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Is Advertising Immoral? PHIL106 – 2009 Dan Turton.

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1 Is Advertising Immoral? PHIL106 – 2009 Dan Turton

2 Recap Justify your ethical claims! Justify your ethical claims! By providing at least one good reason to believe your ethical claim By providing at least one good reason to believe your ethical claim And (even better) And (even better) By also providing at least one good reason not to believe your opponents ethical claim By also providing at least one good reason not to believe your opponents ethical claim

3 Does Advertising Manipulate Us? Reekie’s Defense of Advertising PHIL106 – 2009 Dan Turton

4 Topic Summary Does advertising manipulate us? Does advertising manipulate us? Reekie’s defense of advertising Reekie’s defense of advertising Does advertising manipulate us? Does advertising manipulate us? Crisp’s limited critique of advertising Crisp’s limited critique of advertising Does advertising make us unhappy? Does advertising make us unhappy? Belch vs. Hamilton Belch vs. Hamilton Does advertising make us unhappy? Does advertising make us unhappy? Hamilton again and wrap up Hamilton again and wrap up

5 Today Start addressing the question: Start addressing the question: Is advertising immoral? Is advertising immoral? An explanation of advertising An explanation of advertising A defense of advertising A defense of advertising Setting up some of the moral issues Setting up some of the moral issues

6 Advertising is… Communication from a specific source that intends to inform and influence the audience so that they believe something and/or behave in a certain way Communication from a specific source that intends to inform and influence the audience so that they believe something and/or behave in a certain way It is usually: It is usually: Persuading people to purchase a brand/product Persuading people to purchase a brand/product Paid for Paid for Using mass media Using mass media But some marketers are much sneakier… But some marketers are much sneakier…

7 Advertising might also be… Rosser Reeves Rosser Reeves Manager of a successful advertising company Manager of a successful advertising company While holding up two coins: While holding up two coins: “[Making] you think that this quarter is more valuable than that one” “[Making] you think that this quarter is more valuable than that one”

8 The Role of Advertising Advertising supports marketing and business function. Advertising supports marketing and business function. A modern business model: A modern business model: Perform consumer research Perform consumer research Develop new product based on research Develop new product based on research Advertise product Advertise product Sell product Sell product Importantly, both the business and the consumers are thought to benefit from this Importantly, both the business and the consumers are thought to benefit from this

9 The Benefits of Advertising Advertising helps consumers decide what to buy Advertising helps consumers decide what to buy Informs about the existence of new products Informs about the existence of new products Informs about new uses for existing products Informs about new uses for existing products Informs about differences between products – laundry powder & razors Informs about differences between products – laundry powder & razors Advertising provides incentives to: Advertising provides incentives to: Make differentiated products, and Make differentiated products, and Innovative products Innovative products Who doesn’t like PS3s, wi-fi, iphones? Who doesn’t like PS3s, wi-fi, iphones?

10 The Benefits of Advertising 2 Advertising is entertainment Advertising is entertainment Many ads are: Many ads are: Funny Funny Interesting Interesting Artistic Artistic Appealing in other ways Appealing in other ways

11 The Benefits of Advertising 3 Advertising is good for the economy Advertising is good for the economy It is a huge industry It is a huge industry It employs a lot of people It employs a lot of people It stimulates economic growth by connecting more of consumers needs and wants with solutions It stimulates economic growth by connecting more of consumers needs and wants with solutions Economic growth is good Economic growth is good Means you can get more things you want Means you can get more things you want

12 The Benefits of Advertising 4 Winston Churchill: Winston Churchill: “Advertising nourishes the consuming power of men. It creates wants for a better standard of living… It spurs individual exertion and greater production.” “Advertising nourishes the consuming power of men. It creates wants for a better standard of living… It spurs individual exertion and greater production.” Advertising improves our well-being Advertising improves our well-being

13 So, What’s Wrong with Advertising? Apparently, advertising deceives people into buying things that they don’t really need Apparently, advertising deceives people into buying things that they don’t really need Apparently, advertising lies, deceives and misleads Apparently, advertising lies, deceives and misleads Apparently, advertising makes people think they need things that they shouldn’t even want Apparently, advertising makes people think they need things that they shouldn’t even want Some people even think it makes us unhappy! Some people even think it makes us unhappy!

