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The Science of Psychology

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1 The Science of Psychology
Unit 1 Lesson 4

2 Objectives Students will define psychology.
Students will identify the goals of psychology. Students will explain why psychology is considered a science. Students will analyze the scientific method.

3 Review Stone Age? Greeks & Romans? Enlightenment? Pseudosciences?
Psych as Science? Psychoanalysis? Behavioral? Cognitive? Humanistic? Neurobiological?

4 Review Stone Age? Greeks & Romans? Enlightenment? Pseudosciences?
Evil Spirits Trephining Greeks & Romans? Aristotle Hippocrates Humors Galen’s Traits Enlightenment? Body is Machine Descartes Mind-Body Pseudosciences? Phrenology - Bumps Mesmerism - Hypnosis Psych as Science? Fechner – Psychophysics Wundt – 1st Lab Titchener – Structuralism James - Functionalism Psychoanalysis? Freud Id-Superego-Ego Unconscious Behavioral? Watson Antecedent – Behavior - Consequence Cognitive? Piaget Input – Process - Output Humanistic? Maslow & Rogers Hierarchy of Needs Want to self-actualize Neurobiological? Genes, hormones, chemicals Medication

5 Warm Up Let’s do a physical warm up today…let’s go for a little walk!
Quick rule: you must be very quiet!!!!

6 Define PSYCHOLOGY- The scientific study of the mental processes and behavior of organisms (human/animal). Scientific? Mental Processes? Behavior?

7 Goals of Psychology To describe behavior To explain causes of
To predict future behaviors To control negative behaviors To improve quality of life Basic vs. Applied Science

8 Making Research Scientific
Research must be Replicable: others repeat & get same results Falsifiable: stated in way that it’s possible to reject Precise: define & state exactly how variable will be measured Parsimonious: simplest explanation possible

9 Ethical Considerations
With humans APA Guidelines Informed consent Safety Privacy When is deception ethical?

10 Ethical Considerations
With animals APA & Federal Guidelines Least invasive procedures Humane conditions Clear benefits of research

11 Scientific Method Identify specific problem or question
Form a hypothesis Conduct a study (research) Analyze data Construct theory Retest

12 Descriptive Studies Observation-
Natural: observe in natural environment Directed: observe in controlled environment (lab)

13 Descriptive Studies Case Study In-depth description of one individual

14 Descriptive Studies Survey Questionnaires and interviews

15 Descriptive Studies Testing Measure traits and characteristics
Reliable & Valid

16 Descriptive Studies Correlational Studies
Statistical methods to reveal strength of relationships between variables. Correlational Coefficient- # between and that expresses the strength of a relationship Positive Correlation- When two variables increase or decrease together (Ex- Frustration and Aggression) Negative Correlation- When one variable increases as the other decreases (Ex- Stress and Health)

17 Correlation vs Causation
Just b/c two things are related doesn’t mean one thing caused the other! Ex: Scary movie & nightmares

18 Methods of Psychological Research
Experimental Method Seeks to confirm (hypothetical) cause and effect relationships. Overheads…


20 Experimental Method Vocab
Independent Variable- condition that is manipulated Dependent Variable- behavior being measured Experimental Group- subjects that receive treatment Control Group- subjects who don’t receive treatment, or receive Placebo- bogus treatment’ Selection Bias- occurs when differences between groups are present at the beginning of the experiment

21 Experimental Method Vocab
Subject Expectancy- subject’s beliefs can influence his/her perception/behavior Blinds- subjects who are unaware of the treatment, to control for the effects of subject bias. Double-Blind Study- neither the subjects nor the experimenters know who has received the treatment

22 Activity 1 – Apply Experimental Method
A psychologist studying memory wants to test the hypothesis that an herbal supplement aids memory. The research involves having 80 people complete a memory test. Half of these individuals first consumed the herbal supplement; the other half consumed a placebo pill. Independent Variable? Herbal supplement Dependent Variable? Memory Retention Control Group? Took placebo Experimental Group? Took herbal supplement

23 Activity 1 – Apply Experimental Method
An educational psychologist wants to explore whether a new math program, which uses textbooks with special colored pictures, will help high school students in learning geometry. Half of the students are randomly assigned to traditional textbooks, while the other half are assigned to the special textbooks. Scores on a standardized geometry test are measured at the end of the semester. Independent Variable? New math book Dependent Variable? Performance on geometry test Control Group? Traditional book Experimental Group? New textbook

24 Methods of Research Studies can be Longitudinal Cross-Sectional
Study one group over period of time Cross-Sectional Study several groups at one time Cross-Sequential Study several groups over period of time

25 Activity 2 Create a T-Chart in your notes:
With a partner, identify one advantage and one disadvantage for each method of psychological research we studied today.

26 Methods of Psychological Research
Advantages Disadvantages Natural Observation Behavior studied is completely natural. Study in situations and environments can’t be duplicated in a lab. Useful for generating hypotheses. Researchers can’t interact with subjects…may misinterpret behaviors. Interpretations may be personally biased. May be hard to conduct unobtrusively. Directed Observation (Laboratory) Provides accurate information b/c it allows control of variables and reduction of error. Use of sophisticated equipment for measurement. Useful for generating hypotheses. Artificial setting may not reflect real world behaviors. May yield biased results. Case Study Can obtain detailed background info that may shed light on present behaviors. Extensive information about a subject. Good way to generate hypotheses. Yields data other methods can’t provide. Gaps and factual inaccuracies. Distort pasts to please selves/researcher. One past may not apply to all. Time consuming. Can be subjective, may yield biased results. Survey Can gather a lot of information from a lot of people quickly. Cheap and easy to conduct. Good way to generate hypothesis. Sample may not represent whole. Questions may be phrased poorly or misunderstood. Misinterpretation of results based on bias. Don’t directly observe what is reported, rely on self-reported data. Testing Accurate, objective info because most are normed and standardized. Little opportunity to distort results. Gives information about diverse characteristics such as personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, values. Must be reliable and valid in order to use. May respond in socially desirable way. Improve from one test to another b/c of familiarity, not aptitude. Correlational Study Can help predict behaviors. Can indicate possible causes of behaviors. Can’t indicate cause-effect relationships. Can’t account for all possible factors/variables. Experiment Can identify cause-effect relationships with little error and bias, if properly set up and carried out. Distinguish between placebo effects and real effects of treatment or drug. Information from one study may not apply to other situations. Subject expectancy/researcher bias (can be avoided with blinds). Results may not generalize to real-world situations.

27 Activity 3 In your groups, select two of the situations and decide which method of research would be best used to achieve the goal/objective of the situation. Explain. Also, decide which of the methods would be the least effective for each of your situations. Explain

28 Methods of Research You are interested in the honesty of people in America, especially with regards to stealing or taking objects which aren’t theirs. How could you determine how honest people are, including what % of the population can be trusted at any given time? You’re interested in finding out what effects the moderate use (3-5 x’s per week) of marijuana has on high school students, including effects on academic performance, social relationships, motivation and accomplishments. You wish to ascertain the effects of high Vitamin C on older (65+) peoples’ health. You are ready to develop a romantic relationship with someone and you want to find the best person to meet your needs. How would you go about this? You think your partner is cheating on you and you want to find out if this is true and, if so, with whom. You want to find out who the smartest person is in the senior class. You’ve been hired to determine the effects of caffeine on the mental alertness of truck drivers for a large cross-country shipping firm.

29 Closure Do you think it is ethical to use animals in psychological research? Why or why not?

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