Presentation on theme: "Evidence-based practice - what does this mean to you?"— Presentation transcript:
1Evidence-based practice - what does this mean to you?
2Evidence-based Practice “It is hard to conceive of a less scientific enterprise among human endeavours. Virtuallyanything that could be thought up for treatment was tried out at one time or another, and,once tried, lasted decades or even centuries before being given up. It was, in retrospect,the most frivolous and irresponsible kind of experimentation, based on nothing but trial anderror, and usually resulting in precisely that sequence” (p.159)The medical profession before the drive for evidence-based practice(Thomas, 1979, p.159)“The key question is whether teaching can shift from an immature to a matureprofession, from opinions to evidence, from subjective judgements and personal contact tocritique of judgements “(Hattie, 2009, p.259)
3Is Evidence-based practice possible for Teaching? “…over the past 3 decades, we have amassed enough research andtheory about learning to derive a truly research based-model ofInstruction”(Marzano, 1992, p.2)“There are systematic and principled aspects of effective teaching,and there is a base of verifiable evidence of knowledge that supportsthat work in the sense that it is like engineering or medicine”(Darling-Hammond & Bransford, 2006, p.12)“We have a rich educational research base, but rarely is it used by teachers, and rarely does it lead to policy changes that affect the nature of teaching”(Hattie, 2009, p.2)
4(Martin, R, 2009, The Design of Business, p.12) The Challenge for Evidence-based teaching: Moving Teaching from Mystery to Heuristics“Heuristics represent an incomplete yet distinctly advanced understandingof what was previously a mystery. But that understanding is unequallydistributed. Some people remain stuck in the world of mystery, while othersmaster its heuristics. The beauty of heuristics is that they guide us toward asolution by way of organized exploration of possibilities.”(Martin, R, 2009, The Design of Business, p.12)Another sneaky question for you – Where are you now?
5Some Pioneers in the Field Bransford, J. et al., (1999), Brain, Mind, Experience & School. National Academy Press: Washington, DC.Marzano, R. (2007), The Art and Science of Teaching: A Comprehensive Framework for Effective Instruction. ASCD.Mayer, R.E. & Alexander, P. A., (2010), Handbook of Research on Learning and Instruction. Routledge: London.Petty, G., (2009), Evidence-Based Teaching: A Practical Approach. Nelson Thornes: Cheltenham.Hattie, J., (2009), Visible Learning. Routledge: New York.Hattie, J., (2012), Visible Learning For Teachers: Maximizing Impact On Learning. Routledge: London.Hattie, J. & Yates, G. C. R., (2014), Visible learning and the Science of How we Learn. Routledge: New York.
6A Revolution in Teaching “Teaching is about to embark on a revolution, and like medicine, abandon bothcustom and practice, and fashions and fads, to become evidence-based”Half a million experiments in real classrooms have uncovered the teaching methodsthat work best. These can improve students’ attainment by two grades comparedto conventional practice.The fifty or more methods – some old, some new:can each raise pass rates by 20% to 30%are creative, challenging, and greatly enjoyed by studentsrequire the learner to do more in class …. and the teacher less!equip students for progression, by “teaching intelligence”.(Geoff Petty, Evidence-based Teaching)
7Big Method effects on Student Attainment from Hattie’s meta-analysis (1) No.InfluenceMean effect size2FeedbackStudents getting feedback on their work from the teacher or from themselves (self-assessment or from peers or some other sources.Note: some feedback has more effect than others. For example, peer assessment is 0.63 and self-assessment is 0.540.813Whole-class interactive teaching (direct instruction)A specific approach to active learning in class, which is highly teacher led, but very active for students. This involves summaries reviews and a range of active learning methods, including questioning4Strategy trainingExplicit teaching of subject-specific and general study and thinking skills, integrated into the curriculum0.8011Cooperative learningSpecific teaching methods such as jigsaw that give students responsibility for learning and teaching each other0.5912Challenging goals for studentsGiving students a summary in advance and a purpose for the learning
8Big Method effects on Student Attainment from Hattie’s meta-analysis (2) No.InfluenceMean effect size14Mastery learningStudents must work (tested and re-tested) until they achieve the pass mark0.5516Creativity ProgrammesTeaching creative thinking0.5220Study SkillsTeaching students useful study skills without integrating it into the curriculum0.4927Advance OrganizersGiving students a summary in advance and a purpose for the learning0.4628Concept Mapping0.4567Problem-based learningGiving students a problem to solve that requires them to teach themselves0.06
9What does an Effect Size look like in terms of student attainment? As a baseline an effect size of 1.0 standard deviation is massive and is typically associated with:Advancing the learner’s achievement by one yearImproving the rate of learning by 50%A two grade leap in GCSE gradesEffect size is a way to measuring the effectiveness of a particular intervention to ascertain a measure of both the improvement (gain) in learner achievement for a group of learners AND the variation of student performances expressed on a standardised scale. By taking into account both improvement and variation it provides information about which interventions are worth havingNOTE: For students moving from one year to the next, the average effect sizeacross all students is Hence, effect sizes above 4.0 are of particular interest.