14 Advertising Doesn’t Lie Reasons why advertisers don’t lie Reasons why advertisers don’t lie Misleading ads are reported and removed from circulation Misleading ads are reported and removed from circulation ASA: “Truthful Presentation - Advertisements should not contain any statement … which … is likely to deceive or mislead the consumer … or exploits his/her lack of experience or knowledge.” ASA: “Truthful Presentation - Advertisements should not contain any statement … which … is likely to deceive or mislead the consumer … or exploits his/her lack of experience or knowledge.” ASA: “(Obvious hyperbole, identifiable as such, is not considered to be misleading).” ASA: “(Obvious hyperbole, identifiable as such, is not considered to be misleading).”

15 Advertising Doesn’t Lie Reasons why advertisers don’t lie Reasons why advertisers don’t lie Misleading ads are reported and removed from circulation Misleading ads are reported and removed from circulation Lies about product quality are soon discovered, making the lying company go out of business Lies about product quality are soon discovered, making the lying company go out of business Really important product categories have extra regulations to prevent lying Really important product categories have extra regulations to prevent lying Advertisers don’t want to tarnish the reputation of advertising generally Advertisers don’t want to tarnish the reputation of advertising generally

16 Advertising Doesn’t Make Us Buy Things We Don’t Need Advertising never forces anyone to do anything Advertising never forces anyone to do anything Advertising does influence our purchase decisions (at least it intends to) Advertising does influence our purchase decisions (at least it intends to) But what is wrong with that? But what is wrong with that? Advertising can’t encourage you to want something you really don’t need Advertising can’t encourage you to want something you really don’t need Advertising can only help you fulfill wants and needs you already have Advertising can only help you fulfill wants and needs you already have

17 Should Advertising be Allowed to Help Us Fulfill Our Wants? Should we stop people from helping others to fulfill their wants? Should we stop people from helping others to fulfill their wants? Depends on the wants… Depends on the wants… Some things we want are bad for others Some things we want are bad for others Slaves, over-sized cars, blow-off valves Slaves, over-sized cars, blow-off valves Some things we want are bad for ourselves Some things we want are bad for ourselves Cigarettes, highly processed foods, blow-off valves Cigarettes, highly processed foods, blow-off valves

18 Should Advertising Help Us Fulfill Our Wants? Advertising obviously shouldn’t encourage or help people to harm others but… Advertising obviously shouldn’t encourage or help people to harm others but… Who should decide what we should and shouldn’t want (for our own good)? Who should decide what we should and shouldn’t want (for our own good)? What is better, freedom or having the government protect us from our own wants? What is better, freedom or having the government protect us from our own wants? Why shouldn’t I be able to do whatever I want with my money (without hurting others)? Why shouldn’t I be able to do whatever I want with my money (without hurting others)? Consumer Sovereignty: Surely I have that right! Consumer Sovereignty: Surely I have that right! Where do we draw the line? Where do we draw the line?

19 Summary Advertising is good because: Advertising is good because: It helps consumers decide what to buy It helps consumers decide what to buy It provides incentives for innovation It provides incentives for innovation At least some of it is entertaining At least some of it is entertaining Its good for the economy Its good for the economy It allows us to improve our lives (as we see fit) by helping us to satisfy our wants and needs It allows us to improve our lives (as we see fit) by helping us to satisfy our wants and needs Busting the myths about advertising: Busting the myths about advertising: Advertising does not lie or deceive Advertising does not lie or deceive Advertising cannot make people buy things they don’t want Advertising cannot make people buy things they don’t want

20 Next Time Read: Read: Roger Crisp’s ‘Persuasive Advertising, Autonomy, and the Creation of Desire Roger Crisp’s ‘Persuasive Advertising, Autonomy, and the Creation of Desire Get ready to discuss: Get ready to discuss: Why advertising actually is immoral – it creates desires in us that we cannot even attempt to reject Why advertising actually is immoral – it creates desires in us that we cannot even attempt to reject

21 Does Advertising Manipulate Us? Crisp’s Limited Critique of Advertising PHIL106 – 2009 Dan Turton

22 Last Time Advertising is good because: Advertising is good because: It helps consumers decide what to buy It helps consumers decide what to buy It provides incentives for innovation It provides incentives for innovation At least some of it is entertaining At least some of it is entertaining Its good for the economy Its good for the economy It allows us to improve our lives (as we see fit) by helping us to satisfy our wants and needs It allows us to improve our lives (as we see fit) by helping us to satisfy our wants and needs Busting the myths about advertising: Busting the myths about advertising: Advertising does not lie or deceive Advertising does not lie or deceive Advertising cannot make people buy things they don’t want Advertising cannot make people buy things they don’t want

