 38) of sexual asphyxia illustrates such deviance Part 7

5 Involves cooperation of at least two voluntary participants Usually involves the transfer of illicit goods such as pornography, arms, drugs or provision of illegal services in sexual or medical realm Part 7

6 One or more persons force interaction on an unwilling party of one or more persons or an act initially entered into cooperatively results in one party setting the other up In both cases the core relationship is one of hostility with one persons getting the more favorable outcome These include kidnapping, blackmail, theft, fraud, arson, trespassing, assault Chapter 41 deals with college rape Chapter 42 deals with fraud victimization Part 7

7 Part VII Chapter 38 Part 7: Ch. 38

8 Autosexuality or autoeroticism may be defined as masturbation and other forms of self-gratification Autoerotic fatality may be defined as any death that occurs as a result of autosexual behavior Yet every autoerotic death is unique due to highly personalized scripts and failure to appreciate this fact will lead to failure of forensic pathologist to recognize autoerotic fatalities Part 7: Ch. 38

9 As with all sexual behavior the appeal of autoerotic behavior is sexual pleasure Some forms of autoerotic behavior are also dangerous, for example, autoerotic asphyxia Autoerotic asphyxia has two sources of pleasure: physical and psychological Part 7: Ch. 38

10 The physical arises from reduction of oxygen to the brain, hypoxia, producing a euphoric and semi-hallucinogenic state of pleasure sufficient enough on its own Psychological source is more personal and this makes generalization more difficult but pleasure is best understood as residing in the fantasy Part 7: Ch. 38

11 Typical autoerotic asphyxia fantasies seem to be fueled by masochistic/cordophilic aspects of the behavior which can be highly pleasurable without hypoxia as is the case for most bondage and masochism What can be seen and understood of the fantasy by the pathologist is the object required to fulfill it which varies in each individual case: pornography, women’s undergarments, even a John Deere tractor! Part 7: Ch. 38

12 Many common myths about autoerotic fatalities due to social fear & social ignorance Parents or loved ones may alter the victim scene to mislead investigators to avoid embarrassment & to protect victim’s dignity after death Some investigators may have moral objections or fail to recognize the act for what it is Persons who die while engaging in autoeroticism are not guilty of a crime in almost all states Part 7: Ch. 38

13 One myth is that autoerotic deaths are the result of teenage boys in puberty experimenting with sexual self-discovery in acts that go wrong such as accidental hangings Part 7: Ch. 38

14 The largest study of autoerotic deaths (Hazelwood et al, N = 132) found male deaths to be distributed across the age spectrum: 37 were teens, 42 between ages 20-29, and 28 between ages 30-39. Only three African Americans and one Hispanic were in this population, but not as teens; all were males Example: 47-year-old dentist who was found on his office floor with an anesthesia mask over his face and his pants unzipped: educated and mature but still a victim of his own autoerotic pursuit Part 7: Ch. 38

15 “Autoerotic fatalities occur only in men” This view is rooted in a patriarchal, sexist view of women as persons who do not seek sexual pleasure for themselves While male autoerotic deaths tend to outnumber those of females, they do exist The possibility must be recognized since women like men do enjoy autoerotic activities such as masturbation Part 7: Ch. 38

16 “Nudity, or partial nudity, is always a feature in autoerotic deaths” While often the case, nudity is not a necessary feature of autoerotic deaths There are many documented cases of autoerotic fatalities that do not have a feature of nudity Part 7: Ch. 38

17 “Most autoerotic deaths are characterized by transvestitism” Transvestitism refers to recurrent and persistent cross-dressing by a heterosexual male for no reason other than sexual excitement for the cross-dressing behavior Part 7: Ch. 38

18 The best data does not support the claim that most autoerotic deaths involve transvestitism Hazelwood et al report that while 20% of their sample was cross-dressed at death, most of this was not transvestitism but instead use of female articles for masochistic value They estimate in fact that only about 3.9% of the sample were actual transvestites Part 7: Ch. 38

