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Unit Six. Table of Contents  Unit 1: Parts of Speech  Unit 2: Phrases, Clauses, and Sentence Structure  Unit 3: Simple & Progressive Verbs; Gerunds.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit Six. Table of Contents  Unit 1: Parts of Speech  Unit 2: Phrases, Clauses, and Sentence Structure  Unit 3: Simple & Progressive Verbs; Gerunds."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit Six

2 Table of Contents  Unit 1: Parts of Speech  Unit 2: Phrases, Clauses, and Sentence Structure  Unit 3: Simple & Progressive Verbs; Gerunds & Infinitives  Unit 4: Perfect & Passive Verbs  Unit 5: Complex Sentences  Unit 6: Overview of City ESOL Program

3 Agenda  Overview of ESOL Student Population  Tips

4 Overview of City ESOL Students Generation 1.5  Generation 1.5 Born in U.S. or immigrated at a young age Most (if not all) schooling in U.S. Native-like speakers of English Difficulty with academic language in all languages Usually do not identify themselves as ESOL

5 Overview of City ESOL Students Immigrants/Refugees  Adult Immigrants & Refugees May have no or limited education  Developing academic/study skills  Lack of abstract understanding of language  Gaps in background knowledge  Difficulty with social and academic language Limited understanding of U.S. cultural norms and content May have experienced trauma  Younger Immigrants Blend of Generation 1.5 and Adult Immigrant issues  Some academic skills (educated) in all languages  Lacking English fluency and vocabulary  Generally motivated to learn English

6 Overview of City ESOL Students International Student  International Students Smallest number In U.S. for a limited time Financial resources available High academic knowledge in all languages Usually strong in reading and grammar Usually more difficulty with spoken English

7 Language Issues Connections between ideas are not clearly shown. Possible Reason: Language Background  Thought Differences (Kaplan, 1966) High Context vs. Low Context Culture Semitic Oriental Romance Russian “…what remains instructive and useful is Kaplan's insight that discourses across cultures differ not only in grammatical features, but also in generic and rhetorical patterns, in expectations between readers and writers.”

8 SDSU Japanese Student: I don’t talk directly. This is the point I want to make, but I don’t go directly, I don’t make a statement exactly, I just go around it, then people misunderstood. I make, I make people confused because I didn’t go directly, I didn’t say the sentence, so, it happens then, so they ask me, is this what you want to say? Is that it? You know? Why can’t you assume? I expect people assume, people understand.

9 Video  Typical college lecture: What language and cultural difficulties might our different ESOL populations have?  Generation 1.5  Immigrants & Refugees  International Students  Watch video

10 Global vs. Local Errors  Global: more serious errors that usually impede understanding.  Local: less serious errors that, while distracting, most often do not impede understanding. Subject/verb agreement: Articles: Singular/plural: Preposition: Word Form: I’ll meet you on 3:00 today. You can get that at store. I have a lot of homeworks. He attend college. Writing under the pressure of time gives students several beneficial including the ability to think and organize fast.

11 Tip 1: Know Your Students  A lot of writing? Give writing diagnostic the first week  Questionnaire (for everybody!) First language Languages spoken Level of education/Education experience Previous English classes Computer skills Number of units currently taking Number of hours working Major/Career goals

12 Tip 2: Safe Environment  Community building activities Get to know each other activities Develop relationships to learn study skills  Discuss answers in pairs/groups first Increased confidence Participation boost Instructor can listen and identify challenges

13 Tip 3: Be Careful About Your Speech A. Speed and clarity B. Word choice C. Repetition D. Clarification questions

14 A: Speed and Clarity  Talk slower than normal and enunciate What did you get out of the reading? Wadjugedouta?? the reading?? I’m confused!

15 B: Word Choice  Define academic terminology  Limit/Define slang and idiomatic expressions How do you stretch your imagination? Ascertain? Hmmmm… Well, by no stretch of my imagination do I believe you've all come here to hear me lecture. But rather to ascertain the identity of the mystery math magician.

16 Transfer Career Center Presentation  A walk in the park  Game plan  Foot in the door  Bring to the table  Off the top of my head  Time to boogie  To put it in a nutshell  This is really key  Directive  Ed plan  General ed  Prep for the major

17 C: Repetition  Repeat, repeat, repeat… then repeat again… then have the student repeat back to you… then repeat again.

18 D: Clarification Questions  Ask specific questions Does that make sense? Do you understand? Yes. I don’t want to ask again. I’ll ask my sister what he means later.

19 D: Clarification Questions  Does that make sense?  Do you understand?  Do you see what I mean? ------------------------------------------------------------------------  So how would you solve this problem?  Would this formula work? How do you know that?  What is the main argument of this article?  Now explain why this theory doesn’t work? Yes

20 Tip 4: Previewing  Book  Lecture Agenda Discuss prior knowledge, context, and key vocabulary before lecture State/show plan of lecture in introduction  Homework

21 Tip 5: Visual Support  Outlines  Flow Charts  Key ideas/vocabulary on board  Pictures/Photographs  Page numbers on board

22 Tip 6: Vocabulary  ESOL students’ general academic and discipline- specific language is often impoverished (Kinsella)  Focus on: High-frequency/high utility academic words (e.g. consequence, issue, analyze ) High-use disciplinary words (e.g. economy, metaphor, species ) “Big Idea” words that relate to lesson concepts (e.g. stereotype, outsourcing, fossil fuel )

23 How to Teach New Terms (Kinsella) Step 1: Assess Knowledge Choose 6-8 target words Students rate knowledge Rating Scale: 1. I don’t know it at all 2. I’ve seen it before 3. I know it and use it 4. I could teach it now Target WordWhat I think it means Rating Before Rating After Polysemous Apotheosis Protocol Derive

24 How to Teach New Terms Step 2: Explain and Define  Pronounce the word, give an explanation using common language, and identify part of speech Accurate is an adjective that means something is true, right, correct… The antonym, or a word with the opposite meaning, is inaccurate.

25 How to Teach New Terms Step 3: Provide Examples Movies and television shows don’t always contain accurate information about typical families in the United States. Sometimes they are inaccurate. For example, critics have noted that The Cosby Show was not an accurate representation of African American family life. It demonstrated white, middle class norms using African American actors.

26 How to Teach New Terms Step 4: Deepen Understanding/Coach Use  Identify one movie or television show that gives an an accurate or inaccurate account of a typical American family.  In my opinion, ______ is an accurate/inaccurate representation of a typical American family because… (reason)

27 Tip 7: Instructor Support Services  Personal invitation/accessibility Non-traditional office hours (cafeteria) Beginning of the semester assignment: E-mail instructor  Lecture Notes  Showing a variety of examples of student work  Pre-drop deadline progress feedback  Online support WebCT

28 Tip 8: School Support Services  ESOL Instructors  The English Center (C-226) Hours: Mon-Thurs 9am-7pm and Fri 9am-3pm Face-to-face and online Have students bring assignment instructions Copy of tutoring form in mailbox Self paced grammar programs: Perfect Copy, Tense Buster, Skills Bank, Focus on Grammar Piloting one-unit grammar class (Eng 97)  Continuing Education Open Entry/Open Exit Morning/Afternoon/Evening Schedules ESL and computer basics  Counseling/DSPS/Mental Health Services

29 Questions  What are one or two things from today’s workshop that you would like to apply this semester?  Do you have any questions?

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