Presentation on theme: "Child Sexual Exploitation David Scott, Head of Education, RBWM and Co-Chair of the Missing Children/CSE Operational Group Lee Barnham, Detective Inspector,"— Presentation transcript:
Child Sexual Exploitation David Scott, Head of Education, RBWM and Co-Chair of the Missing Children/CSE Operational Group Lee Barnham, Detective Inspector, Protecting Vulnerable People, CSE/Op Safeguard & Referral Centre, Thames Valley Police 9 February 2015
Scope of this presentation Defining child sexual exploitation Grooming & smart phones Missing children and CSE in RBWM The Thames Valley Police three tier response Schools responsibilities What to look out for What to do if you suspect CSE What happens once a referral is made Local data Resources
Definition of Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE) from the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) Sexual exploitation of children and young people under 18 involves exploitative situations, contexts and relationships where young people (or a third person or persons) receive ‘something’ (e.g. food, accommodation, drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, affection, gifts, money) as a result of them performing, and/or another or others performing on them, sexual activities. Note: Organised exploitation varies from spontaneous networking between groups of perpetrators to more serious organised crime where young people are effectively ‘sold’. These activities are described as ‘internal trafficking’ or ‘trafficking for child sexual exploitation’.
Grooming Grooming using the Internet and mobile technology is becoming increasingly common. Child Exploitation and Online Protection (CEOP) found that almost a third of children in their study admitted to having met someone whom they had previously only met online (CEOP 2009). In 2012 there were 1,145 reports relating to incidents of online grooming. 7% of these related to attempts to meet a child offline (CEOP 2013).
Impact of Smart Phones 6 out of 10 (62%) year olds now have a smart phone. Smart phone ownership has increased by 21% among year olds. The built in cameras and online access with a new generation of Apps makes communication with strangers online and sharing images much easier. CEOP knows that instant messaging is a popular method of communication and is used by groomers to approach potential victims. Instant messaging (e.g. Snapchat, Instagram, BBM, Skype, MSN Messenger) was used by offenders to make contact with children in approx ⅓ of reports of grooming in 2012/13. BUT over ⅔ (69%) of parents of year olds with a phone that can be used online do not have mobile phone parental controls in place – compared to 49% of parents who have controls in place for their child’s laptop or tablet.
Missing Children and CSE in RBWM The argument for bringing the missing children/CSE agendas together The dynamic between operational and strategic issues Local arrangements in RBWM Missing Children CSE and Missing Children CSE
Missing and Absent Children TVP introduced a revised protocol in April Missing is a key indicator but must not be relied on alone. Not all CSE victims are reported missing. Not all missing children are at risk of CSE.
Joint Protocol for Missing Children Joint protocol for Thames Valley Police and Children’s Services Authorities LSCB’s Missing Children/Young People & Child Sexual Exploitation Strategy 2015/16 Roles and responsibilities of schools Information sharing – schools’ opportunities to notice small changes
Missing / Absent Changes April 2014 Missing – ‘Anyone whose whereabouts cannot be established and where the circumstances are out of character or the context suggests the person may be the subject of crime or at risk of harm to themselves or another’ Absent – ‘A person not at a place where they are expected or required to be’ Thames Valley Police Absent policy – The following will never be recorded as absent due to the risk and will always be missing: –All children under 14 –All persons under 18 who have a CSE flag, CSE intelligence or named in a Child Abduction warning notice –All known sex offenders Schools should have robust procedures in place to ensure information on missing children is discussed with their Designated Person for Safeguarding and the DPS feels confident to disseminate information both within the school and with children’s social care in order to ensure all episodes of “missing” are recorded and reported to the Police through 101.
Missing Children and CSE structure in RBWM The Windsor and Maidenhead Missing Children/CSE Strategic Group is a sub group of the Local Safeguarding Children Board and reports back regularly to the LSCB. It is co- chaired by: –RBWM Director of Children’s Services – Alison Alexander and –Thames Valley Police Local Commander – Kate Ford The Missing Children/CSE Operational Group meets monthly to consider individual cases of children and young people at risk of CSE and is co-chaired by: –Head of Education, Strategy and Commissioning – David Scott and –TVP Acting Chief Inspector: Windsor and Maidenhead LPA – Emily Roberts Schools can make referrals into the Operational Group by reporting on individual cases through children’s social care. The Co-Chairs can also provide informal advice.
