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1 River monitoring in the EU Water Resources Framework Directive (WFD) by Prof Maria Lazaridou-Dimitriadou Department of Zoology,

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Presentation on theme: "1 River monitoring in the EU Water Resources Framework Directive (WFD) by Prof Maria Lazaridou-Dimitriadou Department of Zoology,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 River monitoring in the EU Water Resources Framework Directive (WFD) by Prof Maria Lazaridou-Dimitriadou Email: Department of Zoology, AUTH, 54006 Thessaloniki, GREECE

2 2 How the WFD will work? The new Directive represents an ambitious and innovative approach to water management. Key elements of the legislation include: The protection of all waters - rivers, lakes, coastal waters and groundwaters. The setting of ambitious objectives to ensure that all waters meet “good status” by 2015. The requirement for cross border co-operation between countries and all involved parties. Ensuring the active participation of all stakeholders, including NGOs and local communities, in water management activities. Requiring water pricing policies and ensuring that the polluter pays. Balancing the interests of the environment with those who depend on it. So

3 3 Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) Protects all waters: groundwater and surface waters, including coastal waters Good water status (environmental objective) by December 2015 and effective river basin management plans (RBMP) The Ecological status of aquatic ecosystems is emphasised –Quality is measured in ecological terms

4 4 Ecological quality elements MS must monitor parameters indicative of the status of each of the following relevant river quality elements: Biological: fish, benthic invertebrate fauna, aquatic flora Hydromorphological: hydrological regime (quantity & dynamics of water flow, connection to groundwater), river continuity, depth and width, river bed structure, riparian zone structure Physico-chemical: thermal & oxygenation conditions, salinity, acidification status, nutrients, priority substances, other pollutants discharged in significant quantities

5 5 Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) Water pricing as an incentive for the wise use of water Getting citizens more closely involved into planning and decision taking processes Streamlining legislation

6 6 River monitoring in the WFD It covers volume and rate of flow, chemical status and ecological status/potential Preliminary assessment of human impacts (end 2004) Accomodate monitoring programmes according to WFD (by end 2006) Maps produced and first results presented (by end 2009, publication of RBMP) Presentation of monitoring results in the first RBMP update (by end of 2015 and every 6 yr. after that) [WFD Art.8 and Annex V (section 1.3 and 1.1, 1.2)]

7 7 Deadlines December 2003. National and regional laws to be adapted to the WFD. River Basin co-operation to be made operational. December 2004. An analysis of pressures and impacts on our waters has to be completed including an economic analysis. December 2006. Monitoring programmes have to be operational as a basis for the water management. December 2008. River Basin Management plans presented to the public. December 2009. Publishing first River Basin Management Plans. December 2015. Water to meet “good status”.

8 8 WFD River typology WFD monitoring methodologies and measures apply to all types of rivers WFD classifies rivers into different types according to ecoregions (25) and ecotypes (System A and B, Annex II) System ASystem A classifies rivers according to altitude, catchment size and geologySystem ASystem A System BSystem B uses obligatory (altitude, size, geology, latitude, longitude) and optional factorsSystem BSystem B Bes. pol. Kontrolle/Regulierung von Marktgeschehen Ziele mit Rückwirkung auf Struktur & Regulierung

9 9 System A Fixed TypologyDescriptors Ecoregion(e.g. T o C, Pluviosity+Altitude) Ecoregions shown on Map A Ecoregions shown on Map A in Annex XI TypeAltitude typology high > 800 m mid-altitude 200 to 800 m lowland < 200 m Size typology based on catchment area small 10 – 100 km2 medium > 100 to 1.000 km2 large > 1.000 to 10.000 km2 very large > 10.000 km2 Geology calcareous siliceous organic

10 10 Ecoregions for rivers and lakes 1 Iberic – Macaronesian region 2 Pyrenees 3 Italy, Corsica & Malta 4 Alps 5 Dinaric Western Balkan 6 Hellenic Western Balkan 7 Eastern Balkan 8 Western highlands 9 Central highlands 10 The Carpathians 11 Hungarian lowlands 12 Pontic province 13 Western plains 14 Central plains 15 Baltic province 16 Eastern plains 17 Ireland & Northern Ireland 18 Great Britain 19 Iceland 20 Borealic uplands 21 Tundra 22 Fenno-Scandian shield 23 Taiga 24 The Caucasus 25 Caspic depression

11 11 System B Alternative Characterisation Physical and chemical factors that determine the characteristics of the river or part of the river and hence the biological population structure and composition Obligatory factors altitude latitude longitude geology Size of the catchment area Optional factorsdistance from river sources energy of flow (function of flow and slope) mean water width mean water depth mean water slope form and shape of main river bed river discharge (flow) category valley shape transport of solids acid neutralising capacity mean substratum composition chloride air temperature range mean air temperature precipitation

12 12 Monitoring types 3 types: surveillance, operational and investigative Intensity of river monitoring is risk and pressure proportional General set of rules on frequency for surveillance monitoring are: biological parameters every 3y. (phytoplankton every 6 m.), hydromorphological every 6y. (hydrology continuously), physico- chemical every 3 m. (priority substances every 1m.) BUT countries can adjust frequency and timing according to specific conditions and needs Rivers providing drinking water monitored 4-12x a year Europäische Benchmarking aufbauen Umweltindikatoren im Benchmarking