23 Today Looking at an argument that a certain type of advertising is immoral Looking at an argument that a certain type of advertising is immoral Roger Crisp thinks: Roger Crisp thinks: Persuasive advertising is immoral because it overrides our autonomy Persuasive advertising is immoral because it overrides our autonomy

24 Informative Adverts Crisp: informative advertising is usually OK because it facilitates (not overrides) the desire- making process Crisp: informative advertising is usually OK because it facilitates (not overrides) the desire- making process E.g. Jacket on sale E.g. Jacket on sale He already wanted that kind of jacket, now he knows where to get it (for cheap) He already wanted that kind of jacket, now he knows where to get it (for cheap)

25 Persuasive Adverts Crisp: persuasive advertising is immoral because it overrides our autonomy (our ability to make purchase decisions for ourselves) Crisp: persuasive advertising is immoral because it overrides our autonomy (our ability to make purchase decisions for ourselves) E.g. subliminal ads? E.g. subliminal ads? The desire for the product itself is created The desire for the product itself is created

26 How Subliminal Ads ‘Work’ Unconscious emotional manipulation by Unconscious emotional manipulation by Suggestion, or Suggestion, or Association Association If you are aware of seeing/hearing it, then it’s not subliminal advertising If you are aware of seeing/hearing it, then it’s not subliminal advertising (or it’s a failed attempt at subliminal advertising) (or it’s a failed attempt at subliminal advertising)

27 Subliminal Ad. Attempts?

28

29 The One Drink to Rule them All?

30 The Truth about Subliminal Ads Subliminal ads alone can’t make you buy something that you didn’t want Subliminal ads alone can’t make you buy something that you didn’t want Purchasing a product is too complex a behaviour for subliminal ads to control Purchasing a product is too complex a behaviour for subliminal ads to control Unconscious priming works sometimes Unconscious priming works sometimes Some priming is rejected Some priming is rejected

31 Arrington: Autonomous Desire Desires are autonomous if we accept them Desires are autonomous if we accept them E.g. Arrington sees an ad for hair dye E.g. Arrington sees an ad for hair dye He desires hair dye because he desires to look younger He desires hair dye because he desires to look younger And, he is perfectly happy to have both of those desires And, he is perfectly happy to have both of those desires Therefore, (according to him) his desire for hair dye is autonomous Therefore, (according to him) his desire for hair dye is autonomous

32 Crisp: Autonomous Desire Is Arrington’s desire autonomous? Is Arrington’s desire autonomous? What if the ad showed a man (with 100% not-grey hair) in a position of authority and surrounded by beautiful women? What if the ad showed a man (with 100% not-grey hair) in a position of authority and surrounded by beautiful women? Perhaps Arrington's real desires were for power and sex Perhaps Arrington's real desires were for power and sex

33 Crisp: How Adverts Persuade They appeal to our unconscious desires They appeal to our unconscious desires Crisp: they might appeal to our “unconscious desires for power and sex” Crisp: they might appeal to our “unconscious desires for power and sex”

34 Subtle Sex Appeal

35 Unconscious Desires? The unconscious desire for sex The unconscious desire for sex Makes us laugh at jokes that aren’t funny Makes us laugh at jokes that aren’t funny The unconscious desire for power The unconscious desire for power $$ is the best indicator of power these days $$ is the best indicator of power these days Makes us angry/disappointed if we don’t get that promotion/job we were after Makes us angry/disappointed if we don’t get that promotion/job we were after Also makes us laugh at jokes that aren’t funny Also makes us laugh at jokes that aren’t funny

36 Evolution by Natural Selection Organisms that have a lot of traits that led them to have lots of sex and power in their environment… Organisms that have a lot of traits that led them to have lots of sex and power in their environment… …Had more offspring… …Had more offspring… … Therefore, we should expect to see a lot of traits that are conducive to getting sex and power … Therefore, we should expect to see a lot of traits that are conducive to getting sex and power Explaining why we are very good at recognising opportunities for getting sex and power Explaining why we are very good at recognising opportunities for getting sex and power

