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THE NATURE OF MANAGERIAL WORK. Where are managers? Businesses Schools Hospitals Leisure clubs Managers exist in all organisations, in the private and.

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Presentation on theme: "THE NATURE OF MANAGERIAL WORK. Where are managers? Businesses Schools Hospitals Leisure clubs Managers exist in all organisations, in the private and."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE NATURE OF MANAGERIAL WORK

2 Where are managers? Businesses Schools Hospitals Leisure clubs Managers exist in all organisations, in the private and the public sectors. Do you think their roles and activities are different in different organisations?

3 The role of management All organisations have goals which managers try achieve. A leisure club manager endeavours to increase membership of the gym. A retail outlet manager aims to make to maximise profit. A charity manager wants to increase donations.

4 Do all managers achieve their goals? No!!! Here are some reasons why not: managerial incompetence lack of managerial experience little experience managing employees and other resources before going into business unbalanced experience insufficient experience in key functional areas, such as marketing, finance, purchasing and production inexperience of the product or service.

5 Importance of management Management is necessary to direct a business towards its goals. A balance must be maintained between the goals of the business, the resources, the employees’ objectives and the interests of the owners, i.e. stakeholder approach. Management is also necessary to keep the organisation in equilibrium with its environment – PEST and SWOT analysis.

6 Definition of management ‘Management’ (from Old French ménagement, ‘the art of conducting, directing’, from Latin manu agere ‘to lead by the hand’) characterises the process of leading and directing all or part of an organisation, often a business, through the deployment and manipulation of resources (human, financial, material, intellectual or intangible).... (Ref: Wikipedia) Click the link below for additional information

7 The most important elements in the management process Planning - setting objectives and determining in advance how objectives will be met. Organising - delegating and coordinating tasks and resources to achieve objectives. Leading - influencing employees to work toward achieving objectives. Control - establishing mechanisms to ascertain whether the tasks have been carried out.

8 The functions of management Planning This determines the mission and goals of the business, including the ways in which the goals are to be attained, and the resources needed for this task. It includes determining the future position of the business, and guidelines or plans on how that position is to be reached.

9 The functions of management Organising Developing a framework or organisational structure to indicate how personnel, equipment and materials are to be employed to attain the predetermined goals. Leading Entails giving orders to the human resources of the business and motivating them to direct their actions to conform with the goals and plans.

10 The functions of management Control Managers should constantly check whether the business is properly on course toward the accomplishment of its goals.

11 Management activities Planning Organising Leading Control

12 Types of management Top management - strategic Middle management - tactical Lower management (supervisors) - operational Marketing management Financial management Operational management Purchasing management Human resources management

13 Management levels Top management President Middle management Marketing managerOperations manager HR managerFinance manager Lower management Advertising supervisor Sales supervisor Product supervisor Training supervisor Finance supervisor Accounts supervisor

14 The management process Planning Organising Leading Control Human resources Financial resources Physical resources Information resources Goals

15 Function of top management Responsible for the business as a whole and for determining its mission and goals. Concerned mainly with long-term planning.

16 Function of middle management Accountable for executing the policies, plans and strategies determined by top management. Responsible for medium- and long-term planning.

17 Function of lower management Responsible for smaller segments of the business. Responsible for the day-to-day activities and tasks of a particular section, short-term planning and implementing the plans of middle management. Guide staff in their own subsections and keep close control over their activities.

18 Functional managers Plan the activities of the marketing department. Organise marketing activities, such as the allocation of tasks so that certain objectives can be attained. Motivate and give orders to marketing staff to perform their duties and thus accomplish the goals of the business.

19 Functional managers Control marketing activities, for example ensuring that marketing objectives are accomplished as planned. In the same way financial management, human resources management, purchasing management and other functional managements plan, organise, lead and control their departments.

20 Important management skills Conceptual skills The mental capacity to view the business and its parts in a holistic manner, i.e. systems theory approach. Interpersonal skills The ability to work with other people in teams (Richard Branson – hands-on employer). Technical skills The ability to use the knowledge or techniques of a particular discipline to attain ends (project management software, i.e. Microsoft Project).

