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PART TWO ChallengesandMisunderstandings. Chapter 7 ORGANIZATIONAL CHALLENGES Realistic Recruitment (pp. 123-137)

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Presentation on theme: "PART TWO ChallengesandMisunderstandings. Chapter 7 ORGANIZATIONAL CHALLENGES Realistic Recruitment (pp. 123-137)"— Presentation transcript:

1 PART TWO ChallengesandMisunderstandings

2 Chapter 7 ORGANIZATIONAL CHALLENGES Realistic Recruitment (pp )

3 OVERVIEW –When Applicants and Organizations Misrepresent Themselves –The Costs of Traditional Recruitment Human FactorHuman Factor Financial FactorFinancial Factor –Addressing the Problem: Realistic Recruitment How RJPs WorkHow RJPs Work The Medium of the RJPThe Medium of the RJP Time of Administration of the RJPTime of Administration of the RJP –Realistic Recruitment and the Communicative Organization

4 Realistic Recruitment Why is understanding the process of how organizational members are recruited and selected (or not selected) important?Why is understanding the process of how organizational members are recruited and selected (or not selected) important? How does communication during the recruitment process affect individual and organizational outcomes?How does communication during the recruitment process affect individual and organizational outcomes? How do applicants intentionally mislead employers?How do applicants intentionally mislead employers? How do employers intentionally mislead applicants?How do employers intentionally mislead applicants?

5 Realistic Recruitment Exchanging realistic, truthful information during the recruitment and selection process will benefit both the individual and the organization, affecting job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, and turnover. Exchanging realistic, truthful information during the recruitment and selection process will benefit both the individual and the organization, affecting job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, and turnover.

6 Applicant Misrepresentations Misrepresent QualificationsMisrepresent Qualifications –“stretch the truth” on application and resume –Overstating qualifications –Providing altered or nonexistent academic credentials –Including phony references –Misreporting previous work history –Exaggerations and Lies Misrepresent Cultural PreferencesMisrepresent Cultural Preferences –Unmet needs and desires –Unmet expectations –Dissatisfaction –Involuntary Turnover Figure 7.1 and 7.2 (p. 125)Figure 7.1 and 7.2 (p. 125)

7 Employer Misrepresentations Traditional RecruitmentTraditional Recruitment –Positive characteristics are communicated to outsiders –Advertised features are distorted to make them even more positive –Any information (regarding details of the job or aspects of the organizational culture) that might seem unattractive to a potential employee is not communicated –Figure 7.3 (p. 127) Inflated ExpectationsInflated Expectations –Low Performance ---> Involuntary Turnover –Low Commitment ---> Voluntary Turnover

8 Costs of Traditional Recruiting The Human FactorThe Human Factor –Low Satisfaction –Low Commitment –Low Performance –Increased Turnover –Impact on self-esteem and self-efficacy Kreps’ Ethical PrinciplesKreps’ Ethical Principles –Organization members should not intentionally deceive on another –Organization members’ communication should not purposely harm any other organization member or members of the organization’s relevant environment –Organization members should be treated justly

9 Costs of Traditional Recruiting The Financial FactorThe Financial Factor –Employment Management Association (EMA) –Exempt from overtime COST-PER-HIRE = $6,359.00COST-PER-HIRE = $6, –Nonexempt COST-PER-HIRE = $3,310.00COST-PER-HIRE = $3, –INTERNAL COSTS Employment/Recruiting salaries and benefitsEmployment/Recruiting salaries and benefits Staff travel, lodging, entertainment, adminStaff travel, lodging, entertainment, admin –EXTERNAL COSTS Travel, lodging, entertainment for recruitersTravel, lodging, entertainment for recruiters –COMPANY VISIT EXPENSES Candidate travel, lodging, meals, interview workday expensesCandidate travel, lodging, meals, interview workday expenses –DIRECT FEES Advertising, job fairs, search fees, referrals, college recruitingAdvertising, job fairs, search fees, referrals, college recruiting –SUPPLEMENTAL DATA Acceptance rates, time-to-start, turnover, relocationAcceptance rates, time-to-start, turnover, relocation

