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Teacher Training Programme TOPIC AREA 1. Topic Area 1 - key objectives Understanding knowledge and awareness of language teaching Specific needs in Azerbaijan.

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Presentation on theme: "Teacher Training Programme TOPIC AREA 1. Topic Area 1 - key objectives Understanding knowledge and awareness of language teaching Specific needs in Azerbaijan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teacher Training Programme TOPIC AREA 1

2 Topic Area 1 - key objectives Understanding knowledge and awareness of language teaching Specific needs in Azerbaijan - the teaching and learning context Incorporation of relevant ministry standards

3 What is a language teacher? Complete the quiz independently Then compare with a partner Let’s discuss….


5 Teaching context here Huge influx of new graduate teachers Have to operate within constraints of ministry We have to use new textbooks We don’t get enough support We have heavy teaching timetables We don’t get paid enough! It’s hard to teach learners who are “x” age I don’t want to spend lots of time preparing materials

6 Learning context here In your groups, think about the learners’ experience of being taught English by you. What are their pressures, concerns, issues? How can these best be addressed?

7 Learning journal entry What are three key things I have learned today from our discussions? What are three things I can do differently - whether in my teaching, how I work with colleagues or how I deal with challenges

8 Ministry standards What are the key areas to be incorporated? How do we ensure we are keeping up-to- date and that these standards are met? What practical tools can we create ourselves i.e check lists, plans, internal support?

9 Teaching Vocabulary Session 3

10 What does it mean to “know” a word? To be able to use it accurately in all possible usages. Stress/Sounds etc in all forms Spelling Most commonly accepted meanings Its grammar Its range or diversity of meaning Its collocations

11 Do we learn vocabulary in the same way? The Acquisition of Vocabulary is… Branching not linear Personal not impersonal Social not solitary Experiential not purely intellectual

12 Which words should we teach? High frequency words: –in general English (from corpora) e.g. unemployment –in the classroom e.g. white board –in future situations for the sts e.g. interview General words –words that can be used in many situations e.g. stuff, thing etc. Easy words –radio, computer, + other cognates Words that temporarily make a reading/listening easier to understand –a reading about politics in the UK Prime Minister might be a useful word to pre-teach, but they are not likely to use it after the lesson. Words chosen by sts themselves. –If they have a need/ desire for a word they´re more likely to use/remember it.

13 Some tips Teach words in context rather than isolation, e.g. NOT window, but a window, Open the window, a window seat, etc. : contextualise Prioritise spoken forms over written (unless that´s what sts need): be selective based on utility Help sts see what's passive/active: don't practice everything equally: (help sts to) prioritize & limit learning load Avoid over-complex language where possible: K.I.S.S!

14 Some things to consider… –what words to teach –how many words to teach at a time –what order to teach them in –how to teach them –how to get sts to use them –how to test them Discuss in groups how you do this at the moment. What works, what doesn’t and why?

15 Practical ideas Visuals –flashcards –wall charts –realia –diagrams Lexical sets –word webs –clines (scale) –co-ordinate (groups of words e.g. red, blue, green) –synonym (similar word) –antonym (opposite) –prefix /suffix e.g. like, dislike, likeable

16 And more Physical action –mime –act –gesture –demonstration Matching activities –abc, 1,2,3 Explanation –Using L1 –Create a story Peer teaching –Words I know, words I think I know, words I don’t know –Deduce from context (from a reading/listening) –Using a dictionary

17 What’s the problem here? Discuss One st knows the word so T moves on. Sts often take notes while you´re teaching vocab What are other problems you have encountered? Each pair/group present your “problem” and solution

18 Work with a new partner You have 5 mins to decide how to teach some words to the rest of the group You will be given one word + you should make up another word

19 Learning journal entry What are the three most important things I have learned about teaching vocabulary? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

20 Teaching Functions Session 4 Understanding, knowledge and awareness of language

21 What is a function? Functions refer to what items of language actually do in a real context, as opposed to what they might mean literally.