10Some important considerations about Effect Sizes As Hattie notes:“…some effect sizes are ‘Russian dolls’ containing more than one strategy. For example, ‘Feedback’ requires that the student has been given a goal, and completed an activity for which the feedback is to be given; ‘whole-class interactive teaching’ is a strategy that includes ‘advance organisers’ and feedback and reviews” (p.62)It is also important to balance effect size with level of difficulty of interventions. For example, providing ‘advance organizers’, which are summaries in advance of the teaching, has an effect size of 0.46, which is pretty average. However, they only take 3 minutes at the beginning of the lesson, and potentially offer almost a grade improvement in terms of student’s achievement.Furthermore, the effect size depends on how effectively you implement the strategy, as you would expect
11Hattie and Beyond: Essential Questions How do effective methods produce positive impacts on the learning process?What are the key factors and core principles of learning that impact learner attainment (Model of Learning)?How might teaching professionals use this knowledge thoughtfully in their practice (e.g., designing effective instructional strategies) to enhance student learning and attainment?What are the implications for the professional development of teachers?
12Activity: Select one of Hattie’s high effect size methods and explain how it works in terms of how humans learns
13Effective Teaching – and Learning - requires Good Attention “It’s biologically impossible to learn anything that you’re not paying attention to;the attentional mechanism drives the whole learning and memory process”(Sylwester, 1998, p.6)“The shape and content of life depends on how attention has been used….Attention is the most important tool in the task of improving the qualityof experience”(Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, p.33)Ask Michelle Pfeiffer
14Interest and perceived value initiate and drive the learning process “There can be no mental development without interest. Interest is the sine qua non for attention and apprehension. You may endeavour to excite interest by means of birch rods, or you may coax it by the incitement of pleasurable activity. But without interest there will be no progress”(Whitehead, 1967, p.37)
15Importance of challenge “Succeeding at something that you thought was difficult is the surest way in which to enhance self-efficacy and self-concept as a learner”(Hattie, 2012, p.58)“Educating students to have high, challenging, appropriate expectations is among the most powerful influence in enhancing student achievement”(Hattie, 2012, p.60)
16Beliefs can positively (or negatively) influence the learning process I belief, through effort,a top grade is possibleI’m not smart and its all blur, lah,and I’ll fail“If you think you can or think you can’t, you’re right”(Henry Ford)“We forget that beliefs are no more than perceptions, usually with a limited sell by date, yet we act as though they were concrete realities”(Adler, 1996, p.145)
17Attribution Theory: Mindsets Carol Dweck) Fixed Mindset(Intelligence is static )Growth Mindset(Intelligence can be developed)Leads to a desire to look smart and therefore a tendency to:Avoid challengesGet defensive and give up when faced with obstaclesSee effort as something less able people need, and not for the smartIgnore useful negative feedbackFeel threatened by the success of othersLeads to a desire to learn and therefore a tendency to:Embrace challengesPersist in the face of setbacksSee effort as the path to masteryLearn from criticismFind Lessons and inspiration in the success of othersAs a result, they may plateau earlyand achieve less than their full potentialAs a result, they reach ever-higherlevels of achievement“There are differences in attainment gains relating to whether teachers believe thatachievement is difficult to change because it is fixed and innate, compared to teachers whobelieve that attainment is changeable (the latter leading to higher gains)”(Hattie, 2012, p.92)