37 Unconscious Desires Advertisers don’t always target sex and power though Advertisers don’t always target sex and power though Most ads for FMCGs are targeted at women or women and children Most ads for FMCGs are targeted at women or women and children Remember that Persil makes your clothes whiter? Remember that Persil makes your clothes whiter? Well, that’s not all it does: Well, that’s not all it does: eature=related eature=related eature=related eature=related

38 Crisp: Rational Desire Persuasive advertising creates irrational desires Persuasive advertising creates irrational desires If our main desire for a product is subconscious, then rationality doesn’t even come into it - we cannot possibly accept it or even consider it! If our main desire for a product is subconscious, then rationality doesn’t even come into it - we cannot possibly accept it or even consider it! Remember that an autonomous desire is one that we accept Remember that an autonomous desire is one that we accept Imagine Crisp subconsciously desires hair dye… that certainly seems irrational… Imagine Crisp subconsciously desires hair dye… that certainly seems irrational…

39 Crisp: Free Choice Being able to provide any old reason for why you bought something isn’t necessarily helpful Being able to provide any old reason for why you bought something isn’t necessarily helpful “I like Meow Mix”, “I like Grecian Formula 16” “I like Meow Mix”, “I like Grecian Formula 16” We need to weigh up the relevant reasons in order to make a free choice We need to weigh up the relevant reasons in order to make a free choice Persuasive advertising uses reasons that we are not aware of and so cannot evaluate Persuasive advertising uses reasons that we are not aware of and so cannot evaluate

40 Crisp: Control or Manipulation You control someone if you make them do something for reasons that they would not consider… reasonable. You control someone if you make them do something for reasons that they would not consider… reasonable. Making Crisp do a jig (by tying ropes to his limbs) just because I feel like it would be controlling him Making Crisp do a jig (by tying ropes to his limbs) just because I feel like it would be controlling him Adverts can do this Adverts can do this

41 Crisp’s General Argument 1) Persuasive advertising creates the desire for a product by associating it with sex, power or some other thing that is commonly and subconsciously craved 2) Therefore, the real reason for the desire is hidden from us 3) Therefore, the desire is not autonomous 4) Therefore, persuasive advertising overrides our autonomy (which is immoral)

42 Summary Persuasive advertising uses subconscious associations to try to make us desire products Persuasive advertising uses subconscious associations to try to make us desire products Crisp thinks it works and that is immoral because it overrides our autonomy Crisp thinks it works and that is immoral because it overrides our autonomy It must work to some extent, or persuasive advertising probably wouldn’t be so widespread It must work to some extent, or persuasive advertising probably wouldn’t be so widespread Is it manipulative enough to be immoral, though? Is it manipulative enough to be immoral, though?

43 Next Time Read: Read: Belch & Belch ‘Economic Effects of Advertising’ Belch & Belch ‘Economic Effects of Advertising’ Get ready to discuss: Get ready to discuss: Does advertising make us happy… or unhappy? Does advertising make us happy… or unhappy?

44 Does Advertising Makes Us Unhappy? Belch vs. Hamilton PHIL106 – 2009 Dan Turton

45 Recap of Crisp Persuasive advertising uses subconscious associations to try to make us desire products Persuasive advertising uses subconscious associations to try to make us desire products Crisp thinks it works and that is immoral because it overrides our autonomy Crisp thinks it works and that is immoral because it overrides our autonomy It must work to some extent, or persuasive advertising probably wouldn’t be so widespread It must work to some extent, or persuasive advertising probably wouldn’t be so widespread Is it manipulative enough to be immoral, though? Is it manipulative enough to be immoral, though?

46 Today The advertisers argument for how advertising makes us happier The advertisers argument for how advertising makes us happier Hamilton’s criticism of that argument Hamilton’s criticism of that argument

47 Problem: Margin of Discontent Margin of discontent = Gap between what we have and what we want Margin of discontent = Gap between what we have and what we want Happiness = satisfaction with how your life is going (no discontent) Happiness = satisfaction with how your life is going (no discontent) Examples of things that might discontent people: Examples of things that might discontent people: You have a Corolla, but you want an Evo You have a Corolla, but you want an Evo You work at McDs, but you want a job at Logan Brown You work at McDs, but you want a job at Logan Brown You have a 14” TV, but you want a 21” You have a 14” TV, but you want a 21”

