Presentation on theme: "Ancient India Civilization in the Indus River Valley."— Presentation transcript:
Ancient India Civilization in the Indus River Valley
INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS The civilization is sometimes referred to as the Indus Ghaggar-Hakra civilization or the Indus- Sarasvati civilization(6000-2600 BCE) 1,260,000 km², making it the largest ancient civilization in the world. Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro, with the Great Bath in the front excavated in 1844.
Harappan Civilization Harappa began to establish around 6000 BCE. By 2600 about 23000 people lived there. Radiocarbon dating actually identifies artifacts back to 3175 BCE. Trading culture: Lothar had dock 500 feet long.
AKA: The Vedic Cultures The surviving form of the Rigveda is based on an early Iron Age (c. 10th c. BC) collection that established the core 'family books' (mandalas 2–7, ordered by author, deity and meter) Like Cuneiform it was first written on rocks or stone tablets. Paper manuscripts (Bitchbark scrolls)not used until 500-300 BCE – discovered in caves near Xian on the silk road. Buddhism introduced in 84 (?) BCE Cultural crossroads of Persia, India, Tibet and Khotar empire.
Chandragupta Maurya Emperor from 320 BCE. Four years after Alexander leaves India. "Shepherd Boy Chandragupta Maurya dreaming of the India he was to create". Brings Maurya to its peak.
King Ashoka and the Edicts Coronated 274 BCE (269-232 BCE) Continues his grandfather’s path of conquest. After witnessing. First hand, the hundreds of thousands killed at Kalinga, he converted to Buddhism and pacifism and was renamed Samraat Chakravartin. He subsequently wrote his 33 edicts. 13 th in Greek and Sanscrit was found in Kandahar (Afghanistan).
Samraat Chakravartin. He was later dedicated to the propagation of Buddhism across Asia and established monuments marking several significant sites in the life of Gautama Buddha. Ashoka was a devotee of ahimsa (nonviolence), love, truth, tolerance and vegetarianism.
First Edict proper is carried out in the right way. And I consider instructing you to be the best way of accomplishing this. I have placed you over many thousands of people that you may win the people's affection. All men are my children. What I desire for my own children, and I desire their welfare and happiness both in this world and the next, that I desire for all men. You do not understand to what extent I desire this, and if some of you do understand, you do not understand the full extent of my desire. You must attend to this matter. While being completely law-abiding, some people are imprisoned, treated harshly and even killed without cause so that many people suffer. Therefore your aim should be to act with impartiality. It is because of these things -- envy, anger, cruelty, hate, indifference, laziness or tiredness -- that such a thing does not happen. Therefore your aim should be: "May these things not be in me." And the root of this is non-anger and patience. Those who are bored with the administration of justice will not be promoted; (those who are not) will move upwards and be promoted. Whoever among you understands this should say to his colleagues: "See that you do your duty properly. Such and such are Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions." Great fruit will result from doing your duty, while failing in it will result in gaining neither heaven nor the king's pleasure. Failure in duty on your part will not please me. But done properly, it will win you heaven and you will be discharging your debts to e.ffffff This edict is to be listened to on Tisa day, between Tisa days, and on other suitable occasions, it should be listened to even by a single person. Acting thus, you will be doing your duty. This edict has been written for the following purpose: that the judicial officers of the city may strive to do their duty and that the people under them might not suffer unjust imprisonment or harsh treatment. To achieve this, I will send out Mahamatras every five years who are not harsh or cruel, but who are merciful and who can ascertain if the judicial officers have understood my purpose and are acting according to my instructions. Similarly, from Ujjayini, the prince will send similar persons with the same purpose without allowing three years to elapse. Likewise from Takhasila also. When these Mahamatras go on tours of inspection each year, then without neglecting their normal duties, they will ascertain if judicial officers are acting according to the king's instructions.
13 th Edict (bilingual with Greek) Ten years (of reign) having been completed, King Piodasses (one of the titles of Ashoka: Piyadassi or Priyadarsi, "He who is the beloved of the Gods and who regards everyone amiably") made known (the doctrine of) Piety (Greek:εὐσέβεια, Eusebeia) to men; and from this moment he has made men more pious, and everything thrives throughout the whole world. And the king abstains from (killing) living beings, and other men and those who (are) huntsmen and fishermen of the king have desisted from hunting. And if some (were) intemperate, they have ceased from their intemperance as was in their power; and obedient to their father and mother and to the elders, in opposition to the past also in the future, by so acting on every occasion, they will live better and more happily. (Trans. by G. P. Carratelli [
Ashoka and Alexander connect Europe to Middle, East and Southeast Asia
Connecting Civilizations as they Emerge Not that there was much choice, but was this a good thing or a bad thing? There was not much choice, but some cultures like Japan and Parts of Europe and the Americas do slow down the “march of civilization”. Sometimes this does act to those cultures advantage Japan, in particular, takes time to watch European empires in China and develop along lines to “fight empire with empire.” What they underestimated was just how “savage” Europe and America remained.