18Impact of Motivation & Beliefs on learning Marzano (1988) categorized teaching strategies and other ‘interventions’ depending on whether they activated in the student:The self-system – A set of beliefs the student holds about his or her capabilities, the meaning and value of what they have been asked to do, along with the likelihood of successThe meta-cognitive system – Students setting themselves goals, monitoring their progress towards these goals and adapting t difficultiesThe cognitive system – This is the system that reasons, and thinks in other ways with the information at its disposal, to achieve the desired goals.He found that activating the self-system had greatest effect, the metacognitive system the next most effect, and the cognitive system least, though it is still substantial. Interestingly, he argued it is the self-system that activates the meta-cognitive system, which actives the cognitive system, which creates learning.(Marzano – A Theory-Based Meta-Analysis of Research on Instruction)
19Implications of Marzano’s research Highlights the importance of the teachers role in motivating students by encouraging them to see the value of what they are about to learn, and to believe in their own capacity to learn it.“..if something can be learned, it can be learned ina motivating manner”(p.23)“..every instructional plan also needs to be a motivational plan” (p.24)(Wlodkowski, R. J., 1999, Enhancing Adult Motivation to Learn)
20Core Principle 1: Motivational strategies are incorporated into the design of learning experiences Effect size: However, this is a Russian Doll (Meta-principle) as it runs across a range of method usesInstructional strategies must facilitate:Meeting fundamental universal needs (e.g., Mastery, Autonomy, Relatedness, Purpose)Making learning interesting for the particular learner group (e.g., meaningful, sufficiently challenging, differentiated)Reframing limiting beliefs (e.g., promote a Growth Mindset) where necessary"People often say that motivation doesn't last. Well, neither does bathing - that's why we recommend it daily“(Zig Zagler)
21Effective Learning needs Structure students must be aware of the purpose, key points and principles in what they are learning“It is indisputable that, from the students’ perspective, clear standards and goals are a vitally important element of an effective educational experience. Lack of clarity on these points is almost always associated with negative evaluations, learning difficulties and poor performance”(Ramsden (1992, p.127)“Teachers are successful to the degree that they can move students from single tomultiple ideas then relate and extend these ideas such that learners construct andreconstruct knowledge and ideas. It is not the knowledge or ideas, but the learner’sconstruction of the knowledge and ideas that is critical. Increases in student learningfollows a reconceptualization as well as an acquisition of information”(Hattie, 2009, p.37)
22Importance of Clear Outcomes The Chim (Cheem) version ‘Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here, said Alice?’‘That depends a good deal on where you want to get to, said the cat’‘I don’t much care where…’ said Alice‘Then it doesn’t matter which way you go,’ said the cat.(Adapted from Alice in Wonderland, Lewis Carroll)“The ability to know what you want is the single most important skill in managing your life”(McDermott, 1998)
23Core Principle 2: Learning goals, objectives and proficiency expectations are clearly visible to learnersEffect Sizes: Challenging Goals 0.56 (Hattie); Specifying Goals, 0.97 (Marzano)Learning design must incorporate:Clearly communicating goals, objectives and performance standards through real world examplesEnsuring goals are challenging for the learner group (e.g., achievable with effort)Explicit teaching of learning intentions and success criteria to ensure learners understanding of what they look like, sound like and feel like
24Core Principle 3: Learners prior knowledge is activated and connected to new learning Effect sizes: Improving student engagement through opportunities to respond, 0.60; Self-verbalization/self-questioning, 0.64; Remediation Feedback, 0.65Prior knowledge is the lens through which students will perceive and react to new information provided in a learning event.“All new knowledge gains its form and meaning through its connection with pre-existing knowledge and its influence on the organization and reorganization of prior knowledge” (Shulman 1991, p.10)Ausubel (1978) went as far as arguing that: “If I had to reduce all of educational psychology to just one principle, I would say this: the most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. Ascertain this and teach him (sic) accordingly”(p.163)