48 Hamilton’s Solutions to the Margin of Discontent Hamilton mentions two possible solutions, Hamilton mentions two possible solutions, but he thinks that the first solution doesn’t seem to work: but he thinks that the first solution doesn’t seem to work: 1) Economic growth solution: “People satisfy their wants by increasing their possessions, thus becoming happier” “People satisfy their wants by increasing their possessions, thus becoming happier” 2) ‘Sages’ solution: “Give up wanting” “Give up wanting”

49 ‘Neo-Liberal’ (Advertisers) Argument (Roughly According to Hamilton) 1) Reducing the margin of discontent makes people happier 2) Economic growth helps consumers to reduce their margin of discontent 3) Advertising encourages economic growth 4) Advertising helps consumers to make better decisions about how to reduce the margin of discontent c)Therefore, advertising helps make people happier

50 Hamilton’s Refutation of the ‘Neo- Liberal’ (Advertisers) Argument More $$ (economic growth) does not make us happier More $$ (economic growth) does not make us happier Therefore, P2 is false Therefore, P2 is false Advertising does not help consumers to make better decisions about how to reduce the margin of discontent Advertising does not help consumers to make better decisions about how to reduce the margin of discontent Therefore, P4 is false Therefore, P4 is false

51 Does $$ Make Us Happy? 1) Reducing the margin of discontent makes people happier 2) Economic growth helps consumers to reduce their margin of discontent If 1. and 2. are both If 1. and 2. are both true, then why have we gotten richer… but not happier? Evidence? Evidence?

52

53 Materialism Doesn’t Pay Very High

54 Adaptation Lottery winners return to pretty much the same level of happiness after 1 year Lottery winners return to pretty much the same level of happiness after 1 year The more we have: The more we have: The more we want and The more we want and The more we think we need The more we think we need Evidence? Evidence?

55 So, Does $$ Make Us Happy? So, unless you are materialistic, more $$ makes very little difference to our happiness – much less than: So, unless you are materialistic, more $$ makes very little difference to our happiness – much less than: A rewarding job A rewarding job A loving relationship A loving relationship Volunteering Volunteering But materialistic people seem to have a pretty strange idea of happiness But materialistic people seem to have a pretty strange idea of happiness Having said all this… who would not want to win lotto? Having said all this… who would not want to win lotto?

56 Possible Neo-Liberal Response (Consumer Sovereignty) Remember Consumer Sovereignty? Remember Consumer Sovereignty? Regardless of happiness, we have a right to do what we want with our money Regardless of happiness, we have a right to do what we want with our money Economic growth gives people more freedom to choose whatever they wish to do with their lives and their money Economic growth gives people more freedom to choose whatever they wish to do with their lives and their money Without advertising consumers would find it very difficult to exercise this freedom Without advertising consumers would find it very difficult to exercise this freedom

57 Hamilton Fights Back Advertisers claim to be helping consumers to freely choose how to best satisfy their needs and wants – but this is false! Advertisers claim to be helping consumers to freely choose how to best satisfy their needs and wants – but this is false! Consumers do not freely choose between products because advertising manipulates our preferences – (Consumer Sovereignty is a myth) Consumers do not freely choose between products because advertising manipulates our preferences – (Consumer Sovereignty is a myth) More choice doesn’t help us satisfy our needs and wants More choice doesn’t help us satisfy our needs and wants Therefore, P4 is false Therefore, P4 is false

58 Consumer Sovereignty is a Myth! Consumers do not freely choose between products because advertising manipulates our preferences Consumers do not freely choose between products because advertising manipulates our preferences Our preferences are formed inside, not outside, of the marketplace Our preferences are formed inside, not outside, of the marketplace Indeed, consumers values, goals and personal identities are all formed inside the marketplace! Indeed, consumers values, goals and personal identities are all formed inside the marketplace! Evidence? Evidence?

59 The Abundance of Real Choice is a Myth The abundance of choices advertising provides are limited to meaningless choices between variations of things that we didn’t need in the first place The abundance of choices advertising provides are limited to meaningless choices between variations of things that we didn’t need in the first place “Most advertising, unfortunately, is devoted to an attempt to build up… irrational preferences for certain brands… to persuade consumers [to] buy Bumpo rather than Bango” – Prof. Boulding “Most advertising, unfortunately, is devoted to an attempt to build up… irrational preferences for certain brands… to persuade consumers [to] buy Bumpo rather than Bango” – Prof. Boulding Evidence? Evidence?