22 Work with a partner Think of some examples of functions: Suggesting Criticising Refusing Agreeing and Disagreeing Enquiring Talking about the past Giving advice

23 What does the following phrase mean? 'What time do you call this?‘ The person wants to know the time But what’s the function? 'Why are you late? I'm very angry!‘ So… One form may have a number of functions depending on…. CONTEXT

24 3-way role-play Taxi driver and passenger + observer Winter day Taxi driver: impatient, in a hurry, bad traffic, no metre, no heating Passenger: cold, worried about how much to pay, wants to get to work Try it out!

25 Think back to the 3-way roleplay What functions did you use? What functions did the passenger use in the taxi? Some more polite ones…. I'm sorry to have to say this but... I'm sorry to bother you, but... Maybe you forgot to... I think you might have forgotten to... Excuse me if I'm out of line, but... There may have been a misunderstanding about... Don't get me wrong, but I think we should...

26 How would you teach a function? The same way as you teach vocab and grammar PPP or ARC Authentic Restrictive Clarification

27 What’s the link between PPP/ARC Authentic is the same as…. Production Restrictive is the same as ….. Practice Clarification is the same as ….. Presentation Discuss examples of exercises that incorporate these principles

28 So what’s the difference? You can use them in any order CRRA ARCC ARRCCA More examples!

29 Let’s look at this example and rank according to ARC The T presents information about an item of language The sts then work on oral practice of these items The sts do a written exercise to practise these items The sts are given the opportunity to use these items along with other language they know, in communicative activities.

30 Here’s another one… The T reviews the vocab from the previous class by getting sts in pairs and checking each other´s understanding. The T elicits what sts know about adverbs of frequency. The T then extends the sts knowledge by giving further examples. The T gets sts to rank the adverbs of frequency in pairs and feeds back to the B. The sts then mingle in the class and try to discover the daily routine of as many sts as possible.

31 Here’s another one – what’s wrong with these? The teacher explained at length, and at random, a number of different grammar points for the whole of the lesson. The teacher was not prepared and decided only once s/he was in the class to go through the workbook to revise what sts had been doing for the previous week - exercise 1,2,3…. A teacher at the end of semester wants to liven things up, so he sets a range of communicative activities and then gets the sts to write an essay.

32 Now have a look at your next lesson plan and decide whether there is a good range of ARC + P

33 Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about teaching functions? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

34 Teaching Literacy Session 5

35 What is literacy? Teaching learners to read/write. where does reading and writing finish and literacy start? Is speaking and listening literacy? There is a danger in the assumption that all learners are good readers and writers in their L1 when in fact many aren’t.

36 What type of problems do you think your learners have? Differences in form of…. Lower/upper case Letters/numbers Punctuation Page layout Cultural Issues

37 How can we help them learn? Copy/trace letters numbers Differentiation exercises Looking at language in context

38 What type of materials can we use? Commonly seen language Signs Adverts Forms + form filling Material for children to learn L1 (if appropriate)

39 Work in groups and decide how to deal with the following: A man from Baku studying and working for a multi-national firm (literate) A young girl from X coming to live in Baku (illiterate) An older illiterate refugee

40 Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about teaching literacy? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

41 Teaching Reading Session 6

42 How long does it take you to read? X P T A Q E W T jam hot pin call did tap son tick How quickly can you read and understand this?

43 What does this tell us? Words in isolation don’t mean much Our brains read faster than we do!

44 READ QUICKLY ( 5 seconds) The handsome knight mounted his horse, and galloped off to save the beautiful princess. On and on, over mountains and valleys, until his galloping house was exhausted. At last he dismounted….. Where was the dragon?