25(Chickering & Gamson, 1987, p.3) Core principle 4: Learning is enhanced through multiple methods and presentation modes that engage the range of sensesAnother Russian Doll principle as it runs across a range of method uses“…it is desirable to have multiple ways of teaching and there is no need to classify students into different ‘intelligences”(Hattie, 2012, p.91)“Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just by sitting in class listening to teachers, memorizing pre-packaged assignments, and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, relate it to past experiences, apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves”(Chickering & Gamson, 1987, p.3)
26Another bit of Educational Jurassic Park – finally put to bed “One of the more fruitless pursuits is labelling students with ‘learning styles’. This modern fad for learning styles, not to be confused with the more worthwhile notion of multiple learning strategies, assumes that different students have differing preferences for particular ways of learning (Pashler, McDaniel, Rohrer, & Bjork, 2009; Riener & Willingham, 2010).Often, the claim is that when teaching is aligned with the preferred or dominant learning style (for example, auditory, visual, tactile, or kinesthetic) then achievement is enhanced. While there can be many advantages by teaching content using many different methods (visual, spoken, movement), this must not be confused with thinking that students have differential strengths in thinking in these styles” (p89)
27Core Principal 5: Content is organized around key concepts and principles that are fundamental to understanding the structure of a subjectEffect sizes: Direct instruction, 0.59; Concept mapping, 0.60; Advanced organizers, 0.46Understanding involves making personal meaning – seeing relations between constructs and building new learning on old; moving from concrete to abstract – reliant on both acquiring knowledge bases and organizing them through good thinkingKnowledge is increasing exponentially and we maybe living in a rapidly changing volatile world – butour brains are the same as 10,000 years ago.Managing cognitive load is now becoming a so-called21ist century skill.
28Core Principle 6: Good thinking promotes the building of understanding Effect size: Metacognitive strategies; 0.69; Creativity programmes, 0.65:Questioning, 4.1; Teaching learning strategies, 0.62; Teaching learning strategies,0.63“The best thing we can do, from the point of view of the brain and learning,is to teach our learners how to think”(Jenson, 1996, p.163)“Thought is the key to knowledge. Knowledge isdiscovered by thinking, analyzed by thinking,organized by thinking, transformed by thinking,assessed by thinking, and, most importantly,acquired by thinking”(Paul, 1993 vii)Thinking is the cognitive process that builds Understanding
29Metacognitive Strategies enhance learning capability Metacognition refers to the awareness of, and ability to monitor and control, one’s cognitive and affective processing in order to enhance learningMetacognition plays a central role in learning by helping to guide the learner’s cognitive processing of the to-be-learned materialGood metacognitive capability is the basis of becoming a self-regulated learner, which is a major goal of educationExplicitly teaching students to be more metacognitive in their problem-solving enhances their performance and success rates (e.g., Bransford, Hattie)Note: Learning strategies can involve physical tools such as mind-mapping, etc., but it’s the internal cognitive processes inside our heads – covert strategies – that really makes the difference in terms of quality of learning
30Core Principle 7: Learning Design utilizes the working of memory systems Sensory MemorySightHearingTouchSmellTasteENVIROMTWorking MemoryExecutive Organizing FunctionLimited Capacity 5-9 bits of informationIntegrating –Conscious,Subconscious&UnconsciousLong –Term MemoryInfinite CapacityForgettingAnother Russian Doll principle: Our Memory Systems are fundamental to all learning – how these are managed affects the rate and quality of learning
31Working MemoryWhile human brains have potentially unlimited storage capacity by means of long term memory, all new learning has to firstly pass through working memory, which has a limited capacity of around 7 ± 2 bits of information. This poses problems of Cognitive Load for learning , but as Clark & Lyons (2004) point out:“…it is in working memory that active mental work, including learning, takes place. Working memory is the site of conscious thought and processing” (p.48)
