INFORMATION Information has two specific components: 1. Information about the variety of negotiating options or potential alternatives to meet your needs and 2. Information about the specific negotiation in which you are involved.
Information about the range of potential negotiating solutions is critical to enable you to avoid getting locked into a situation that you cannot walk away from.
Outside of and inside the deal... One way of looking at information, is too see the necessity for gaining as much information as possible about options outside of the deal being concidered. Ask: “If not this, then what?” and always have an answer before you sit down to negoiate. The second major impact occurs inside the deal. The more information we have about the individual(s) we are negotiating with the better we will be able to react to and anticipate their negotiating requests.
During negotiation... Gaining information during the negotiation is even more critical. Effective negotiators are masters of the art of asking fact-finding questions. The information being sought concerns data about what the other side really wants. Understanding all of the who, what, why,where, when, how, and to what extent issues will help to identify hidden agendas and real needs.
Feelings... In addition to asking factual questions, it is critical to get at the emotional issues or feelings that surround the negotiation. How does the outcome of the negotiation affect the other negotiator personally? How does it affect others? How do these emotional issues affect the way components of the deal are valued?
An important key to negotiation success is the discovery of the relative value the other side places on the various issues and the components of the deal. An important key to negotiation success is the discovery of the relative value the other side places on the various issues and the components of the deal.
Where is all that information? When concidering your need for information about a negotiation, think about all the possible sources of information. Information can come from competitors, People who do business with the other side, Trade reports, Recent articles featuring the other side, or From standard references.
Information can help or hinder your negotiation. Imperfect information is the norm not the exception. It can be valuable, as when you discover how badly they need your consent or cooperation. Disclosing your needs can damage your stance.
Misinformation vs. Disinformation Misinformation is information that is incorrect, but not because of a deliberate attempt to mislead. Believers in misinformation are said to be misinformed but not lying. Often, misinformation comes from sources that may not be very careful with their research. Overall, this leads to people confusing fact with fiction and can be fairly troublesome at some times.
Misinformation vs. Disinformation Disinformation is the spreading of deliberately false information to mislead the other party as to one's position or course of action. It also includes the distortion of true information in such a way as to render it useless.
Disinformation Disinformation is a concept which we can easily encounter in our daily lives. It is really hard to count how many times we are being mislead because of disinformation and misleading other people with disinformation through out an ordinary day. Disinformation is a concept which we can easily encounter in our daily lives. It is really hard to count how many times we are being mislead because of disinformation and misleading other people with disinformation through out an ordinary day. A good negotiator should be able to use this weapon effectively and always concider that the other party may also be using it any time. A good negotiator should be able to use this weapon effectively and always concider that the other party may also be using it any time.
Tactics Which Involve Disinformation Faking Divide and Conquer Leaking False deadline Overwhelm Bluff Empty pockets Padding Empty promises Good guy/ Bad guy Russian Front Red Herring
FAKING Faking is: Pretending to be someone you are not.
FAKING Dress well,pretend to be rich. Dress down,pretend to be poor. Talk about people that you have not met. Talk about things you have never experienced. Talk about qualifications you do not have.
FAKING “Yeah, a few days ago I was talking to Johnny Depp and he said…” “When I was is London, it was so rainy that you could never go out without an umbrella.” “I’ve been in this business for 30 years,this is the best product I’ve ever seen.”
FAKING & DISINFORMATION Faking is a great example of disinformation: You INTENTIONALLY give some information (ex: pretending to be someone else) that which is NOT TRUE. You INTENTIONALLY give some information (ex: pretending to be someone else) that which is NOT TRUE.
FAKING Most of the people envy those who know famous people,who’s expert in something. Faking may be useful in negotiation BUT BUT If you get caught, punishment is inevitable.
LEAKING Leaking is: The “leak” of MISLEADING information..
LEAKING Let something “slip out” during conversation. Let your opponent overhear you talking about things. Have someone on your side tell them something. Leave documents in places that your opponent can easily find them.
LEAKING “We decided to downsize.” “Our manager thinks that there’s no future in automobile industry.”
LEAKING & DISINFORMATION When a party “leaks” information,they INTENTIONALLY leak some misleading information to trick the other party.
LEAKING When one side “leaks” some information, the other party will think that they have an advantage. They will probably focus on that (leaked) information. Good part is: They don’t have the right to complain.