45 What was wrong? Why did/didn’t you notice the problem? Because your brains were reading ahead of you and didn’t notice the error What does this teach us? Faster reading helps comprehension

46 Yesterday I saw the palgish flester gollining begrunt the bruck. He seemed very chanderbil, so I did not jorter him, just deapled to him quistly. Perhaps later he will besand cander, and I will be able to rangel him. 1. What was the flester doing and where? 2. What sort of flester was he? 3. Why did the writer decide not to jorter him? 4. How did she deaple? 5. What did she hope would happen later?

47 What did the reading text teach us? We have strategies for working out words – even if we don’t know the majority of the vocab. So? Teach strategies – they are more important than getting text answers right

48 So can we use an authentic text with a low level group? Yes The important thing is to grade the task not the text What is important about the first task that we do with a receptive skill? What types of reading can we do?

49 1. Skimming.2. Scanning. 3. Receptive Reading. 4. Intensive Reading A) You read a poem by a poet you particularly like. You enjoy paying close attention to the poet's use of language. B) You visit a library in the course of researching a particular topic. You quickly look through books and articles in order to ascertain whether they contain information on this topic and are therefore worth borrowing. C) You are on holiday and sit down to read the latest thriller by your favourite writer. There is no pressure on you to finish it quickly. D) While waiting for an appointment you pick up a magazine and discover it contains an article of great interest to you. You do not have time to read the article in detail, but you want to extract as much information from it as you can in the few minutes you have.

50 Questions Which reading skill do you use most? Which reading skill do you teach most in class? Can you use more than one skill with a text, if so which order would you get your students to use the skills? True or False? Faster reading aids comprehension.

51 What are the stages of a reading lesson? Generate interest / set the scene Elicit / pre-teach key lexis. Set question(s)/task(s) for skimming comprehension Read Pair up students to compare their answers. Monitor the students Have students report back to the whole class Check and confirm answers. Set new question(s)/tasks(s) for more detailed comprehension (scanning) Read Do another pair/group check, then report open class again

52 Recommendations Make sure your students get a lot of successful reading experience: through encouraging them to choose their own graded readers, for example, and giving them time to read. Make sure that most of the vocabulary in reading texts is familiar to your students, and that words that are unknown can either be easily guessed or safely ignored. Give interesting tasks before asking students to read, so that they have a clear purpose and motivating challenge - get them to read the first paragraph, and get them to write their own questions - the answers that they want to get from the text.

53 And more… Make sure that the tasks encourage selective, intelligent reading for the main meaning, and do not just test understanding of trivial details. Allow, and even encourage students to manage without understanding every word: by the use of scanning tasks, for example, that require them to focus on limited items of information. Provide as wide a variety of texts and tasks as you can, to give learners practice in different types of reading. Grade the task not the text

54 Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about teaching reading? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

55 Teaching Listening Session 7

56 4 skills Divide the time adults spend on the 4 skills to make 100% Listening % Speaking 25 – 30% Reading 11 – 16% Writing 9% Rivers in Gilman and Moody 1984:331, quoted in Vandergrift, L. Facilitating second language listening comprehension: acquiring successful strategies, ELTJ 53/3 July 1999

57 Live listening Many students whose general abilities in English are quite good – or so they thought - report a traumatic period after their first arrival in an English-speaking country. For quite some time - days, weeks or months, depending on the student, they can understand little or nothing of what is said to them’. (Rixon, S. Developing Listening Skills p36)

58 Reasons why listening is important Listening is vital in the language classroom because it provides input for the learner. Without understandable input at the right level, any learning simply cannot begin. Spoken language provides a means of interaction for the learner. Since learners must interact to achieve understanding, access to speakers of the language is essential. Moreover, learners’ failure to understand the language they hear is an impetus, not an obstacle, to interaction and learning. Authentic spoken language presents a challenge for the learner to attempt to understand language as it is actually used by native speakers. Listening exercises provide teachers with a means for drawing learners’ attention to new forms (vocabulary, grammar, interaction patterns) in the language. In addition to creating the right conditions for language development, listening can also provide enjoyment and stimulate cultural interests, participation in the target culture (via movies, radio, TV, songs, plays), appreciation of the beauty of the language (figures of speech, sayings, colloquial expressions) and fulfilment of social needs (development of relationships, confidence, gathering information for every day survival needs)’. (Rost, M. Introducing Listening chapter 10 section 3.2)

59 2 listening roles Interactive Non-interactive What type of listening do you do in a normal day?