13 13 Surveillance monitoring network Why: - validate the impact assessment procedure –serve as basis for future monitoring programmes, –assess long-term changes in natural conditions and changes resulting from widespread anthropogenic activity Where: at points of significant water flow (> 2 500 km² catchment area) – at rivers crossing a Member State boundary, –at sampling sites identified under the Information Exchange Decision 77/795/EEC How oftenHow often: - Physicochemical parameters every 3m. (priority substances every 1m) for a period of one year,How oftenHow often –biological and hydromorphological once in the 6 years of the RBMP Systemwettbewerb Marktmacht über mehrere Stufen einmaliger Wettbewerb

14 14

15 15 Operational monitoring network Why: establish and monitor the status of rivers being at risk to fail the environmental objectives –Monitor rivers that receive priority list substances Where: At sufficient points according to the sources of pollution/disturbance (hot spots) How often: frequency chosen by MS on a case-by- case basis. General set of rules for frequency should be used as a guideline

16 16 Investigative Monitoring Why: - where reasons for any exceedances are unknown - ascertain causes of failure of environmental objectives - ascertain magnitude and impact of accidental pollution Where and how often: Case-specific Sampling points and frequencies shall be set according to the problem identified

17 17 Methods of river monitoring For sampling, sample handling, identification etc : ISO and EN international standards –such already exist for macroinvertebrate sampling, physicochemical and hydromorphological parameters –for the other quality elements, such standards will be developed under the supervision of the WFD Committee or equivalent national or international methods

18 18 Standards for monitoring of quality elements Macroinvertebrate sampling –ISO 5667-3 1995 Water Quality - Sampling - Part 3: Guidance on the preservation and handling of samples –EN 27828: 1994 Water Quality – Methods for biological sampling – Guidance on hand net sampling of benthic macroinvertebrates –EN 28265: 1994 Water Quality – Methods of biological sampling – Guidance on the design and use of quantitative samplers for benthic macroinvertebrates on stony substrata in shallow waters –EN ISO 9381: 1995 Water Quality – Sampling in deep waters for macroinvertebrates –Guidance on the use of colonisation, qualitative and quantitative samplers. –EN ISO 8689 - 1:1999 Biological Classification of Rivers PART I: Guidance on the Interpretation of Biological Quality Data from Surveys of Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Running Waters –EN ISO 8689 - 2:1999 Biological Classification of Rivers PART II: Guidance on the Presentation of Biological Quality Data from Surveys of Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Running Waters Macrophyte sampling –Relevant CEN / ISO Standards when developed Fish sampling –Relevant CEN / ISO Standards when developed Diatom sampling –Relevant CEN/IISO Standards when developed Standards for physicochemical parameters –Any Relevant CEN / ISO Standards Standards for hydromorphological parameters –Any Relevant CEN / ISO Standards

19 19 Classification of ecological status Rivers classified into 5 categories: high, good, moderate, poor,bad The undisturbed (natural) status serves as reference (identification of reference biological communities for each type of water body) Ecological Quality Ratios: These consist of the Observed value divided by the Expected value as derived from reference conditions (0=bad, 1=high ecological status)

20 20 Result presentation Results presented in maps for each River Basin District Colour-coded for the five ecological status levels: Good Moderate Poor Bad High

21 21 Chemical status: classification and presentation Two categories: Good: when a river complies with all environmental quality standards of Annex IX, Art.16 and other relevant legislation Failing to achieve good chemical status: when it does not comply with the above

22 22 Classification of ecological status The ecological status will be represented by the lower of the EQR-values for the biological and physicochemical monitoring results for the relevant quality elements (principle One-out-All-out) Intercalibration network to ensure comparability (by 2004). Resulting values for each Member State classification by 2006 Important to select indicators for the biological quality elements (practicability and cost-effectiveness of monitoring)

23 23 Classification of ecological status example for the element: Benthic macroinvertebrates

24 24 Current River monitoring Different methodologies and systems in the various EU countries Most usual „problem“ is lack of coverage of biological parameters WWF „Water and Wetland Index“ report (rough estimate) : Good: SF, S, B (Flanders), DK, CH, EST With significant gaps: UK, B (Wallonia), A, D, HU, F, SK Moderate: GR, E, Bulgaria, Turkey

25 25 Challenges Assess existent information, resources and tools Remodel of existing networks Decide on most –cost-effective –practicable –best environmental solutions

26 26 On-going projects Individual country pilot projects, e.g. Germany and Finland Project AQEM running at a European level - Pan-European Working Group on Guidance to WFD Monitoring –It will assist MS in their interpretation of the general monitoring criteria and methods provided by the WFD (duration 2001-2006)

27 27 Pan-European Working Group Expected Outcome: Recognise and describe the present monitoring network and organisation in each Member State Prepare informal guidance documents on: –the design of a monitoring network (selection of monitoring sites, GIS representation etc) –Monitoring procedures/protocols in accordance to Annex V –Criteria for the assessment of ecological, chemical, quantitative status and ecological potential –Monitoring data management

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