21 Planning Leading ControllingOrganising Conceptual and decision- making skills Technical skills Human and communication skills

22 Monitors Analyses Spokesman Representative figure Leader Relationships Entrepreneur Troubleshooter Allocator of resources Negotiator The role of managers Interpersonal role Informational role Decision-making role

23 Interpersonal role Representative - takes visitors out for business lunch. Leading - training, promotion, firing and motivation. Relationships - internal (staff) and external (suppliers, customers).

24 Informational role Monitor - gathering of information about opportunities and threats. Analyse the data and report meaningful information. Spokesperson in the business.

25 Decision-making role Managers are entrepreneurial - develop new products. Solve problems such as strikes, equipment breakdowns, etc. Allocation of resources in the business. Negotiate goals, performance standards and trade union agreements.

26 Schools of thought on management Existing knowledge about management is derived from a combination of ongoing research by practitioners and researchers. Schools of thought: 1. the classical school 2. the human relations school 3. integrative theory (systems, socio-technical and contingency theories).

27 Classical theorists Focus on the job and management functions to determine the best way to manage in all organisations. F.W. Taylor ( ) c.uk/teaching/ismanage ment/manstyles1f.htm c.uk/teaching/ismanage ment/manstyles1f.htm

28 Scientific management Develop a procedure for each element of a job. Promote job specialisation. Scientifically select, train and develop workers. Plan and schedule work. Establish standard methods and times for tasks. Wage incentives schemes.

29 Scientific management Frank and Lillian Gilbreth ( ) Time and motion studies For more information see: Henry Gant ( ) Method for scheduling work over time For more information see: w/management_history/mgmt_history.htm w/management_history/mgmt_history.htm

30 Henri Fayol ( ) 1.Division of work – work and tasks should be performed by people specialised in the work and similar tasks should be organised as a unit or department. 2.Authority – delegated persons ought to have the right to give orders and expect that they be followed. 3.Discipline – workers should be obedient and respectful of the organisation. 4.Unity of command – employees should receive orders from only one person with authority.

31 Henri Fayol ( ) 5.Subordination of individual interests to the general interest – organisational conflict should be limited by the dominance of one objective. 6.Remuneration – although Fayol provides no guidance on pay, the organisation must recognise the economic value of employees and that their economic interests are important. 7.Centralisation – whether an organisation should be centralised or decentralised depends on factors such as communications and the importance of who should make the decision. 8.Scalar chain – authority in an organisation moves in a continuous chain of command from top to bottom. 9.Unity of direction – the organisation and employees are dedicated to one plan of action or set of objectives.

32 Henri Fayol ( ) 10.Order – everything, people and resources, has a place that it belongs. 11.Equity – fairness is important in management– employee relations. 12.Stability of tenure of personnel – turnover is disruptive; shared experience is important. 13.Initiative – workers are exhorted to be productive and motivated. 14.Esprit de corps – there is a need for harmony and unity within the organisation.

33 Behavioural theory The human relations or behaviourist school came into being because of the failure of the scientific and classical schools to make an adequate study of the human element as an important factor in the effective accomplishment of the goals of a business.

34 Behavioural theory Mayo ( ) Focus changed from the job to people who perform the job Research into social interaction, motivation, patterns of power, organisational design and communications For more information:

35 Systems approach The systems approach considers the business as an integrated system consisting of related systems: decision making in the finance department affects other departments open systems thinking.

36 Socio-technical theory Focus on integrating people and technology. Another approach is Ouchi's theory Z, which was developed during the early 1980s in an attempt to explain decreasing productivity. The method in this approach is to take the best management practices from American and Japanese businesses and integrate them into one.

37 Contingency theory Focus on the best management approach for a given situation. Study the environment and its effects on the organisation and management systems. For more information:

38 Today’s managers Businesses today are exposed to a number of revolutionary forces, for example technological change, global competition, demographic change and trends toward a service society and the information age. Forces like these have changed the playing field on which businesses must compete. In particular, they have dramatically increased the need for businesses to be responsive, flexible and capable of competing in a global market. Click the link below for up-to-date articles on management

39 The future! The average business will be smaller and employ fewer people. The boundaryless business will evolve in which employees do not identify with separate departments but instead interact with whoever they must to get the job done. Employees will be called on to make more and more decisions. Flatter organisations will be the norm. Work will be organised around teams and processes. Competency and knowledge, not titles, will be the basis of power.


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