19 Evidence of a physiological mechanism for obtaining or enhancing sexual arousal that provides a self-rescue mechanism or that allows victim to voluntarily discontinue Reasonable expectation of privacy Evidence of solo sexual activity Part 7: Ch. 38

20 Evidence of sexual fantasy aids Evidence of solo sexual activity Evidence of sexual fantasy aids Evidence of dangerous autoerotic practice No apparent suicidal intent Part 7: Ch. 38

21 Determining the manner of death explains how the cause of death came about Natural, homicide, suicide, accident or undetermined Determining how a person died can be problematic for the medical examiner and is an opinion based upon the known facts of the situation Part 7: Ch. 38

22 Autoerotic fatalities are by definition accidental deaths and not suicides Yet there is some misunderstanding on this point by some who consider autoerotic death as a suicide, since it was a voluntary act However, the victim’s death is an unintentional accident in the pursuit of sexual pleasure and not an act of suicide by any acceptable legal definition of the term Part 7: Ch. 38

23 What are some of the myths of autoerotic asphyxia in the context of age & gender? Why do individuals engage in this deviant behavior? Part 7: Ch. 38

24 Part VII Chapter 39

25 “Crack” or “rock” cocaine drug-use trend had broad impact on American society in the late 20 th -century Originally in coastal urban areas like NYC, LA & Miami and by late 1980s, throughout the US Most destructive effects within poor urban communities Some disturbing trends related to sexual violence (rape, physical attacks on women by men) Part 7: Ch. 39

26 The focus of this piece is the interrelationship of: crack cocaine use sexual behavior social context through an examination of beliefs & experiences surrounding sexual behavior Among recent crack cocaine users living in small towns in central Ohio Part 7: Ch. 39


28 Ethnographic research spanning three years in conjunction with a five-year epidemiological study In-depth qualitative interviews & focus groups conducted with 97 individuals (N = 97) Most participants were active & former drug users, with some as family members or counselors Ages 18 and over Participants compensated $20 each Part 7: Ch. 39


30 Myth dispelled that use of crack cocaine causes people to become more sexually active, sometimes the opposite occurs A few participants admitted to formal prostitution Others made reference of “tricking” or turning tricks for crack “Hooking up” is the informal practice of exchanging sex for crack Men view “sex-for-crack” in matter of fact way Part 7: Ch. 39


32 Crack-sex exchanges generally entail intense bargaining & implicit or explicit coercion; Sometimes threats of physical violence Sometimes women try to get out of performing sexually even though they are provided with crack Most often, this doesn’t work Part 7: Ch. 39


34 Crack-related sexual encounters often involve threats or actual violence Some women reported being attacked Appears that men have a hard time taking “no” for an answer The gender domination is present in most sex- for-crack exchanges Sometimes women are kidnapped & raped Part 7: Ch. 39


36 Crack dealers or “dope boys” are in a powerful position to demand sex, especially when women don’t have the money to purchase crack Part 7: Ch. 39

37 These men provided women with money they then used to buy crack Generally, sugar daddies were older men, usually white Part 7: Ch. 39


39 An informant states that when men get high (on crack) they want sex, when women get high, they don’t Sometimes women were able to skillfully exert their own power by manipulating men The woman might tell a man I’ll “do it” for a few minutes, but if you don’t get off by then, I’m quitting Part 7: Ch. 39

40 Power over women is most certainly part of the drug’s appeal, especially among those who sell it Part 7: Ch. 39


42 Sex-for-crack exchanges, especially for dealers, is more about power than sexual attraction For others, especially men who smoke crack with women, they “always want something” This can be used by women to limit her involvement (sexually) with men – maximizing her return Sometimes men were “getting used” and women, like men, attempt to get the most out of the exchange Part 7: Ch. 39

43 What do the findings of this study imply in the context of gender & power as it relates to crack cocaine use? Which gender gets the short end of the stick, if you will? Part 7: Ch. 39

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