EMPTY POCKETS Empty Pockets is: Saying that you’re unable to meet some demands even though you wanted to. Saying that you’re unable to meet some demands even though you wanted to.
EMPTY POCKETS Say you can not afford the demand. Say you don’t have it. Say you can not do it even if you wanted to do so. Show it’s lack of ability,not lack of desire.
EMPTY POCKETS “Well,I’d like to come to your birthday but my mom doesn’t allow me to go out at night.” “I’m a student, I want a good discount.” “I don’t have the lecture notes,if i had them I would give them to you.”
EMPTY POCKETS & DISINFORMATION Just like pretending to be poor,in empty pockets you show that you’re needy even if you are not. (ex. to get a lower price)
EMPTY POCKETS It may cause the other party to ask less of you. GOOD PART IS: It’s a good way of refusing because of the “I’d love to but…..” part
Good guy/bad guy Good guy/bad guy is One person acts in an aggressive and pushy way The other person acts in a kind and friendly way
Good guy/bad guy Bad guy makes unreasonable demands and require compliance Good guy asks nicely and getting compliance
Good guy/bad guy SOMETIMES The good guy may apologize for the bad guy, OR Plead for compliance.
Good and Bad guy in one Person Be unpleasant Then apologize Ask nicely for what you want
Good guy/bad guy -Husband: It is too expensive and sales man is in a condescending manner -Wife: (whispering to sales person) I am sorry for my husband but i think he will buy it if you discount 10% in price.
Good guy/bad guy -cop1: He won’t confess, kill him!! -cop2: I can’t kill, it is not ethic. -cop1: Forget the ethic, kill him -cop2: Err..ok if you.. -man: Okay okay..please stop..murderer is Umut.
Good guy/bad guy It can also be subconscious pattern for parents WHERE One parent tries to impose discipline by demanding compliance The other parent seems to get easily by gentle request
Bluff Bluff is is a form of deception that involves a false show of confidence.
Bluff Tell the other person something that will impress them Act confidently. Do not hesitate When buying, say that you know you can get the item much cheaper elsewhere When selling, say that you have already had a good offer
Bluff Well, I like this place but I’ve just had an offer of a smilar house at a much lower price Yes, dad, I’ve done my school work. Can I go out now? Don’t worry. Adjudication is yours because I offer the maximum price.
Bluff a player makes a bold bet on a weak hand, hoping to frighten the other players.
Bluff Bluffing is of course a DANGEROUS GAME As the other person may call your bluff
Bluff If you are found out, then you will be suspected for a long time into the future
Overwhelm Overwhelm is giving the other side so much information
Overwhelm When the other party ask for details about your company, give them financial analyses,market information. Snow the other party under with blizzard of information. Hide the needle that they are seeking in a haystack of irrelevant data. You can also overwhelm the other party with keep asking for more and more information.
Overwhelm You wanted to see our customer results for the SB04 product line. I’ve had my secretary send you all the customer results we have. I’m sure it’s in there somewhere. How many are you looking? What type? What variant? Which year?
Overwhelm When you snow another person you cannot be accused of being unhelpful or failing to comply with their requests. This is also an opportunity to show them how busy you are, how much work you do and how really complex and difficult it really is.
PADDING Padding is: Add in requirements to your initial position that you do not really need. Add in requirements to your initial position that you do not really need.
PADDING Add in requirements Do not do this lightly. Act in the same way as if you were conceding something you really want. Be ready to justify why you want these things. Beware of including what you cannot reasonably justify.
PADDING I need a meeting room for twenty people...Well, I guess I'll have to stop Murat and Ozan from coming. Coffee is included in that price, isn't it? My darling said it must be red...Well, I'll take the green one, but only if you include the full insurance package. I guess I'll have to think about what to say... I must have this project done by the end of the week... I'll accept it next Tuesday if you include a full specification.
PADDING & DISINFORMATION It can be used when giving disinformation but in order to work, padding has to be credible. If it is suspected that you are deliberately padding then all of your requirements will be suspect and open to challenge.
FALSE DEADLINE False Deadline is: Saying that something must be done by a certain deadline or else the deal is off. Saying that something must be done by a certain deadline or else the deal is off.