32Long Term MemoryLong term memory, once viewed as an inert dumping ground, is crucial for learning and the development of expertise. For example, Kircher et al (2006) point out:“...long term memory is now viewed as the central dominant structure of human cognition. Everything we see, hear and think about is critically dependent on and influenced by our long-term memory” (pp.3-4)Research clearly shows that a major factor that differentiates experts from novices is that expert problem-solvers are able to draw on the vast knowledge bases in their long-term memory and quickly select the best approach and procedures for solving a given problem As Kircher et al allude:“We are skillful in an area because our long-term memory contains huge amounts of information concerning that area. That information permits us to quickly recognize the characteristics of a situation and indicates to us, often unconsciously, what to do and how to do it” (p.4)
33Minimize Forgetting through Review: Utilizing the working of WM & LTM 100%Probability of recallRecall without reviewsRecall with reviews at intervalsnext next nextminutes day day weekwith continuous periodic reviews
34Some Pedagogic Implications of the working of memory Systems Lessons should:be chunked into segments to avoid/reduce cognitive overloadInclude activities to create cognitive engagement (Good Thinking)build in review time on the Content (e.g., Key Concepts, Principles)- to ensure effective transfer from Working Memory toLong-term memory (Memory Systems). Seems like a Russian DollTasks involving thinking help to build better constructs (understanding of concepts)as students get more familiar with the material and start to chunk bits of it togetherthemselves. However, encouraging to them to notice the constituent parts and theirrelations – Making Thinking Visible – is usefulMemory is strengthened by repetition rather than total time, hence recall is crucialChunked material, especially, when well established in LTM, takes less space in WM,enabling more space to concentrate on the thinking process rather than memorization
35Graphic Organisers and other visual representations (effect size 1 Graphic Organisers and other visual representations (effect size 1.2 to 1.3)How Visual representations work:Diagrams cannot contain all the details – so the learner is forced to isolate the key points and their relations – which imposes a structure on the information. This helps to see ‘the wood from the trees’Recall is almost always visually triggered; hence visual representation acts as a cue triggering the full memoryOnly structured information can go in Long term memory, so this helps the transmission from WM to LTM and subsequent recallFacilitates the Whole –Part –Whole strategy in helping to make connections (e.g., relating information)Related information is quite high up in the SOLO taxonomy – hence fostering and building a deep understanding of the topic
36WPW Learning ModelThe basic WPW Learning Model can be depicted as follows:Whole Part Learning SegmentsSegment # 1Segment # 2Segment # 3Segment # 4Segment # 5The ‘first whole’ creates an organizational framework for new contentThe supporting component elements - ‘parts’ - are then systematically developedThe ‘second whole’ links these parts together to foster understanding
37SOLO Taxonomy: some Key Points SOLO models how learning develops and the qualitative aspects of this development.When we learn a new topic we start near the bottom of the taxonomy (however bright we are),and as our learning improves we climb the taxonomy, adding detail but also relations.SOLO can be used to specify acceptable or unacceptable levels of performance in suitabletasks and subject areas.Experts structure their understanding around principles rather than around topics“Expertise is not just knowing more. Experts structure or organise their knowledge aroundDeep subject principles, and understand the conditions when these principles apply.Their memory is indexed so that relevant knowledge can be retrieved. When solvinga problem they look to see what conditions apply, and so retrieve all the information thatis relevant to that task. They don’t need to search the whole of their permanent memory.That is, they can transfer their knowledge, which makes it fully ‘functional’”(Bransford, 2000, p.24)Hence the importance of teaching core principles that underpin the structure of a topic –this enables the learner to transfer their learning to entirely new contexts.