60 Do the following encourage top-down processing or bottom-up processing? Ask students to guess content of a dialogue from accompanying picture Listen to a dialogue and guess where the speakers are Raise your hand when you hear words with the sound Predict which of these topics will be covered in this TV documentary Listen to and watch a video and assess the speaker’s attitude Listen and fill in the gaps Listen and repeat Dictation of a text

61 What’s involved in listening and understanding? Schematic knowledge e.g. news reader Knowledge of context Knowledge of language Top-down / Bottom-up processing

62 What problems do your sts have with listening? The Speaker The Text The Listener

63 The Speaker Low volume, poor voice quality, monotonous, speed of delivery too fast Uses unfamiliar language Doesn’t organise discourse coherently Lack of appreciation of listener’s difficulties The situation Background noise No or few visual/environmental clues to aid comprehension

64 The Text Unfamiliar topic Unfamiliar language (lexis, phonological patterns etc.)

65 The listener Lack of knowledge of the topic Failure to exploit visual or environmental clues Unrealistic expectations Lack of concentration or interest Lack of familiarity with the language and phonological features

66 Thinking about your Teaching of Listening Why do you do listening in the classroom? Is it for teaching and practising language or for teaching and developing listening skills? Do you believe we learn to listen by listening? What’s the difference between testing and teaching listening skills? Can we teach listening in a systematic way? What kind of listening tasks do you use? What are the aims? Do you think you should use authentic materials? Do you think you should use graded materials? What sources of listening material are available to you?

67 ‘Practice is the most important thing. The more listening the better, and the sub skills will take care of themselves as they become atomised’. Ridgway T. Listening Strategies- I beg your pardon? ELTJ 54/2 April 2000 Do you agree?

68 Problems with the traditional approach Not much time is spent on actually listening to the tape. Not much time is spent on analysing what went wrong. The teacher takes on the sole responsibility for building up an understanding of the listening text on the part of the students. It assumes that there is only one way of listening to something. Classroom listening very often puts students in the position of passive overhearers. The tasks do not stress the links between listening and speaking. We often expect 100% comprehension.

69 Finding Solutions to Problems The following problems arise in your class. What ‘remedial action’ might you decide to take? Students miss the main point because they didn’t pick out key lexical items. In a roleplay one of the speakers falls silent as a result of not understanding what their partner said. Confusion arises over a misunderstood word (can/can’t) in a dialogue. Students fail to recognise the speaker’s attitude through intonation. Students get the wrong end of the stick because of misunderstanding a cultural reference. Difficulties in understanding the news on the radio. Not recognising links between different parts of what is said. Students say they can’t understand a word of a short conversation because it’s too fast.

70 Other ideas….? Authentic texts Graded texts The teacher Other live speakers of English The students Video Audio Homemade See handout for answers…..

71 Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about teaching listening? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

72 Spoken Discourse Session 8

73 Defining discourse 1. What is ‘discourse’? Write your own definition 2. ‘Coherence’ is a key feature of all discourse. What is it? 3. Make a list of features of written discourse you remember:

74 Differences between spoken and written discourse shorter sentences simpler vocabulary and conjunctions Speaking is normally a dialogue while writing is normally a monologue; We adjust our message according to the immediate feedback Little or no planning time It may not be absolutely grammatically correct People may interrupt us or may finish our thoughts for us. We use sentence stress and intonation to convey meaning and we can use paralinguistic features such as gesture, facial expression and other body language if we are not on the phone.