10 Realistic Recruitment Weitz (1956)Weitz (1956) John Wanous (1992)John Wanous (1992) –Organizational Entry: Recruitment, Selection, Orientation, and Socialization of Newcomers –REALISTIC RECRUITMENT –“presents outsiders with ALL PERTINENT information WITHOUT DISTORTION” Realistic Job Preview (RJP)Realistic Job Preview (RJP) –An accurate (both positive and negative) view of the relevant aspects of the job and the organization RJP Chain of Events (Figure 7.4, p. 130)RJP Chain of Events (Figure 7.4, p. 130)

11 How RJPs Work “Self Selection” Theory“Self Selection” Theory –Provide opportunity for applicant to self-select out of the recruitment process –Mismatch of Needs or Abilities “Vaccination” Theory“Vaccination” Theory –Provide opportunity for applicants to develop coping mechanisms for negative aspects of organizational life Jean Phillips (1998)Jean Phillips (1998) –RJPs do NOT significantly reduce the number of applicants –Vaccination Theory is most viable explanation Why shouldn’t we discredit the “Self-Selection” Theory?Why shouldn’t we discredit the “Self-Selection” Theory? Constructing and Implementing RJPs -- Two Important IssuesConstructing and Implementing RJPs -- Two Important Issues –Medium of Communication –Time of Administration

12 The Medium of the RJP Constructed AFTER thorough analysis of job and organization is performedConstructed AFTER thorough analysis of job and organization is performed Specifics of JobSpecifics of Job –Working conditions –Hours –Advancement Opportunities –Managerial Style –Job Freedom –Pay and Benefits –Organizational Values Data CollectionData Collection –Observation of work procedures –Survey of workers, managers, and customers –Interviews with members at all organizational levels

13 The Medium of the RJP VIDEO (strongest relationship w/performance)VIDEO (strongest relationship w/performance) –Organizational Orientation –Job Orientation –Training Video WRITTEN (least effective)WRITTEN (least effective) –Job Advertisement –Aptitude Test –Informational Pamphlet –Handbook –Training Manual VERBAL (positive relationship w/satisfaction)VERBAL (positive relationship w/satisfaction) –Conversations with Insiders –Employment interview –On-site visit –Pre-hire orientation –Post-hire orientation

14 Time Administration of the RJP When applicant first makes contact about the job openingWhen applicant first makes contact about the job opening –Debate about expending time & resources After the job offer has been made but before the job is acceptedAfter the job offer has been made but before the job is accepted –BEST TIME (Phillips, 1998) –Strongest relationships with job performance After the newcomer starts the jobAfter the newcomer starts the job –NOT an RJP –Realistic SOCIALIZATION

15 Realistic Recruitment & CO Traditional Recruitment practices contribute to unmet expectations, dissatisfaction, and turnoverTraditional Recruitment practices contribute to unmet expectations, dissatisfaction, and turnover Realistic Recruitment attempts to ANTICIPATE and ADDRESS misunderstandings before they occurRealistic Recruitment attempts to ANTICIPATE and ADDRESS misunderstandings before they occur –Treats recruits in a more ethical manner –Match expectations with reality –Results in satisfaction, performance, and job retention LACK of Information or MISLEADING Information leads to MisunderstandingsLACK of Information or MISLEADING Information leads to Misunderstandings –CONFLICT IN VALUES –LACK OF INFORMATION STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION PLANNINGSTRATEGIC COMMUNICATION PLANNING –Construct Strategy –Move from traditional to realistic recruitment –Move from PROBLEM to SOLUTION Verbal RJPs presented by a credible source have the strongest relationship to relevant outcomesVerbal RJPs presented by a credible source have the strongest relationship to relevant outcomes –Psychological Immediacy –Exchange assessment

16 SUMMARY Recruitment is a vital component of organizational behaviorRecruitment is a vital component of organizational behavior Information exchanged (or not exchanged) during the process can affect important factorsInformation exchanged (or not exchanged) during the process can affect important factors More beneficial to engage in realistic, honest communicationMore beneficial to engage in realistic, honest communication Potential benefitsPotential benefits –Met expectations –Increased job satisfaction –Increased performance –Reduced Turnover Exaggerating important information has substantial financial and human costsExaggerating important information has substantial financial and human costs

17 BOTTOM LINE The communicative organization urges thoughtful and ethical behavior--realistic recruitment practices meet these criteria. The communicative organization urges thoughtful and ethical behavior--realistic recruitment practices meet these criteria.


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