38SOLO: Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome Developmental Base with minimal ageSOLO Description1Capacity2Relating Operation3Consistency & ClosureFormal Operations(16+ years)ExtendedAbstractMaximal: cue + relevant data +Interrelations +hypothesesDeduction and induction. Can generalize to situations not experiencedInconsistencies resolved. No felt need to give closed decisions – conclusions held open, or qualified to allowLogically possible alternatives.Concrete Generalization(13-15 years)RelationalHigh: cue +Relevant data +interrelationsInduction. Can generalize within given or experienced context using related aspectsNo inconsistency within the given system, but since closure is unique so inconsistencies may occur when he goes outside the systemMiddle Concrete(10-12 years)MultistructuralMedium: cue +Isolated relevant dataCan “generalize” only in terms of a few limited and independent aspects. Often inconsistent and variable conclusions made
39Core Principle 8: The development of expertise requires deliberate practice Effect sizes: Spaced and mass practice, 0.71; Challenging goals, 0.52; Remediation feedback, 0.65; Mastery learning, 0.50Deliberate Practice is characterized by several elements:Activity specifically designed to improve performance, often with a teacher’s helpIt can be repeated a lot (needs to be)Feedback on results is continually availableHighly demanding mentally (whether a physical or mental task)It isn’t much fun (in the main, but may be for some)Typically requires a teachers help – one who can see more objectively what needs to be improved and howBuilt around the principle of stretching the individual beyond existing performance level – relates to challenging but achievable goals (must be as clearly defined as possible)“If the activities that lead to greatness were easy and fun, then everybody would do them, and they would not distinguish the best from the rest” (Colvin, 2008, p.72)
40How Deliberate Practice Works Great performers possess large, highly developed, intricate mental models of the domain, enabling them to:Make sense of new knowledge more effectively and efficiently as they have vast stores of organized knowledge in LTM,Distinguish relevant information from irrelevant informationPredict what will happen next in a domain specific situation“The best performers observe themselves closely… monitor what is happening in their own minds, and ask how its going. Researchers call this metacognition …top performers do this more systematically than others do; it’s an established part of their routine” (p.118)It enable great performers to perceive more, to know more and to remember more than most people. The effects go beyond that:Many years of intensive deliberate practice changes the body and the brain – concept of neuroplasticity
41The impact of assessment in student learning It is now clearly recognized that assessment is not simply a means to measure learning that has already occurred, but is a major facilitator in the learning process itself. As Boud (1988) illustrated:“There have been a number of notable studies over the years which havedemonstrated that assessment methods and requirements probably havea greater influence on how and what students learn than any other singlefactor. This influence may well be of greater significance than the impactof teaching or learning materials” (p.35)
42Feedback is so important in the learning process There is much of merit in the learning stakes for clear, concise and timely feedback:clarifying what good performance is (e.g. goals, criteria, standards)identifying gaps in performance and specific learning needsclosing the gap between current and desired performancepositive beliefs and self-esteemthe development of self-assessment in learningappropriate modification of instructional strategies“…all students should be educated in ways that develop their capability to assess their own learning”(Hattie, 2012, p.141)
43Core Principle 9: Assessment is integrated into the learning design to provide quality feedback Effect sizes: Feedback between teachers and students, 0.75;Peer assessment, 0.63; Self-assessment, 0.54; Providing formative evaluationto teachers, 0.90Assessment is not separate from the instructionalprocess but an integral part of it.As Perkins (1992) suggests, once considered thoughtfully:“Teaching, learning, and assessment mergeinto one seamless enterprise” (p.176)
44“Rapport is the ultimate tool for getting results with other people” Core principle 10: A Psychological Climate is created which is success orientated and funEffect sizes: Teacher-student relationships, 0.72; Class environment, 0.56.Also, this is a Russian Doll, as it fosters the building of Rapport.“Rapport is the ultimate tool for getting results with other people”(Robbins, 2001, p.231)The importance of fostering the psychological climate has been fully documented by Jensen (1996):“Learners in positive, joyful environments are likely to experience better learning, memory and feelings of self-esteem” (p.98)Far from limiting the learning experience, humour is now seen to have many positive impacts, such as:Refreshing the brainCreating mental images that retain learningReinforcing desired behaviour and makes classroom management easierDeveloping positive attitudesPromoting creativityContributing to the enjoyment of teaching