FALSE DEADLINE Make in the near future Fall other person in panic Explain circumstances beyond your control If not in short time,unable to find a satisfactory conclusion. Show them what will happen if the deadline is not met.
FALSE DEADLINE The negotiation project is next week. If this report is not ready by then, it will be low grades and it will be my responsibility. Prices go up at the end of the week, sir. You haven't got long. My mom tells me “If you're not in bed by ten, you will not wake up in time tomorrow”.
FALSE DEADLINE & DISINFORMATION Hurrying people, especially if it panics them, has the effect of reducing the rational and reflective thought that they put into the process and thus makes them more likely to agree with you. So if a negotiator wants to change the challenge towards himself he can use disinformation. He may tell wrong dates intentionally and gains an advantage.
Russian front Russian front is Offering the other party something that they will never choose
Russian front Dress it up so that it seems more reasonable Make it seem inevitable Show how it is going to happen Paint the picture of pain Offer them the alternative that you really want them to choose
Russian front You can go to bed now... or you can clean up this mess You've done it now. Murat will not like that. And he's coming down in ten minutes. Tell you what: there is something I can do...
Russian front Offering something that is clearly undesirable creates panic and discomfort This causes people anxious to get away from this to the point where they are looking more at what they are avoiding than what they are getting instead
Red Herring A Red Herring is a fallacy in which an irrelevant topic is presented in order to divert attention from the original issue. The basic idea is to "win" an argument by leading attention away from the argument and to another topic.
This sort of "reasoning" has the following form: 1. Topic A is under discussion. 2. Topic B is introduced under the guise of being relevant to topic A (when topic B is actually not relevant to topic A). 3. Topic A is abandoned. Red Herring
If you want them to waste time, make the trail long. If you want them to expend effort, make the trail difficult to follow (but with enough interesting clues to keep them sniffing. You can highlight 'problems' which turn out not to be problems (after a degree of examination). Be careful to retain credibility, for example by referencing the trail through other people. Red Herring
A company shows some interesting, but minor problems to an auditor, distracting them from the really serious issues that may be found elsewhere. There might be a problem with the paintwork, let's look...No! The paintwork is, in fact, perfect.
Laying a false trail leads people away from areas that you do not want them to see. To do this, the trail must be of sufficient interest that the other person misses any clues to other areas. Red Herring
Talking about problems that are not really problems has effects beyond distraction. For example, it may show you in a positive light as willing to highlight issues that may count against you..
If the other person realizes that it is a deliberate red herring, they may be very unhappy about this, so it should either be cloaked carefully or you must be protected from any anger. Red Herring
Divide and Conquer Cause confusion in the enemy camp. Get them at each other's throats so they pay less attention to fighting you, for example by paying more attention to one person or one group than another or sowing false information.
When they are arguing amongst themselves, propose solutions that the key people will accept and which will support their internal negotiations. Divide and Conquer
A side member of a negotiating team spends time with some of the younger members of the other side whilst the main negotiations are going on elsewhere. In their discussions, they touch on how the ideas from these bright young people are being ignored by their superiors. A negotiator and a colleague talk about how one person on the other side is more successful than another. They know that they are being overheard and their talk is designed for the listener.
If you can get the other side to take their eye off the ball then you can consequently gain control of the proceedings. When others disagree with one another, then one may well take your side in order to win points against their internal opponents. Divide and Conquer
When others disagree with one another, then one may well take your side in order to win points against their internal opponents.
Divide and Conquer This, of course, is a hazardous strategy which can backfire if they discover what you are doing. To succeed, it must be executed with great care and finesse.
Empty Promises Make promises that you know that you will not have to keep.
Empty Promises Use this to get things moving when the negotiation is stuck and the item being requested seems relatively minor.
Empty Promises “I don't see why I can't come back some time. I guess I could spend extra time with you. Why not? I'm sure I can find the time.”
Empty Promises When the other person is fixated on getting something, particularly if it is minor, then they may well be more trapped by the wanting rather than really want it. Suggesting that you will give it to them gives them closure for now and lets you move on with the rest of the negotiation.
Empty Promises This works better for things that will be delivered at an uncertain time in the future. When asked, you can then delay delivery. If pressed, you may actually have to deliver.
Empty Promises As any deceptive method, this holds the danger that it will cause betrayal response.