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A Pilot Project on Avian Flu Prof. (Dr.) Niranjan Mohanty. Dean of the Homoeopathic faculty, Utkal University, Orissa National President, Indian Institute.

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Presentation on theme: "A Pilot Project on Avian Flu Prof. (Dr.) Niranjan Mohanty. Dean of the Homoeopathic faculty, Utkal University, Orissa National President, Indian Institute."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Pilot Project on Avian Flu Prof. (Dr.) Niranjan Mohanty. Dean of the Homoeopathic faculty, Utkal University, Orissa National President, Indian Institute of Homoeopathic Physicians –

2 Prof.(Dr.) N. Mohanty

3 World map showing sanctuaries of bird 1.Auduhon- Dauphin island 2. Suncoast- Alabama 3. Currumbin- Australia 4. Pelican mans 5. Jack minor

4 India Map showing sanctuaries of bird Bird sancturies 1.Bharatpur- Rajastan 2.Thattekad- kerala 3.Ranganthittu- Karnatak 4.Assam Barrage- Uttaranchal 5.Neyyar- Parambikulam 6.Karera- Madhya Pradesh

5 Migratory Birds

6 H5N1 Virus is detected as the cause of Avian Flu in Asia in domestic poultry

7 Prolonged contact Consumptio n of raw & infected chicken Through tears saliva/ faeces

8 Carry full repertoire of the genes of the different strains H1N1, H2N2, H3N2, H4N6, H5N1, H5N2, H6N1, H7N3, H7N7, H9N2, H9N3.

9 Infection Chain Recombination takes place Pandemic spreadPandemic spread

10 Spanish 1918-H1N1 Asia – 1957 – H2N2 Hong Kong –1968 –H3N2

11 2006 – Germany (H5N1)

12 2005 – Thailand & Vietnam (H5N1)

13 2006 – In INDIA (H5N1) Maharastra Gujrat Karnataka

14 Aetiopathogenesis Influenza A virus Low pathogenicity Influenza A / H5N1 High pathogenicity Poultry population

15 Avian Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin 1 – 16 sub types Neuraminidase 1 – 9 sub types H5N1 Most virulent type of AIV

16 Influenza A virus contains 8 separate genes: 1.HA gene encoding hemagglutinin which produces about 500 copies. 2.NA gene encoding neuraminidase which produces about 100 copies. 3.NP gene encoding nucleoprotein. Influenza A,B,C are distinguished by their nucleoproteins.

17 4. M gene encoding two matrix proteins (M1 & M2 ) by using different reading frames from the same RNA segment. 5. NS gene encoding two distinct nonstructural proteins by using different frames from the same RNA segment. 6. PA gene encoding an RNA polymerase. 7. PB1 gene encoding an RNA polymerase. 8. PB2 gene encoding an RNA polymerase.

18 PATHOGENESIS ROUTE OF ENTRY IS RESPIRATORY TRACT REDUCES THE VISCOSITY OF MUCUS FILM LINING OF RESPIRATORY TRACT EXPOSES THE CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS FOR VIRUS ABSORPTION

19 1. It can survive for at least 35 days at 4 o C in manure. 2. It can be isolated from lake water where water fowls are present. 3. It can survive several days in carcasses at ambient temperature and up to 23 days if refrigerated. SURVIVAL OF THE VIRUS

20 TRANSMISSION OF THE VIRUS

21 Signs and symptoms in birds : 1. Depression 2. Profuse watery diarrhoea 3. Reddening of legs 4. Laboured respiration 5. Blue and swollen combs 6. Respiratory signs of cold Clinical Features:

22 SSigns and symptoms in Human being : Fever Headache Myalgia Sore throat Dry cough Sneezing Congestion of nose Redness of conjunctiva Diffused rales Nausea / Vomting Otitis Media Flushed face Cyanosis Coldness of Extremities Dyspnoea Mottled extremities Signs of consolidation

23 DDIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: Birds: (i) Features of New Castle disease (ii) Infections, laryngo tracheitis (iii) Duck plague (iv) Acute poisoning (v) Acute fowl cholera (vi) Bacterial cellulitis (vii)Chronic respiratory diseases

24 Human being : (i) Early bacterial pneumonia (ii) Severe streptococcal pharyngitis (iii)Acute respiratory illness caused by any varieties of respiratory virus

25 LLABORATORY DIAGNOSIS: (BIRDS / HUMAN BEING ) 1 Demonstration of the virus antigen by immunofluorescence by using specific monoclonal antibody and haemagglutination inhibition assay. 2 Detection of influenza-specific RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is extremely sensitive. 3 Serological identification by measuring the specific antibodies. Vvirus culture

26 A simple way to reduce the risk of illness: Wearing of masks and gloves by persons handling poultry. Cleaning kitchen surfaces and utensils before and after use. Cooking chicken till boiling temperature is reached. Controlling human traffic into poultries.

