Presentation on theme: "Putting data at the center of School improvement But, why?"— Presentation transcript:
Putting data at the center of School improvement But, why?
Data Is a set of discrete and objective facts about event On its own, data does not make much sense
Information Data becomes meaningful chunks of information once we have organized and categorized the data, and corrected and condensed it data becomes information by adding value through categorization, calculation, correction and condensation 3
The need of information Information that managers and knowledge workers need for their work More important for their own work than for the enterprise 4
The need of information No one can provide the information that knowledge workers need, except knowledge workers themselves However… few of mangers have made much an effort to decide what they need, and even less, how to organize it 5
They have tended to rely on the producers of data – IT people and accountants – to provide this information for them But the producers of data cannot possibly know what data the users need so that such data can become information 6
So, Only individual knowledge workers can convert data into information and to decide how to organize their information so that it becomes their key to effective action 7
To produce information, start with these two questions: 1. “What information do I owe to the people with whom I work and on whom I spend? And in what form? And in what time frame?” 2. “What information do I need myself? And from whom? And in what form? And in what time frame?” 8
Data Versus Information Data are raw facts about physical phenomena or business transactions Information is data that has been converted into meaningful and useful context for end users Examples: School data is … School information is… 9
Knowledge Versus Wisdom Knowledge is a clear and certain perception of something; the act, fact, or state of understanding. Knowledge involves both knowing how, which is generally more tacit knowledge, and knowing about, which is more explicit knowledge (Webster, 1961;Grant, 1996). Wisdom is the user’s ability to make the best and most proper use of knowledge in establishing the basis for decision making and for actually making the decision to achieve the desired goals. It involves exercising wise judgments between right or wrong and good or bad; considering all pertinent factors and their relationships; and being consistent with the universal laws (Mohamad Fauzan Noordin)
Awash with data Education, like many other fields, is awash with data. Districts and states or provinces generate huge amounts of data, and many maintain data system that offer a wealth of potential data about schools from test results to dropout statistics, attendance figures, streaming, teacher credentials, student demographics, and so on.
Data is a policy lever Accountability and data are at the heart of contemporary reform efforts worldwide. Accountability has become the watchword of education, with data holding a central place in the current wave of large-scale reform. Policy makers are demanding that schools focus on achieving high standards for all students, and they are requiring evidence of progress from schools that is conceived of explicitly in a language of data (Fullan)
Educators’ skepticism about data – many school leaders find themselves caught in a “data dilemma”. They mistrust data, they fear data, and many do not have the skills to use data wisely and effectively
Mistrust of data Educators have great confidence in the tacit knowledge that they bring to their work (i.e., personal knowledge embedded in individual experience that involves intangible factors such as personal beliefs, perspectives, and value systems)
Fear of data and evaluation Educators have used data in the form of test scores, marks, and grades as the justification for evaluative judgments about students. Evaluation is pervasive in schools, but educators are the evaluators rather than the evaluated.
Fear of data and evaluation Schools have operated on a performance orientation where success is defined in terms of recognition and high scores, and errors are unacceptable. Mistakes are to be avoided, and admission of a mistake is regarded as a weakness. Data, in this context are punitive or rewarding but not particularly helpful.
Lack of training For many educators, data are synonymous with statistics. Teachers and administrators need not, indeed should not, be expected to be experts in statistics, rather, they need targeted training that:
Lack of training (continue) 1. Places the emphasis on applications and real- world data rather than mathematical theory 2. Uses methods that allow practitioners to focus on discovery 3. Encourages a shift from calculation to interpretation 4. Make it easier to avoid the implication that statistical analysis is strictly a matter of finding the “one” right answer
Lack of training (continue) 5. Provides a dynamic process for experimenting and learning from actual data 6. Uses data to uncover patterns and to generate hypotheses 7. Endorses the need to use better graphical displays and verbal statements for communication
Needing to know Data are not “out there”. They are, and should be, an important part of an ongoing process of analysis, insights, new learning, and changes in practice in all schools and districts. Data provide tools for the investigation necessary to plan appropriate and improvement strategies. Synthesizing and organizing data in different ways stimulates reflection and conjecture about the nature of the problem under consideration.
Needing to know
Thinking differently about data Once the schools have the necessary data, educators will be in a position to diagnose areas of strength and areas in need of improvement. They will then adjust structures and practices in ways that will impact positively Thus, the capacity requirement is that educators (should) know how to use data in order to make the necessary consequent decisions For ‘real’ change or ‘conceptual’ change?
A data literate leader: Thinks about purpose(s)- different data for different purpose Recognizes sound and unsound data-to ascertain the quality of the data Is knowledgeable about statistical and measurement concepts Recognizes other kinds of data Makes interpretation paramount Pays attention to reporting and to audience
The basic problem is not technology but mentality - Drucker
Accountability The conversation about what the information means and how it fits with everything else that we know and about how to use it to make positive change – Earl & LeMahieu (1997)
The role of data
Discussion in group What is the role of Data
Discover Issues Reveal issues and problem that may otherwise remain hidden. Ascertain the needs of students, educators, parents, and other community members. Ensure that no students fall through the cracks. Identify grade-level and schoolwide strengths and weaknesses.
Diagnose Situations Understand the root causes problems. Comprehend why some students are not performing well. Determine eligibility for special programs. Target specific areas for improvement. Provide criteria for focusing on high priority goals.
Forecast Future Conditions Predict the needs of future students, educators, parents, and community members. Suggest possible local, regional, state, or national trends that will affect the school and the programs offered. Surmise types of programs required. Infer types of expertise needed.
Improve Policy and Practice Reform teaching and learning. Enhance instruction and assessment. Guide curriculum development, revision, and alignment. Build a culture of inquiry and continuous improvement. Guide the allocation of resources. Avoid quick fixes and one-size-fits-all solutions.
Evaluate Effectiveness Understand and describe high-quality performance. Provide feedback to students, teachers, and administrators about their performance. Measure program effectiveness. Identify practices that produce desired results. Convince stakeholders of the need for change. Highlight successes.
Promote Accountability Monitor and document progress towards achieving goals. Inform internal and external stakeholders of progress. Confirm or discredit assumptions about students and school practices. Develop meaningful responses to criticism. Meet state and federal reporting requirements. Ensure that all personnel are focused on student learning.