Thames Valley Police 3 Tiers RBWM, Thames Valley Police and partners categorise concerns around child sexual exploitation under three levels. Level 1: Children/young people where there is no current information that they are at risk of CSE but who have previously been linked to CSE and/or are displaying the warning signs. Level 2: Children and young people where there is information that suggests a current risk of CSE but no disclosures or evidence of CSE. Level 3: Children/young people where there has been a disclosure of sexual offences perpetrated against them or where an active investigation is taking place due to corroborated intelligence or evidence regarding CSE.
Description of young person with risk indicators in level 1 Smaller number of risk factors identified or movement from levels 2 or 3. For example: sexualised risk taking behaviours, beginning to truant from school, occasionally going missing, going to known places of concern, early signs of problem drugs or alcohol use. Description of young person with risk factors identified in level 3 Multiple risk factors. For example: entrenched in one or more abusive relationships, contact with known perpetrators, going missing and running away from home regularly, problem alcohol and/or drug use, experience of violence, intimidation and fear. Description of young person with risk factors in level 2 Fewer risk factors or signals (or reduction from level 3). For example: regularly going missing, swapping sex for goods, monies. Truanting regularly from school. Going to places of concern 'HOT SPOTS', involved with vulnerable peers, experiencing violence, intimidation and fear. Developing drug and alcohol use. Sexual Exploitation Risk Assessment (SERA) Model
Key Principles Involved (1) Sexual exploitation includes sexual, physical and emotional abuse, as well as, in some cases, neglect. Children do not make informed choices to enter or remain in sexual exploitation, but do so from coercion, enticement, manipulation or desperation. Children under 16 years of age cannot consent to sexual activity. There is no defence in law to sexual activity with a child under the age of 13. All that needs to be proved is that sexual activity has taken place. Sexually exploited children should be treated as victims of abuse, not as offenders. Children under 16 years of age will always be dealt with as actual or potential victims. Between the ages of 16 and 18, consideration may be given, in very limited circumstances and where all other options have failed, to the use of criminal justice action.
Key Principles Involved (2) Many sexually exploited children have difficulty distinguishing between their own choices around sex and sexuality and the sexual activities they are coerced into. The primary law enforcement effort must be against the coercers and sex abusers, who may be adult, but could also be the child’s peers or young people who are older than the child. Sexually exploited children are children in need of services under the Children Act 1989 and They are also children in need of protection. A multi-agency network or planning meeting/discussion should take place for all children considered at risk of sexual exploitation.
Schools’ Responsibilities Missing Children & Child Sexual Exploitation are part of the Safeguarding responsibilities within schools – see statutory guidance “Keeping children safe in education” DfE, April 2014 & Working Together 2013 Guidance https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/keeping-children-safe-in-education https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/working-together-to-safeguard- children The Designated Person for Safeguarding (may also be known as Designated Person for Child Protection) needs to ensure all staff in the school are aware of CSE and the potential indicators. The Governing Body should be creating a culture where staff are able to challenge over safeguarding concerns through the whistle blowing policy and the “managing allegations against staff” procedure.
Signs and indicators of being sexually exploited: Absence from school. Change in physical appearance. Physical injuries. Receipt of gifts from unknown sources. Two mobile phones. Evidence of sexual bullying and/or vulnerability through the internet and/or social networking sites. Drug or alcohol misuse. Involvement in offending. Missing from home or care. Estranged from their family. Recruiting others into exploitative situations. Poor self esteem or self confidence and/or mental health concerns e.g. self-harm or thoughts of or attempts at suicide. Repeat sexually-transmitted infections, pregnancy and terminations. What to look out for (1)
Typical vulnerabilities: Living in a chaotic or dysfunctional household (including parental substance use, domestic violence, parental mental health issues, parental criminality). History of abuse (including familial child sexual abuse, risk of forced marriage, risk of ‘honour’- based violence, physical and emotional abuse and neglect). Recent bereavement or loss or young carer responsibilities. Gang association either through relatives, peers or intimate relationships. Lacking friends from the same age group. Friends with young people who are sexually exploited. Learning disabilities. Unsure about their sexual orientation or unable to disclose sexual orientation to their families. Living in residential care, a hostel, bed and breakfast accommodation or other temporary accommodation e.g. sofa surfing. What to look out for (2)
What to do if you suspect CSE Talk to your Designated Safeguarding Lead immediately The school’s Designated Person for Safeguarding can make a referral Children’s Social Care, Referral & Assessment: , or Out of hours Emergency Duty Team : Ask for additional advice Missing Children/CSE Group Co-Chairs - David Scott or Emily Roberts
CSE Indicator Tool and what happens Berkshire LSCB Child Protection Procedures CSE Indicator Tool Key details including any disclosure of CSE / abuse Domains – what is known / not known –Health –Behaviours –Grooming –Family and Social –Safety Missing Children/CSE Operational Group –Multi agency / monthly meeting / Tracking / Interventions including disruptive actions
CSE Prevalence Nationally the prevalence of CSE is difficult to ascertain with any accuracy due to: Low levels of reporting by children/young people. Variable levels of awareness and understanding of definitions. Inadequate intelligence gathering and information sharing. Inconsistent recording. Locally in RBWM we have just over one year’s worth of details.