27 A simple way to reduce the risk of illness:  Hand washing (In order to be effective hand should be washed with soap from 20 to 25 seconds).

28 TREATMENT AVAILABLE IN HOMOEOPATHY HOMOPATH – Human being

29 TREATMENT AVAILABLE IN HOMOEOPATHY RADAR-HUMAN BEING

30 TREATMENT AVAILABLE IN HOMOEOPATHY Radar - Bird

31 TREATMENT AVAILABLE IN HOMOEOPATHY Hompath - Bird

32 Avian Flu Belladonna Arsenicum album Sulphur Calc. carb. Nux vom. Pulsatilla Mercurius Phosphorus Rhus tox. Causticum

33 Avian Flu Natrum mur. Lycopodium Silicea Sepia Allium cepa Ars. hydr. Arum triph. Chelidonium

34 Avian Flu Dulcamara Gelsemium Phellandrium Phytolacca Sabadilla Senega Silphium Sticta pulm. Spigelia Tuberculinum

35 METHODOLOGY FOR MATHEMATICAL MODEL AIM: To ascertain the preventive and curative medicine for avian flu.

36 Methods: A diagnostic criterion was determined by taking clinical features such as Fever, Headache, Myalgia, Sore throat, Dry cough, Sneezing, Congestion of nose, Redness of conjunctiva, Nausea/ Vomiting, Otitis media, Flushed face, Cyanosis, Coldness of extremities, Dyspnoea, Mottled extremities, Diffused rales, Signs of consolidation.

37 Results : The above symptoms were repertorised with the help of RADAR & HOMPATH Software. RADAR Software Human being Bell – 36/15 Calc. carb.- 34/15 Sulph – 34/15 Nux vom. – 32/15 Ars. alb. – 36/14 Puls – 32/14 Bry. Alb. – 30/14 Phos. – 30/14 Rhus tox. – 30/14

38 RADAR Software Avian (Bird) Sepia – 16/8 Carbo veg. – 20/7 Calc. carb. – 19/7 Phos. – 19/7 Sulph. – 19/7 Ars. alb. – 18/7 Merc. – 18/7 Nat. mur. – 18/7 Sil. – 18/7 Nat. sulph. – 17/7

39 HOMPATH Software Human being Ars. alb. – 39/16 Bell. – 37/16 Nux vom. – 36/16 Sulph. – 36/15 Puls. – 35/16 Lach. – 35/14 Nat. mur. – 34/16 Silicea – 33/15 Rhus tox. – 32/16 Bry. alb. – 32/15

40 HOMPATH Software Avian (Bird) Calc. carb. – 17/7 Phos. – 17/7 Puls. – 17/7 Sulph. – 17/7 Carbo veg. – 17/6 Merc. – 16/7 Silicea – 16/7 Nat. mur. – 16/6 Lach. – 15/7 Ars. alb. – 15/6

41 To determine the efficacy of the drugs evolved through mathematical model (Repertorisation) for preventive and curative aspect of Avian Flu either in single or in serial or in combined form. To ascertain the suitable potency(s) To determine the effective dose(s) To find out the repetition schedule(s) To find out the most effective therapeutic options Aims and objectives

42  Target groups - Domesticated / Commercial birds - Human being of globe  The experiment is to be “Randomized double blind control trail”. It is to be of multicentric.  Route of administration of drug will be oral  A standardized case recording format will be adopted for documentation of data & follow up will be done periodically, which will be as follows:

43 Particulars Name Address Age Sex Occupation Presenting Complaints

44 LocationSensation Modalities Concomitants / / Extension Fever Head Headache Muscles Myalgia Throat Sore throat Chest Dry cough Nose Sneezing Nose Congestion Presenting Complaints

45 Conjunctiva Redness Stomach Nausea / vomiting Ear Otitis media Face Flushed face Cyanosis Extremities Coldness of extremities Respiration Dyspnoea Extremities Mottled Chest Diffused rales Chest signs of consolidation Location Sensation Modalities Concomitants / Extension Presenting Complaints

46 TestsResults a) Viral culture b) Polymerase Chain reaction C) Immunefluroscent Assay D) Serological identification Laboratory Investigations

47 Diagnostic Criteria Inclusion Criteria Birds (A)Clinical Features Depression Profuse watery diarrhea Reddening of the legs Laboured respiration Blue & swollen combs Respiratory sign of cold

48 (B)Laboratory Diagnosis Viral culture Polymerase chain reaction Immune fluroscent Assay Serological identification