75 Features of Spoken Discourse Spoken language occurs within cultural and social contexts. Spoken language is used to achieve different cultural and social purposes. There is a systematic relationship between spoken language and the context in which it is used. Spoken language is used to construct and maintain interpersonal and pragmatic social relationships. Spoken texts are dynamic and are sites for the negotiation of meaning and power. Spoken discourse needs to be analysed from the socio-cultural perspective and the analysis needs to give a socially situated account of the text. Spoken language needs to be taught as connected text and not as sequences of single utterances, phrases or words. (Burns et al, p. 28)

76 Purposes and Functions of Conversation Conversation can be defined as purposeful spoken interaction between two or more people. Think about conversations you had yesterday; identify the purpose(s) of three of them.

77 What’s the relationship between the speakers? a) Got the time? b) I guess it must be quite late now – is it? c) What’s the time? d) Do you have the time? e) Would you know what time it is? f) Could I trouble you for the time? What are the implications of this for the classroom?

78 What lexical, phonological or grammatical changes have taken place in these exchanges? what does the change tell us? a) Have you seen the manager? vs Have you seen the boss? b) Whachadoin’? vs What are you doing? c) Shove over mate. vs Could you let me through please? d) Seen Joe lately? vs Have you seen Joe lately? e) Could you lend me a fiver? vs Could you lend me £5? f) We were out at the cinema, innit? vs We were out at the cinema, weren’t we? g) What do you mean? Vs Whaddaya mean?

79 What are the similarities between spoken and written discourse? cohesion (both grammatical and lexical), reference, conjunction, ellipsis, and substitution

80 Tell your partner the function of the language in bold A. We had hired this car because it was cheaper than all of us trying to take the train to the wedding… B. uhuh A. And we were no sooner on the M4 when suddenly the engine just stopped and we drifted onto the hard shoulder with all the traffic whizzing past and then we had to wait forever for AA to come B. I know A. Can you believe no one had filled the tank before we left the car rental place? The tank was completely empty and we’d been driving on fumes! So in the end we missed the ceremony itself and just made it to the reception. B. That sounds awful but at least you made it, eventually. Look would you guys be interested in seeing the film at the Odeon Friday night?

81 Take the part of ‘B’ in each of the following speech acts – adjacency pairs 1. a) (A telephonist for a small company): Good morning, Waters Plumbing. Can I help you? b) (Calling re a drain problem) a) Can I come in? b) a) It’s just gorgeous today, isn’t it? b) a) Thank you very much. b) a) How are you? b)

82 Review Adjacency Pairs Teachers are normally good at working with them Students don’t know how to use them They end up using the adj pair that they learned – even if it doesn’t reflect their true answer

83 Tell your partners what you know about turn taking Listen in on other people’s conversations and work out the strategies that they are using – to hold the floor – or to use adjacency pairs

84 Cultural Appropriacy Tell your partner what strategies you use to start conversations with British native speakers That you know/ That you don’t know How is this different in your language? Which topics are taboo?

85 Conversational Repair What is it? What are the effects for our teaching?

86 Stress and Intonation – have a look at a couple of examples: Your sandwich’s on the table next to your glasses. Where’re you going on holiday?

87 Gesture and Body Language What are the differences between X and X? How does it effect communication?

88 Tell your partner what you have learned in today’s session.

89 Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about teaching spoken discourse? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

90 Presenting New Language Session 9

91 What are the three types of language that you can present? grammar points functions lexical points

92 Present through Context : To create the situation you can use pictures, descriptions, mime etc A generative situation – so that students get several examples of the language situation: e.g. He was burgled while he was on holiday He should’ve locked the back door He shouldn’t have left the window open. It can be more economical than creating lots of different situations and is less confusing.

93 More ideas Make sure that there is some form of personalisation to make the language more memorable Use real objects (realia) to aid comprehension and memory. Use a text (listening or reading) for examples of the TL.

