2 Learning ObjectivesThis Chapter would enable you to understand:Bases of AccountingCash BasisAccrual Basis
3 IntroductionThe most significant function of accounting is to determine profit earned or loss incurred by a business during an accounting period.Profit earned or loss incurred by the business can be determined by followingCash Basis of Accounting orAccrual or Mercantile Basis of Accounting.
4 Cash Basis of Accounting Cash basis of accounting is a system in which transactions are recorded only when cash is received or paid, i.e., entry is not recorded when a payment or receipt is merely due.It means, revenue is recognised only on receipt of cash. Likewise, expenses are recorded as incurred only when they have been paid.The difference between the total incomes and total expenses represents Profit or Loss of a concern for a particular accounting period.
5 Cash Basis of Accounting Thus, when Cash Basis of Accounting is followed, outstanding expenses, prepaid expenses, income received in advance and accrued incomes are not considered.Receipts and Payments Account is prepared in case of Not-For-Profit Organisations, such as charitable institutions, clubs and schools, is an example of accounting on cash basis.
6 Cash Basis of Accounting DefinitionsOutstanding Expenses are those expenses which have become due during the accounting period but which have not yet been paid.Prepaid Expenses are those expenses which have been paid in advance.Accrued Income is an income which has been earned during the accounting period but has not yet become due and, therefore, not received.in the current year.Income Received in Advance is an income which has been received before it has been earned, i.e., income received for goods and services before the goods have been sold or services have been rendered.
7 Cash Basis of Accounting Advantages:(i) It is very simple as adjustment entries are not required.(ii) This approach is more objective as very few estimates and judgments are required.(iii) Cash basis of accounting is suitable for those enterprises where most of the transactions are on cash basis.
8 Cash Basis of Accounting Disadvantages:(i) It does not give a true and fair view of the profit or loss and the financial position of an enterprise because it ignores outstanding expenses, prepaid expenses, accrued income and income received in advance.(ii) It does not follow the concept of matching principle of accounting.(iii) It does not distinguish between capital and revenue items and, as aresult, there is no consistency in the profits for the two comparable years.
9 Cash Basis of Accounting Illustration: During the financial year , Ashok had cash sales of Rs. 3,90,000 and credit sales of Rs. 1,60,000.His expenses for the year were Rs. 2,70,000 out of which Rs. 80,000 is still to be paid.Find out Ashok's income for following the Cash Basis of Accounting.
10 Cash Basis of Accounting Solution: Rs.Note: Credit sales and outstanding expenses will not be considered under Cash Basis of Accounting.Revenues (inflow of cash, i.e., cash sales)3,90,000Less: Expenses (outflow of cash) Rs. 2.70,000 – Rs. (80,000)1,90,000Net Income2,00,000
11 Accrual Basis of Accounting Under the Accrual Basis of Accounting, unlike the Cash Basis of Accounting, income is recorded as income when it is earned or accrued.For example, credit sale is recognised as sale irrespective of the fact whether cash has been received or not.Similarly, if an expense has been incurred but payment has not been made, it will be recorded as an expense.For example, rent for the month of March, 2010 has not been paid. It will still be recorded as an expense because it has become due.
12 Accrual Basis of Accounting Accrual Basis of Accounting is based on the concept of realisation and expiration and follows two basic accounting principles;Revenue Recognition andMatching Principle
13 Accrual Basis of Accounting Under the Accrual Basis of Accounting, revenue is recognised for the period and its related expenses are matched with the revenue. ThereforeNet Income for the period is the result of difference between total revenue for the period less related (Matched) expenses incurred in generating the revenue.If the difference is negative, it is Loss for the period.
14 Accrual Basis of Accounting Advantages:(i) It is more scientific compared to Cash Basis of Accounting and hence is preferred by accountants.(ii) It shows a complete picture of financial transactions of the business as it takes into account the effect of all the transactions related to a period as well as adjustments like outstanding expenses, prepaid expenses, accrued income and income received in advance.(iii) It discloses correct profit or loss for a particular period and also exhibits true financial position of the business on a particular day.(iv) It reflects true profit or loss during the accounting period and, therefore, has wide acceptability. This system is followed by most of the industrial and commercial enterprises.
15 Accrual Basis of Accounting Disadvantages:(i) This system is not as simple as Cash Basis of Accounting.(ii) The accounting process is too elaborate.(iii) A quick appraisal of the profit and loss is not possible because many adjustments are required to ascertain the true financial position of the business.
16 Accrual Basis of Accounting Illustration: During the financial year , Ashok had cash sales of Rs. 3,90,000 and credit sales of Rs. 1,60,000.His expenses for the year were Rs. 2,70,000 out of which Rs. 80,000 is still to be paid.Find out Ashok's income for following the Accrual Basis of Accounting.
17 Accrual Basis of Accounting Solution:Note: Rs. 80,000 expenses still to be paid belong to this year and hence are to be charged to the revenue of this year. Similarly, credit sales of Rs. 1,60,000 are taken in the year in which sales transaction is done.Total Sales = Cash Sales (Rs. 3,90,000) + Credit Sales (Rs. 1,60,000)5,50,000Less: Total Expenses for the Year2,70,000Net Income2,80,000
18 Difference between Accrual Basis and Cash Basis Accrual Basis of AccountingCash Basis of Accounting1. Recording of TransactionsBoth cash and credit transactions arerecorded.Cash transactions are recorded.2. Prepaid/OutstandingExpenses Accrued Income/IncomeReceived in AdvancePrepaid and outstanding expenses are accounted for in the Profit and Loss Account.Accrued Income and income received inadvance are accounted and shown inthe Balance Sheet.Prepaid and outstanding expenses are notadjusted. Similarly, accrued income andincome received in advance are notadjusted.
19 Difference between Accrual Basis and Cash Basis 3. Profit or LossCorrect profit or loss is ascertained because it records both cash and credit transactions.Correct profit or loss is not ascertained because it records only cash transactions.4. Technical KnowledgeThe Accrual Basis of Accounting requires technical knowledge as many adjustments for various items like prepaid expenses, outstanding expenses, capital item and revenue items are required to be made.It does not require much of technicalknowledge as is required for Accrual Basis of Accounting.5. Legal PositionAccrual Basis of Accounting is recognised by the Companies Act, 1956.Cash Basis of Accounting is not recognised by the Companies Act, 1956.
20 Difference between Accrual Basis and Cash Basis 6. AcceptabilityAccrual Basis of Accounting is more acceptable in business as it reveals correct income and expense besides assets and liabilities.Cash Basis of Accounting is not acceptable in business as it does not reveal the required information.7. ReliabilityAccrual Basis of Accounting is more reliable as it records both cash and credit transactions and thus reveals correct profit or loss besides assets and liabilities.Cash Basis of Accounting is less reliable as it records only cash transactions and as a result does not reveal correct profit or loss and also assets and liabilities.8. SuitabilityAccrual Basis of Accounting is suitable for businesses as it requires information that is complex. It can be made available by Accrual Basis of Accounting.Cash Basis of Accounting is suitable for Not- for-profit Organisations and Professionals such as chartered accountants, lawyers, etc., since they require comparatively less information.