2Objectives Students will define psychology. Students will identify the goals of psychology.Students will explain why psychology is considered a science.Students will analyze the scientific method.
3Review Stone Age? Greeks & Romans? Enlightenment? Pseudosciences? Psych as Science?Psychoanalysis?Behavioral?Cognitive?Humanistic?Neurobiological?
4Review Stone Age? Greeks & Romans? Enlightenment? Pseudosciences? Evil SpiritsTrephiningGreeks & Romans?AristotleHippocrates HumorsGalen’s TraitsEnlightenment?Body is MachineDescartes Mind-BodyPseudosciences?Phrenology - BumpsMesmerism - HypnosisPsych as Science?Fechner – PsychophysicsWundt – 1st LabTitchener – StructuralismJames - FunctionalismPsychoanalysis?FreudId-Superego-EgoUnconsciousBehavioral?WatsonAntecedent – Behavior - ConsequenceCognitive?PiagetInput – Process - OutputHumanistic?Maslow & RogersHierarchy of NeedsWant to self-actualizeNeurobiological?Genes, hormones, chemicalsMedication
5Warm Up Let’s do a physical warm up today…let’s go for a little walk! Quick rule: you must be very quiet!!!!
6Define PSYCHOLOGY-The scientific study of the mental processes and behavior of organisms (human/animal).Scientific?Mental Processes?Behavior?
7Goals of Psychology To describe behavior To explain causes of To predict future behaviorsTo control negative behaviorsTo improve quality of lifeBasic vs. Applied Science
8Making Research Scientific Research must beReplicable: others repeat & get same resultsFalsifiable: stated in way that it’s possible to rejectPrecise: define & state exactly how variable will be measuredParsimonious: simplest explanation possible
9Ethical Considerations With humansAPA GuidelinesInformed consentSafetyPrivacyWhen is deception ethical?
10Ethical Considerations With animalsAPA & Federal GuidelinesLeast invasive proceduresHumane conditionsClear benefits of research
11Scientific Method Identify specific problem or question Form a hypothesisConduct a study (research)Analyze dataConstruct theoryRetest
12Descriptive Studies Observation- Natural: observe in natural environmentDirected: observe in controlled environment (lab)
13Descriptive StudiesCase StudyIn-depth description of one individual
14Descriptive StudiesSurveyQuestionnaires and interviews
15Descriptive Studies Testing Measure traits and characteristics Reliable & Valid
16Descriptive Studies Correlational Studies Statistical methods to reveal strength of relationships between variables.Correlational Coefficient- # between and that expresses the strength of a relationshipPositive Correlation- When two variables increase or decrease together (Ex- Frustration and Aggression)Negative Correlation- When one variable increases as the other decreases (Ex- Stress and Health)
17Correlation vs Causation Just b/c two things are related doesn’t mean one thing caused the other!Ex: Scary movie & nightmares
18Methods of Psychological Research Experimental MethodSeeks to confirm (hypothetical) cause and effect relationships.Overheads…
20Experimental Method Vocab Independent Variable- condition that is manipulatedDependent Variable- behavior being measuredExperimental Group- subjects that receive treatmentControl Group- subjects who don’t receive treatment, or receivePlacebo- bogus treatment’Selection Bias- occurs when differences between groups are present at the beginning of the experiment
21Experimental Method Vocab Subject Expectancy- subject’s beliefs can influence his/her perception/behaviorBlinds- subjects who are unaware of the treatment, to control for the effects of subject bias.Double-Blind Study- neither the subjects nor the experimenters know who has received the treatment
22Activity 1 – Apply Experimental Method A psychologist studying memory wants to test the hypothesis that an herbal supplement aids memory. The research involves having 80 people complete a memory test. Half of these individuals first consumed the herbal supplement; the other half consumed a placebo pill.Independent Variable?Herbal supplementDependent Variable?Memory RetentionControl Group?Took placeboExperimental Group?Took herbal supplement
23Activity 1 – Apply Experimental Method An educational psychologist wants to explore whether a new math program, which uses textbooks with special colored pictures, will help high school students in learning geometry. Half of the students are randomly assigned to traditional textbooks, while the other half are assigned to the special textbooks. Scores on a standardized geometry test are measured at the end of the semester.Independent Variable?New math bookDependent Variable?Performance on geometry testControl Group?Traditional bookExperimental Group?New textbook
24Methods of Research Studies can be Longitudinal Cross-Sectional Study one group over period of timeCross-SectionalStudy several groups at one timeCross-SequentialStudy several groups over period of time
25Activity 2 Create a T-Chart in your notes: With a partner, identify one advantage and one disadvantage for each method of psychological research we studied today.
26Methods of Psychological Research AdvantagesDisadvantagesNatural ObservationBehavior studied is completely natural. Study in situations and environments can’t be duplicated in a lab. Useful for generating hypotheses.Researchers can’t interact with subjects…may misinterpret behaviors. Interpretations may be personally biased. May be hard to conduct unobtrusively.Directed Observation(Laboratory)Provides accurate information b/c it allows control of variables and reduction of error. Use of sophisticated equipment for measurement. Useful for generating hypotheses.Artificial setting may not reflect real world behaviors. May yield biased results.Case StudyCan obtain detailed background info that may shed light on present behaviors. Extensive information about a subject. Good way to generate hypotheses. Yields data other methods can’t provide.Gaps and factual inaccuracies. Distort pasts to please selves/researcher. One past may not apply to all. Time consuming. Can be subjective, may yield biased results.SurveyCan gather a lot of information from a lot of people quickly. Cheap and easy to conduct. Good way to generate hypothesis.Sample may not represent whole. Questions may be phrased poorly or misunderstood. Misinterpretation of results based on bias. Don’t directly observe what is reported, rely on self-reported data.TestingAccurate, objective info because most are normed and standardized. Little opportunity to distort results. Gives information about diverse characteristics such as personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, values.Must be reliable and valid in order to use. May respond in socially desirable way. Improve from one test to another b/c of familiarity, not aptitude.Correlational StudyCan help predict behaviors. Can indicate possible causes of behaviors.Can’t indicate cause-effect relationships. Can’t account for all possible factors/variables.ExperimentCan identify cause-effect relationships with little error and bias, if properly set up and carried out. Distinguish between placebo effects and real effects of treatment or drug.Information from one study may not apply to other situations. Subject expectancy/researcher bias(can be avoided with blinds). Results may not generalize to real-world situations.
27Activity 3In your groups, select two of the situations and decide which method of research would be best used to achieve the goal/objective of the situation. Explain.Also, decide which of the methods would be the least effective for each of your situations. Explain
28Methods of ResearchYou are interested in the honesty of people in America, especially with regards to stealing or taking objects which aren’t theirs. How could you determine how honest people are, including what % of the population can be trusted at any given time?You’re interested in finding out what effects the moderate use (3-5 x’s per week) of marijuana has on high school students, including effects on academic performance, social relationships, motivation and accomplishments.You wish to ascertain the effects of high Vitamin C on older (65+) peoples’ health.You are ready to develop a romantic relationship with someone and you want to find the best person to meet your needs. How would you go about this?You think your partner is cheating on you and you want to find out if this is true and, if so, with whom.You want to find out who the smartest person is in the senior class.You’ve been hired to determine the effects of caffeine on the mental alertness of truck drivers for a large cross-country shipping firm.
29ClosureDo you think it is ethical to use animals in psychological research? Why or why not?