94 What next? Once the students have seen/heard the TL then there are two main ways in which you can work with it:

95 through some form of guided discovery (problem solving) Students are given samples of the TL to work with and they try to work out “the rule”. The Teacher then makes the rule clear and then the students practice the language item. e.g. Students look at several sentences containing nouns and try to work out why the definite article has been included or omitted. He wanted to go to the party. How many parties have you been to this month?

96 Through a teacher guided explanation The teacher explains what the rule is (what the language item means and how it works grammatically) and the students study examples to see the rule in operation: e.g. On the board (visual explanation )

97 Qu: Where does he study? A: He studies at Baku university. T: So to make the question for the present simple you…? use a question word at the front place the auxiliary verb before the subject…. Etc.

98 Other ideas For vocabulary specifically – contrast or similarity are good tools to use Translation - this can be quick and easy, so don’t discount it as an idea. you, the teacher, need to know the language well for grammar translation – not necessarily for vocab translation. Not always possible for multi-lingual classes Students start to rely on it

99 How do you decide which way to present the language? the nature of the target item is it a grammar item? is it a functional expression? is the meaning easy/difficult to understand? is the form easy/difficult to manipulate? Is the student able to transfer relevant knowledge from their own language?

100 A couple of other ideas the level, age, and preferred learning style of you students what the students already know about the target item – is it similar to already known items?

101 Easy or complex? If the item is easy to understand and use, it could be presented through a problem solving activity or an explanation. If it is a more complex grammar rule, it should be presented through some form of situational context in which the meaning is clear – it can then be dealt with through teacher presentation later on.

102 What stages should any presentation lesson include? –the meaning is made clear. –the form is made clear. –students’ understanding of the meaning is checked – students’ initial ability to pronounce and manipulate the form is checked –students are able to personalise (even if only in a limited way) the TL. –the language is consolidated on the board.

103 Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about presenting new language to students? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

104 Controlled Practice + Drilling Session 10

105 What are the stages of a presentation lesson? What stage does Controlled Practice fit into a presentation lesson? Present (Controlled) Practice (Freer Practice) / Production

106 When presenting new language what is important + in what order? Meaning is clear Pronunciation is clear Form is clear (grammar and spelling) How do we make sure that each stage is clear?

107 When does drilling come into the lesson? Either in: The controlled practice… The presentation ….. At any stage Which is more likely?

108 Which should come first…? Meaning or Drilling? Why?

109 With a partner think of as many ways of drilling as possible

110 Here are some suggestions: Choral Individual or random drills Male or female Half or half As or Bs Open pairs Closed pairs Student lead drill Whisper, loud, shout, sing, mouth silently Fast, slow Flat intonation, exaggerated intonation Change stress Scottish accent Substitution drill Next step drill (x1) Multiple step drill Jazz chants Find someone who…

111 What are fingers useful for? Drilling to show missing or separate/joined words. E.g. I’m tired Drilling to show difficult sounds To show syllables and stress.

112 Some questions about drills: What should be the first drill of a new word? What are the instructions for a drill? When do we (usually) decide to drill? What should come first drill or written? Why? Should we drill individual words? Should we use standard intonation/stress when drilling? Is drilling more common with upper or lower levels? Banana, banana, banana!

113 What is controlled practice? What is the aim of it? What is the teacher’s role in controlled practice? What usually follows controlled practice?

114 What are some types of controlled practice activities? Matching (abc,123) Gap Fills Multiple Choice Sentence transformations Listing / Ranking / Ordering True / False

115 What stage have we missed out? Presentation Practice Production …..and? Personalisation / Personalization

116 What do you think we are going to do next? Yes, you guessed it…. We are going to try it out You will have a word or phrase Come to the front and drill in at least 2 ways + create a written record Remember be careful with your board writing!