RBWM Local CSE data at levels 1, 2 and 3 Level 1Level 2Level 3Total December 2013 – January 2015 Age profile January Current open cases 16 1 x 13 yrs old 4 x 14 yrs old 6 x 15 yrs old 2 x 16 yrs old 2 x 17 yrs old 1 x 18 yrs old x 13 yrs old 4 x 14 yrs old 4 x 17 yrs old x 14 yrs old 2 x 15 yrs old 3 x 16 yrs old 2 x 17 yrs old x 13 yrs old 11 x 14 yrs old 8 x 15 yrs old 5 x 16 yrs old 8 x 17 yrs old 1 x 18 yrs old 13
Additional Resources “Working Together to Safeguard Children” HM Government, March 2013 https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/working-together-to-safeguard-children “Safeguarding Children & Young People from Sexual Exploitation – Supplementary Guidance to Working Together to Safeguard Children” HM Government, August 2009 https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/safeguarding-children-and-young-people-from-sexual- exploitation-supplementary-guidance “Keeping children safe in education” DfE, April 2014 https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/keeping-children-safe-in-education “What to do if you suspect a child is being sexually exploited” DfE, 2012 https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/what-to-do-if-you-suspect-a-child-is-being-sexually-exploited “School Inspection Handbook” Ofsted, January Ref No https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/school-inspection-handbook “Inspecting safeguarding in maintained schools and academies” Ofsted, January Ref No https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/inspecting-safeguarding-in-maintained-schools-and-academies- briefing-for-section-5-inspections Windsor & Maidenhead LSCB Missing Children & CSE Strategy
In Conclusion Children and young people go missing and child sexual exploitation does exist in RBWM. Schools play a crucial role in spotting the signs. All your staff should be clear on your school’s arrangements and the wider local arrangements. If you have information, share it – it could be the missing piece in the jigsaw.
Questions? A question was raised regarding the recently issued supplementary advice from the DfE on the Childcare Disqualification requirements which was thought to have now been withdrawn. It has since been clarified that the advice sent out to schools still stands and schools should act as soon as possible to implement these requirements.
Case Scenario (1) Meet “Annie” who is a 14 year old girl at your school. She is a moderate achiever with a few issues regarding attendance, late homework and the occasional spell of disruptive behaviour. She is entitled to free school meals. Her form tutor is noticing excited gossip amongst Annie and her friends about Annie’s new boyfriend. Annie is looking noticeably smarter in her appearance and is beginning to wear make up to school. Comments?
Annie’s form tutor is now noticing Annie coming into school with more material possessions e.g. a new phone, make up and a handbag. Her relationship with her mother is deteriorating and there is knowledge of them arguing at the school gates. Annie’s social development is noticeably outpacing that of her peers. Comments?
Annie’s friends tell her form tutor that Annie is getting into a car with older men that they don’t recognise. Comments? One day Annie’s phone rings during lunchtime. She looks worried and leaves school. There are more rumours about her getting into an unknown car and she is absent from the afternoon school session. Comments? The next morning Annie is not present in school. Her mum turns up with a bag of clean clothes as Annie forgot to take them with her the day before to a sleepover at Isabel’s. Isabel tries to cover for Annie but it is clear there was no sleepover. Comments?
Case Scenario (2) Hannah is a 16 year old girl. One Monday morning her form tutor notices: She’s more withdrawn than usual and appears sleepy. She seems estranged from her normal friendship group. Unusually her homework hasn’t been completed. Feedback from friends is that she’s stopped seeing them and has started hanging around with girls in an older year group. Comments?