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M ID T ERM R EVIEW Big Idea #1: Earth Scientists use repeatable observations and testable ideas to understand and explain our planet Big Idea #2: Earth.

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Presentation on theme: "M ID T ERM R EVIEW Big Idea #1: Earth Scientists use repeatable observations and testable ideas to understand and explain our planet Big Idea #2: Earth."— Presentation transcript:

1 M ID T ERM R EVIEW Big Idea #1: Earth Scientists use repeatable observations and testable ideas to understand and explain our planet Big Idea #2: Earth is a Water Planet

2 B IG I DEA #1: Earth Scientists use repeatable observations and testable ideas to understand and explain our planet.

3 E NERGY THAT D RIVES E ARTH ’ S 4-S YSTEMS W HAT ’ S THE C ONNECTION ?

4 H OW D O S CIENTISTS T HINK ? Critical thinking Strong Observations Extensive Documentation Collaboration

5 C REDIBLE O NLINE S OURCES

6 D ATA VS E VIDENCE T URN D ATA INTO E VIDENCE factual information as measurements or statistics used as a basis for reasoning something that furnishes proof something submitted to ascertain the truth of a matter.

7 T YPES OF D ATA Qualities VS Quantity

8 S HOW M E T HE E VIDENCE Direct Indirect Modeling

9 H OW DO WE KNOW E ARTH HAD AN ICE AGE ?

10 E VIDENCE : D IRECT & I NDIRECT Earth’s interior Direct Evidence: Rock Samples Indirect Evidence :Seismic Waves

11 S CIENTIFIC M ODELS E XPLAINS S CIENTIFIC C ONCEPTS Accurate & Inaccurate

12 B IG I DEA #2 Earth is a Water Planet

13 W HY IS THIS IMPORTANT? W HAT IS THE CONNECTION?

14 L ETS TALK H 2 O V OCAB Surface Tension Desalination Salinity Density Formula Capillary Action Specific Heat Solvent

15 T HE S CIENCE OF W ATER W ATER ’ S 7-U NUSUAL P ROPERTIES 1. Stronger than normal bonds 2. High Surface Tension 3. High Boiling Temperatures 4. High Specific Heat 5. Universal Solvent 6. Density of the solid is less than at a liquid state 7. Adhesion, Cohesion, Capillary Action

16 –– F ORMING A W ATER M OLECULE Unequal attraction to bonding electrons Oxygen is a strong electron grabber (high electronegativity) Hydrogen’s electron tends to hang out close to oxygen, leaving H’s positively charged 16 +  +  H - O +

17 W ATER IS A P OLAR M OLECULE Unequal distribution of charges on the water molecule make it a polar molecule One end is more negative, and one end is more positive More positive ends More negative end  - means partial negative charge  + means partial positive charge

18 E LECTRON D ENSITY IS U NEVEN The electron density around the oxygen atom in a water molecule is about 10X greater than the hydrogen atoms This non-uniform distribution of positive and negative charges, called a dipole, leads to H 2 O unusual behavior 18 Source: Dark Blue = high density Light Blue= low density

19 U NUSUAL P ROPERTIES

20 L ETS T ALK O CEAN

21 W HERE DOES THE SALT COME FROM ?

22 W HAT I NCREASES & D ECREASES S ALINITY ?

23 1. O CEAN L AYERS F ROM THE S HORE

24 1. O CEAN L AYERS D EPTH : 3-Z ONES

25 2. O CEAN V ARIATIONS Temperature: Thermocline Density: Pycnocline

26 W ATER ON A G LOBAL P ERSPECTIVE = UNEQUAL HEATING Longitude Latitude

27 3. O CEAN C URRENTS What drives them? How do they form? Effect of cold currents on climate? What is the role in maintaining Earth’s heat balance? 2-Types: Density currents Deep ocean currents

28 4. W AVES W AVES TRANSFERS ENERGY FROM ONE POINT TO ANOTHER ENERGY

29 5. T IDES D AILY CHANGES IN THE ELEVATION OF THE OCEAN SURFACE


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