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1 Chapter 1. Section 1-3. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman M ARIO F. T RIOLA E IGHTH E DITION E LEMENTARY S TATISTICS Section 1-3 Uses and Abuses of Statistics

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2 Chapter 1. Section 1-3. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Uses of Statistics Almost all fields of study benefit from the application of statistical methods

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3 Chapter 1. Section 1-3. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Abuses of Statistics Bad Samples

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4 Chapter 1. Section 1-3. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Definitions self-selected survey (or voluntary response sample) one in which the respondents themselves decide whether to be included

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5 Chapter 1. Section 1-3. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Abuses of Statistics Loaded Questions Misleading Graphs Bad Samples Small Samples

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6 Chapter 1. Section 1-3. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Bachelor High School Degree Diploma Figure 1-1 Salaries of People with Bachelor’s Degrees and with High School Diplomas $40,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 $40,500 $24,400 35,000 $40,000 20,000 10,000 0 $40,500 $24,400 30,000 Bachelor High School Degree Diploma (a)(b)

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7 Chapter 1. Section 1-3. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman We should analyze the numerical information given in the graph instead of being mislead by its general shape.

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8 Chapter 1. Section 1-3. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Abuses of Statistics Pictographs Bad Samples Small Samples Loaded Questions Misleading Graphs

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9 Chapter 1. Section 1-3. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Figure 1-2 Double the length, width, and height of a cube, and the volume increases by a factor of eight

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10 Chapter 1. Section 1-3. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Abuses of Statistics Precise Numbers Distorted Percentages Partial Pictures Bad Samples Small Samples Loaded Questions Misleading Graphs Pictographs

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11 Chapter 1. Section 1-3. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman “Ninety percent of all our cars sold in this country in the last 10 years are still on the road.”

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12 Chapter 1. Section 1-3. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Bad Samples Small Samples Loaded Questions Misleading Graphs Pictographs Precise Numbers Distorted Percentages Partial Pictures Abuses of Statistics Deliberate Distortions

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