60 How Well Did Hamilton Fight Back? Advertisers claim to be helping consumers to freely choose how to best satisfy their needs and wants Advertisers claim to be helping consumers to freely choose how to best satisfy their needs and wants Hamilton claims that: Hamilton claims that: Advertising coerces consumers into satisfying the greedy financial wants of businesses, not their own wants or needs Advertising coerces consumers into satisfying the greedy financial wants of businesses, not their own wants or needs Advertising doesn’t provide more real choice, so it doesn’t help consumers choose what they really want Advertising doesn’t provide more real choice, so it doesn’t help consumers choose what they really want

61 Summary – You Decide Does advertising make us happier by making us richer? Does advertising make us happier by making us richer? Or do we adapt to and waste our extra income on things that don’t make us happy? Or do we adapt to and waste our extra income on things that don’t make us happy? Does advertising help us decide how best to satisfy our needs & wants? Does advertising help us decide how best to satisfy our needs & wants? Or does it make it harder to decide between a bunch of irrelevantly differentiated options? Or does it make it harder to decide between a bunch of irrelevantly differentiated options?

62 Next Time Read: Read: Clive Hamilton: ‘Identity’ Clive Hamilton: ‘Identity’ Get ready to discuss: Get ready to discuss: Hamilton’s idea that the whole point of advertising is to make us dissatisfied Hamilton’s idea that the whole point of advertising is to make us dissatisfied Get ready to discuss: Get ready to discuss: Test tips! Test tips!

63 Does Advertising Makes Us Unhappy? Hamilton Again & Wrap Up PHIL 106 – 2009 Dan Turton

64 Today A quick recap, then A quick recap, then Clive Hamilton's argument that advertising makes us unhappy and is therefore immoral, then Clive Hamilton's argument that advertising makes us unhappy and is therefore immoral, then A summary of the whole morality of advertising section A summary of the whole morality of advertising section Tips for the test Tips for the test

65 Last Time: Margin of Discontent Gap between what we have and what we want Gap between what we have and what we want You have a Corolla, but you want an Evo You have a Corolla, but you want an Evo You have a 14” TV, but you want a 21” You have a 14” TV, but you want a 21” You generally have old slow small smelly stuff but you want newer faster bigger better cooler stuff You generally have old slow small smelly stuff but you want newer faster bigger better cooler stuff All kinds of things, not just things you can buy from shops All kinds of things, not just things you can buy from shops

66 Last Time: How Advertising Makes Us Happy Advertising helps solve the problem of the margin of discontent in two ways Advertising helps solve the problem of the margin of discontent in two ways 1) Economic growth solution: It gives everyone more $$ to buy the things they want It gives everyone more $$ to buy the things they want 2) Better choices solution: It helps consumers make better want- satisfying choices It helps consumers make better want- satisfying choices

67 Last Time: Hamilton’s Refutation of the Neo-Liberal Argument More $$ (economic growth) does not make us happier More $$ (economic growth) does not make us happier For most people, a bit more money will not make them noticeably happier For most people, a bit more money will not make them noticeably happier Advertising does not help consumers to make better decisions about how to reduce the margin of discontent Advertising does not help consumers to make better decisions about how to reduce the margin of discontent Adverts just cloud our reasoning with unnecessary options and bogus emotional appeals Adverts just cloud our reasoning with unnecessary options and bogus emotional appeals

68 Hamilton’s Argument that Advertising Makes Us Unhappy 1) The margin of discontent is a source of unhappiness 2) Advertising perpetuates the margin of discontent by making us feel dissatisfied with our lives 3) Therefore, advertising encourages us to be unhappy (via dissatisfaction with our current lives) c) Therefore, advertising is immoral

69 Does Advertising Make Us Dissatisfied 1? Advertisers and their critics both agree that advertising influences consumers… Advertisers and their critics both agree that advertising influences consumers… But, to what extent does it do it? And, But, to what extent does it do it? And, How does it do it? How does it do it?