45How to Build Good Rapport with students Frederickson (1980) suggested that Positive Emotions, in addition to making people feel good and improving their subjective life experiences, have the potential to broaden people’s way of thinking and help them build physical, intellectual and social resources. There are many specific ways to promote this:looking directly at students, showing empathic listening, good observation of what’s going on (sensory acuity), using smile when appropriate, supporting encouraging language and calibrated body language, etc.Asking students questions about their interests, concerns with learning and acting on the information received over timeHaving a sense of humour and encouraging it from students – seeing the ‘funny side’ in situations of adversity on occasions, but keeping them moving to productive outcomesPraising effort and a ‘can do’ attitude, being up-beat about what’s going on in the classroomIt is our behaviour that directly connects to results, even though ourthinking may be responsible for generating the behaviour”(Molden, 2001, p.59)
46Core Principles – How they work While each principle focuses attention on a key area relating toeffective pedagogy, they are mutually supporting, interdependent andpotentially highly synergetic.As Stigler & Hiebert (1999) highlight:‘‘Teaching is a system. It is not a loose mixture of individualfeatures thrown together by the teacher. It works more like amachine, with the parts operating together and reinforcingone another, driving the vehicle forward’’ (p.75)Hatties (2009) summary of highly effective teachers fully captures this synergy in practice:“..it is teachers using particular teaching methods, teachers with high expectationsfor all students, and teachers who have created positive student-teacher relationshipsthat are more likely to have the above average effects on student achievement”(p.126)
47Good pedagogy is always situated As Darling-Hammond & Bransford (2005) point out:“…teachers not only need to understand basic principles of learning but must also know how to use them judiciously to meet diverse learning goals in contexts where students differ in their needs” (p.78)Bruner (2006) captures this most fully, when he asserts that:“The challenge is always to situate our knowledge in the living context that poses the “presenting problem” …And that living context, where education is concerned, is the schoolroom – the schoolroom situated in the broader culture” (p.160)Which is why Bransford (1999) is so right when he points out:“Asking which teaching method/technique is best is analogous to asking what tool is best – a hammer, a screwdriver, a knife, or pliers. In teaching, as in carpentry, the selection of tools depends on the task at hand and the materials one is working with” (p.22)
48Using Core Principles Thoughtfully - The Fly Fishing Analogy Key situated factors involve:The specific learning outcomes (e.g., recall of facts, conceptualunderstanding, competence)Learner characteristics (e.g., maturation, motivational level, prior competence)Learning context and resource availability (e.g., learningenvironment, facilities, resources)
49A frame on Teaching Expertise Note: this is a Conceptual Model,not hierarchical in that one stagemust be achieved before the next.It is essentially IterativeHowever, Competent andCreative teachers employa strong pedagogic literacy- whether Explicit orTacit)Creative Teaching(Adaptive Expertise)Ability to situationally createhighly effective pedagogyCompetent TeachingAbility to design and facilitatelearning experiences based on asound pedagogic literacyPedagogic LiteracyUnderstanding key knowledge basesrelating to how humans learn
50Professional Development in developing Teacher quality “We know a good deal about the characteristics of successful professionaldevelopment: it focuses on concrete classroom applications of general ideas;it exposes teachers to actual practice rather than descriptions of practice;it offers opportunity for observation, critique and reflection; it providesopportunity for group support and collaboration; and it involves deliberateevaluation and feedback by skilled practitioners with expertise aboutgood thinking”(Elmore and Burney, 1999, p.263)
51Professional development – A complimentary frame Darling-Hammond & Bransford (2005) who summarize that:“Emerging evidence suggests that teachers benefit from participating in the culture of teaching – by working with the materials and tools of teaching practice; examining teaching plans and student learning while immersed in theory about learning, development and subject matter. They also benefit from participating in practice as they observe teaching, work closely with experienced teachers, and work with students to use what they are learning”(Darling-Hammond & Bransford , 2005, p.404)
52Supported Experiments Identify tough topics or concepts that student find hard or boring to learnDevelop an instructional strategy that employs the methods that work best and customize them to the situated context ( e.g., learning outcomes, student characteristics, resource availability), based on your professional judgement (collaboration with colleagues helps)Conduct the lessons and get feedback on the influence of learning (e.g., students feedback, performance on assessment tasks, peer observation)Review the evidence and make modificationsPractice the methods in a relatively short period of time, making improvements and refining practice (has similarity with Lesson Study)Embed the success in Active Schemes of Work that are shared and subsequently used for professional development and continual improvement(From the work of Geoff Petty)