Presentation on theme: "THE NATURE OF MANAGERIAL WORK"— Presentation transcript:
1THE NATURE OF MANAGERIAL WORK Woman sitting at desk discussing paperwork with a man
2Where are managers? Businesses Schools Hospitals Leisure clubs Managers exist in all organisations, in the private and the public sectors.Do you think their roles and activities are different in different organisations?
3The role of managementAll organisations have goals which managers try achieve.A leisure club manager endeavours to increase membership of the gym.A retail outlet manager aims to make to maximise profit.A charity manager wants to increase donations.
4Do all managers achieve their goals? No!!! Here are some reasons why not: managerial incompetencelack of managerial experiencelittle experience managing employees and other resources before going into businessunbalanced experienceinsufficient experience in key functional areas, such as marketing, finance, purchasing and productioninexperience of the product or service.Man in hospital bed being told not to either lead, follow or get out of the way, But never try to do all three at the same time !
5Importance of management Management is necessary to direct a business towards its goals.A balance must be maintained between the goals of the business, the resources, the employees’ objectives and the interests of the owners, i.e. stakeholder approach.Management is also necessary to keep the organisation in equilibrium with its environment – PEST and SWOT analysis.
6Definition of management ‘Management’ (from Old French ménagement, ‘the art of conducting, directing’, from Latin manu agere ‘to lead by the hand’) characterises the process of leading and directing all or part of an organisation, often a business, through the deployment and manipulation of resources (human, financial, material, intellectual or intangible) (Ref: Wikipedia)Click the link below for additional information
7The most important elements in the management process Planning - setting objectives and determining in advance how objectives will be met.Organising - delegating and coordinating tasks and resources to achieve objectives.Leading - influencing employees to work toward achieving objectives.Control - establishing mechanisms to ascertain whether the tasks have been carried out.
8The functions of management Planning This determines the mission and goals of the business, including the ways in which the goals are to be attained, and the resources needed for this task. It includes determining the future position of the business, and guidelines or plans on how that position is to be reached.
9The functions of management Organising Developing a framework or organisational structure to indicate how personnel, equipment and materials are to be employed to attain the predetermined goals.Leading Entails giving orders to the human resources of the business and motivating them to direct their actions to conform with the goals and plans.
10The functions of management Control Managers should constantly check whether the business is properly on course toward the accomplishment of its goals.
11Management activities PlanningOrganisingManagement activities loop of planning then organisaing then leading then controllingLeadingControl
13Advertising supervisor Management levelsTop managementPresidentMiddle managementMarketing managerOperations managerHR managerFinance managerLower managementAdvertising supervisorSales supervisorProduct supervisorTraining supervisorFinance supervisorAccounts supervisorPicture of management levels with president at top and supervisors at the bottom
14The management process PlanningOrganisingHumanresourcesLeadingControlGoalsFinancialresourcesPhysicalresourcesIn management process input from human, financial,physical and information resources need to be planned, organised, lead and controlled to achieve goals.Informationresources
15Function of top management Responsible for the business as a whole and for determining its mission and goals.Concerned mainly with long-term planning.
16Function of middle management Accountable for executing the policies, plans and strategies determined by top management.Responsible for medium- and long-term planning.
17Function of lower management Responsible for smaller segments of the business.Responsible for the day-to-day activities and tasks of a particular section, short-term planning and implementing the plans of middle management.Guide staff in their own subsections and keep close control over their activities.
18Functional managers Plan the activities of the marketing department. Organise marketing activities, such as the allocation of tasks so that certain objectives can be attained.Motivate and give orders to marketing staff to perform their duties and thus accomplish the goals of the business.
19Functional managersControl marketing activities, for example ensuring that marketing objectives are accomplished as planned.In the same way financial management, human resources management, purchasing management and other functional managements plan, organise, lead and control their departments.
20Important management skills Conceptual skills The mental capacity to view the business and its parts in a holistic manner, i.e. systems theory approach.Interpersonal skills The ability to work with other people in teams (Richard Branson – hands-on employer).Technical skills The ability to use the knowledge or techniques of a particular discipline to attain ends (project management software, i.e. Microsoft Project).