117 Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about drilling and controlled practice? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

118 Session 11

119 Weak forms Intrusion and Linking Elision Ways of working with Connected Speech

120 When we speak naturally we do not pronounce a word, stop, then say the next word in the sentence. Fluent speech flows with a rhythm and the words bump into each other. To make speech flow smoothly the way we pronounce the end and beginning of some words can change depending on the sounds at the beginning and end of those words.

121 Fish and chips A dog and a cat He can play the piano really well A pint of milk A: Have you been to Paris? B: Yes, I have. You should have come to the party.

122 They need to understand them to aid comprehension and they need to use them so that their language sounds more natural.

123 How many words do you hear? A mini dictation to see what they can pick up Unnatural speech – record yourself saying a sentence as if it was just a list of words – sts then try to improve. Teach it along with new language – going to, a can of coke.

124 When two vowel sounds meet, we tend to insert an extra sound which resembles either a / j /, / w / or / r /, to mark the transition sound between the two vowels, a device referred to as intrusion.

125 Intruding / r/ The media / r /are to blame. Intruding / j / I / j / agree. They / j /are here! Intruding / w/ I want to/ w/eat. Please do/ w/it.

126 Do/ w /up Lay / j / up Go/ w /away Go / w / out

127 I want to eat a sandwich. It’s no joke. Law and order. The media are covering the trial. I agree. Don’t do it. They are here.

128 A native speaker's aim in connecting words is for maximum ease and efficiency of tongue movement when getting our message across. In minimizing our efforts, we weaken our articulation. If articulation is weakened too much, the sound may disappear altogether, a process known as elision. It is the vowels from unstressed syllables which are the first to be elided in non-precise pronunciation.

129 A syllable containing the unstressed "schwa" is often lost. For example: sim(i)lar, lib(ra)ry, diff(e)rent, t(o)night.

130 For example: san(d)wich The same process can occur across word boundaries, for example, mus(t) be

131 For example: you shouldn´t (h)ave tell (h)im.

132 Interest Library Christmas You and me The first three You must tell him Different Tell him You shouldn’t have. We stopped for lunch

133 Work with phonemes and write phrases out phonetically Teach it when you teach new language e.g. superlatives. Drill the students with connected speech. Work with phrasal verbs e.g. get out, put on, come out. With listenings get them to say the number of words + maybe work on dictation

134 Have you tried to listen to the BBC News?

135 Have a look at what you are teaching over the next couple of days and see if you can find some examples of connected speech

136 Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about teaching connected speech? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

137 Collocation Session 12

138 What is collocation? “The way words combine to make phrases and expressions” Michael Lewis 2001 LTP

139 Which of the following is correct? A strong wind A great wind A gentle wind Does the same thing happen in your language? “Collocation is one of the most powerful forces in making language coherent, fluent, comprehensible and predictable”Michael Lewis 2001 LTP

140 Step game Plain Dark White Bitter Milk Bar of

141 Step game Collect Provide Volunteer Conceal Gather Withhold

142 Step game – expressions upstairs in luxury alone beyond your means to a ripe old age

143 Causehomework a job your best Makepanic a problem embarrassment Do for a walk shopping crazy Gofriends love a cake

144 1. This coffee is very weak. I like it a bit ……………. 2. The hotel was surprisingly big. I expected it to be ……………. 3. The hotel was surprisingly cheap. I expected it to be ……………. 4. The weather is too cold in this country. I’d like to live somewhere ……………. 5. My job is a bit boring sometimes. I’d like to do something ………………….. 6. I was surprised how easy it was to use the computer. I thought it would be ………………………………. 7. Your work isn’t very good. I’m sure you can do …………….. 8. Don’t worry. The situation isn’t so bad. It could be ………………. 9. I was surprised we got here so quickly. I expected the journey to take …………………… It ’ s too noisy here. Can we go somewhere ………….?

145 What does this mean for teaching? Teach word patterns Get students to find patterns in receptive texts Get sts to predict more Don’t give – make them work for it Ask why!

146 Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about collocation? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

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