70 How Much Does Advertising Influence Us? Advertising companies are in the funny position of: Advertising companies are in the funny position of: Having to tell their clients that they can influence consumers very strongly. While, Having to tell their clients that they can influence consumers very strongly. While, Having to tell consumer rights groups that they have very little influence on consumers Having to tell consumer rights groups that they have very little influence on consumers Anyone who thinks that advertising doesn’t affect them at all is wrong Anyone who thinks that advertising doesn’t affect them at all is wrong

71 Does Advertising Make Us Dissatisfied 2? Remember Winston Churchill’s quote… Remember Winston Churchill’s quote… He thought advertising was good because it made people strive for a higher standard of living… but how did it do that? He thought advertising was good because it made people strive for a higher standard of living… but how did it do that? Maybe by making everyone feel dissatisfied with what they have at the moment by showing them something ‘better’ Maybe by making everyone feel dissatisfied with what they have at the moment by showing them something ‘better’

72 Does Advertising Make Us Dissatisfied 3? Beautiful (photo-shopped) women are in adverts everywhere we look Beautiful (photo-shopped) women are in adverts everywhere we look

73 Does Advertising Make Us Dissatisfied 4? Never more so than with our prime biological motivators (for getting a good mate/s)… Never more so than with our prime biological motivators (for getting a good mate/s)… Status for men (or more directly; just getting women). Status for men (or more directly; just getting women).. Beauty (sexiness) for women. Beauty (sexiness) for women.. Real beauty for women. Real beauty for women..

74 Brand vs. Company Integrity Crazy that some companies/brands advertise in a much more moral manner than others…. right? Crazy that some companies/brands advertise in a much more moral manner than others…. right?.?.? Wrong (In this case anyway) ! Wrong (In this case anyway) !! Remember that companies are there to make money Remember that companies are there to make money (Charities are there to make the world a better place) (Charities are there to make the world a better place)

75 Does Advertising Really Make Us Dissatisfied? Advertising either helps us solve our existing dissatisfactions, or Advertising either helps us solve our existing dissatisfactions, or Advertising constantly provides reasons to be dissatisfied and then helps us momentarily ‘solve’ them… and then tries to make us dissatisfied again! …Or Advertising constantly provides reasons to be dissatisfied and then helps us momentarily ‘solve’ them… and then tries to make us dissatisfied again! …Or A woosy in between position (only some ads are bad) A woosy in between position (only some ads are bad) Could ads that make us feel satisfied work? Could ads that make us feel satisfied work?

76 Summary – Hamilton on Ads Advertisers would say they help everyone by: Advertisers would say they help everyone by: Helping us close the margin of discontent Helping us close the margin of discontent Raising the standard of living Raising the standard of living Helping us to exercise our consumer sovereignty and our personal choices about how to live Helping us to exercise our consumer sovereignty and our personal choices about how to live Hamilton says that advertising is immoral because: Hamilton says that advertising is immoral because: It doesn’t make us happier like they claim it does, and It doesn’t make us happier like they claim it does, and It coerces us into a constant state of dissatisfaction It coerces us into a constant state of dissatisfaction

77 Section Summary: Is Advertising Immoral? Advertisers help everyone by: Advertisers help everyone by: Helping us close the margin of discontent Helping us close the margin of discontent Growing the economy & raising our standard of living Growing the economy & raising our standard of living Helping us to exercise our consumer sovereignty and our personal choices about how to live Helping us to exercise our consumer sovereignty and our personal choices about how to live Hamilton: advertising is immoral because: Hamilton: advertising is immoral because: It coerces us into a constant state of dissatisfaction It coerces us into a constant state of dissatisfaction Crisp: persuasive advertising is immoral: Crisp: persuasive advertising is immoral: Because it overrides our autonomy and… Because it overrides our autonomy and… It makes us desire products without us realising! It makes us desire products without us realising!

78 Find Out More The perils of consumerism and what to do about it: The perils of consumerism and what to do about it: See what the anti-advertising community is up to (and trying to sell to you): See what the anti-advertising community is up to (and trying to sell to you): Don’t worry though! Find out how advertising is self-regulated in New Zealand Don’t worry though! Find out how advertising is self-regulated in New Zealand

79 Do More Let the government know what you think about how advertising is regulated: Let the government know what you think about how advertising is regulated: Hon Dr Jonathan Coleman – minister of broadcasting Hon Dr Jonathan Coleman – minister of broadcasting TEL (04) (Parliament) TEL (04) (Parliament) Hon Simon Power – minister of commerce Hon Simon Power – minister of commerce TEL (04) (Parliament) TEL (04) (Parliament)


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