21Planning Conceptual and decision- making skills Controlling Organising TechnicalskillsHuman andcommunicationskillsShowing the management skills needed are technical skills, conceptual and decision making skills, human and communication skillsLeading
22Representative figure Allocator of resources The role of managersInterpersonal roleRepresentative figureLeaderRelationshipsDecision-making roleInformational roleEntrepreneurTroubleshooterAllocator of resourcesNegotiatorMonitorsAnalysesSpokesmanManagers’ have 3 overlapping roles an interpersonal role, an informational role and a decision making role.
23Interpersonal roleRepresentative - takes visitors out for business lunch.Leading - training, promotion, firing and motivation.Relationships - internal (staff) and external (suppliers, customers).
24Informational roleMonitor - gathering of information about opportunities and threats.Analyse the data and report meaningful information.Spokesperson in the business.
25Decision-making roleManagers are entrepreneurial - develop new products.Solve problems such as strikes, equipment breakdowns, etc.Allocation of resources in the business.Negotiate goals, performance standards and trade union agreements.
26Schools of thought on management Existing knowledge about management is derived from a combination of ongoing research by practitioners and researchers.Schools of thought: 1. the classical school 2. the human relations school 3. integrative theory (systems, socio-technical and contingency theories).
27Classical theoristsFocus on the job and management functions to determine the best way to manage in all organisations.F.W. Taylor ( )Picture of FW Taylor
28Scientific management Develop a procedure for each element of a job.Promote job specialisation.Scientifically select, train and develop workers.Plan and schedule work.Establish standard methods and times for tasks.Wage incentives schemes.
29Scientific management Frank and Lillian Gilbreth ( )Time and motion studiesFor more information see:Henry Gant ( )Method for scheduling work over timeFor more information see:
30Henri Fayol (1841-1925) http://www. mgmtguru Division of work – work and tasks should be performed by people specialised in the work and similar tasks should be organised as a unit or department.Authority – delegated persons ought to have the right to give orders and expect that they be followed.Discipline – workers should be obedient and respectful of the organisation.Unity of command – employees should receive orders from only one person with authority.Picture of Henri Fayol
31Henri Fayol ( )Subordination of individual interests to the general interest – organisational conflict should be limited by the dominance of one objective.Remuneration – although Fayol provides no guidance on pay, the organisation must recognise the economic value of employees and that their economic interests are important.Centralisation – whether an organisation should be centralised or decentralised depends on factors such as communications and the importance of who should make the decision.Scalar chain – authority in an organisation moves in a continuous chain of command from top to bottom.Unity of direction – the organisation and employees are dedicated to one plan of action or set of objectives.
32Henri Fayol ( )Order – everything, people and resources, has a place that it belongs.Equity – fairness is important in management– employee relations.Stability of tenure of personnel – turnover is disruptive; shared experience is important.Initiative – workers are exhorted to be productive and motivated.Esprit de corps – there is a need for harmony and unity within the organisation.
33Behavioural theoryThe human relations or behaviourist school came into being because of the failure of the scientific and classical schools to make an adequate study of the human element as an important factor in the effective accomplishment of the goals of a business.
34Behavioural theory Mayo (1880-1949) Focus changed from the job to people who perform the jobResearch into social interaction, motivation, patterns of power, organisational design and communicationsFor more information:
35Systems approachThe systems approach considers the business as an integrated system consisting of related systems:decision making in the finance department affects other departmentsopen systems thinking.
36Socio-technical theory Focus on integrating people and technology.Another approach is Ouchi's theory Z, which was developed during the early 1980s in an attempt to explain decreasing productivity.The method in this approach is to take the best management practices from American and Japanese businesses and integrate them into one.
37Contingency theoryFocus on the best management approach for a given situation.Study the environment and its effects on the organisation and management systems.For more information:
38Today’s managersBusinesses today are exposed to a number of revolutionary forces, for example technological change, global competition, demographic change and trends toward a service society and the information age.Forces like these have changed the playing field on which businesses must compete.In particular, they have dramatically increased the need for businesses to be responsive, flexible and capable of competing in a global market.Click the link below for up-to-date articles on management
39The future!The average business will be smaller and employ fewer people.The boundaryless business will evolve in which employees do not identify with separate departments but instead interact with whoever they must to get the job done.Employees will be called on to make more and more decisions.Flatter organisations will be the norm.Work will be organised around teams and processes.Competency and knowledge, not titles, will be the basis of power.