49 Human Being (A) Clinical features Fever Headache Myalgia Sore throat Dry cough Sneezing Congestion of nose Redness of conjunctiva Nausea/ vomiting Otitis media Flushed face Cyanosis Coldness of extremities Dyspnoea Mottled extremities Diffused rales Signs of consolidation

50 (B) Laboratory Diagnosis: i) Viral culture ii)Polymerase Chain reaction iii) Immunofluoroscence assay vi) Serological identification

51 2.Exclusion criteria BIRDS Features of New castle disease Infectious Laryngo tracheitis Duck plague Acute poisoning Diseases that can cause swelling of combs wattles includes Acute Fowl cholera Bacterial cellulites Chronic respiratory diseases

52 Human Being Early bacterial pneumonia Severe streptococcal pharyngitis Acute respiratory illness caused by any varieties of respiratory virus Exclusion criteria

53 Different Therapeutic Drug Options (Preventive / Curative purposes) Single Drug (A single drug will be given at one time and waiting for the change) Human Being Belladonna Calc. carb. Sulphur Pulsatilla Ars. alb. Nux. vom.

54 Bird Phos. Ars. alb. Carbo veg. Nat. mur. Calc. carb. Belladonna Single Drug (A single drug will be given at one time and waiting for the change)

55 Multiple Drugs in Serial (Both for Bird / Human being) [ Drugs will be given serially at specific time gap] a.BelladonnaCalc. carb. Tuberculinum b.BelladonnaSulphur. Tuberculinum c.Ars. albCalc. carb. Tuberculinum d.Rhus. toxPulsatilla Sulphur

56 BelladonnaCalc.carbTuberculinumPulsatillaRhus.toxArs.Alb Ars.hydroRhus.toxSulphurBryoniaBelladonnaNux.vomPhelandrium Nux.vomPulsatillaBelladonnaArs.albCalc.carbSulphurSilphinum.lancDulcamara Combined drugs [A group drugs will be mixed to prepare a compound with a new name]

57 Various potency options - To ascertain the most effective potency various potencies will be tried. A comprehensive type should be as follows Single medicine a.-30 b.-200 c.-1M

58 Multiple drugs in serial a.-30 b.-200 c.-1M

59 Combination of drugs a.-3x b.-6x c.-30

60 DIFFERENT DOSAGE OPTIONS Single Medicine Adult a)4 globules (glb. No – 20 b)½ drop c)1 drop Children a)2 globules b)¼ drop c)½ drop

61 Multiple drugs in serial DIFFERENT DOSAGE OPTIONS Adult 4 globules (glb. No – 20 ½ drop 1 drop Children 2 globules ¼ drop ½ drop

62 DIFFERENT DOSAGE OPTIONS Combination of drugs For human being Adult Children a)1 drop each ½ drop b)5 drops 2 ½ drops c)10 drops 5 drops For birds Adult young a)½ drop ¼ drop b)1 drop ½ drop c)2 drops 1 drop

63 Different repetition schedule To fix the repetition schedule in different types of therapeutic options following classification and categorisation will be tried Single medicine a.One dose only b.One dose daily for three days c.Two dosages daily for three days Repetition after 15 days / 1 month / 3 month / 1 year

64 Multiple drugs in serial a.One dose from each drug consecutively b.One dose from each day for three days c.Two dosages from each day continuously one after another Repetition after 15 days / 1 month / 3 month / 1 year Different repetition schedule To fix the repetition schedule in different types of therapeutic options following classification and categorisation will be tried

65 Combination of drugs a.One dose daily for three days b.Two dose daily for three days Repetition after 15 days / 1 month / 3 month / 1 year Different repetition schedule To fix the repetition schedule in different types of therapeutic options following classification and categorisation will be tried

66 Different Age Group: For documentation of the efficacy of different therapeutic option on different age group, following classification will be used. Human beingBirds Children AdultsYoung Adult

67 PARAMETERS TO ASSESS THE RESULTS 1. POSITIVE RESPONSE Complete disappearance of sign &symptoms with negative pathological findings. 2. NEGATIVE RESPONSE - No improvement of signs/symptoms along with pathological symptoms. - Dropped out – did not stick to therapy.

68 PROPOSED RESULTS 1.Out of different therapeutic options the most effective therapeutic procedure needed for combacting Avian flu will be determined. 2.Most effective potency(ies), dose(s), repetition schedule(s) will be determined. 3.Which age group is amenable to homoeopathic medicament will be ascertained. 4.Which strain is better amenable to the therapy will be unfurled.

69 CONCLUSION / RECOMMENDATIONS 1.The drug(s) evolved after clinical trial can be used as preventive & curative purposes for preventing / controlling Avian flu both for Avian and homosapiens. 2.As the strains are very often undergoing mutation the research should be a continued process to unveil the role of Homoeopathic medicament at different epoch of the time.

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