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Teacher Training Programme

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Presentation on theme: "Teacher Training Programme"— Presentation transcript:

1 Teacher Training Programme
TOPIC AREA 1

2 Topic Area 1 - key objectives
Understanding knowledge and awareness of language teaching Specific needs in Azerbaijan - the teaching and learning context Incorporation of relevant ministry standards

3 What is a language teacher?
Complete the quiz independently Then compare with a partner Let’s discuss….

4

5 Teaching context here Huge influx of new graduate teachers
Have to operate within constraints of ministry We have to use new textbooks We don’t get enough support We have heavy teaching timetables We don’t get paid enough! It’s hard to teach learners who are “x” age I don’t want to spend lots of time preparing materials

6 Learning context here In your groups, think about the learners’ experience of being taught English by you. What are their pressures, concerns, issues? How can these best be addressed?

7 Learning journal entry
What are three key things I have learned today from our discussions? What are three things I can do differently - whether in my teaching, how I work with colleagues or how I deal with challenges

8 Ministry standards What are the key areas to be incorporated?
How do we ensure we are keeping up-to-date and that these standards are met? What practical tools can we create ourselves i.e check lists, plans, internal support?

9 Teaching Vocabulary Session 3

10 What does it mean to “know” a word?
To be able to use it accurately in all possible usages. Stress/Sounds etc in all forms Spelling Most commonly accepted meanings Its grammar Its range or diversity of meaning Its collocations Elicit from group first, write their ideas on flipchart and then affirm/confirm/plug gaps with this slide

11 Do we learn vocabulary in the same way?
The Acquisition of Vocabulary is… Branching not linear Personal not impersonal Social not solitary Experiential not purely intellectual You could split group into threes, give each trio one of these to discuss and feed back to whole group

12 Which words should we teach?
High frequency words: in general English (from corpora) e.g. unemployment in the classroom e.g. white board in future situations for the sts e.g. interview General words words that can be used in many situations e.g. stuff, thing etc. Easy words radio, computer, + other cognates Words that temporarily make a reading/listening easier to understand a reading about politics in the UK Prime Minister might be a useful word to pre-teach, but they are not likely to use it after the lesson. Words chosen by sts themselves. If they have a need/ desire for a word they´re more likely to use/remember it. You can turn this into an exercise by letting teachers answer this or give them the headings and get them to come up with the content. Or just present the slide, depending on how much time you have

13 Some tips Teach words in context rather than isolation, e.g. NOT window, but a window, Open the window, a window seat, etc. : contextualise Prioritise spoken forms over written (unless that´s what sts need): be selective based on utility Help sts see what's passive/active: don't practice everything equally: (help sts to) prioritize & limit learning load Avoid over-complex language where possible: K.I.S.S!

14 Some things to consider…
what words to teach how many words to teach at a time what order to teach them in how to teach them how to get sts to use them how to test them Discuss in groups how you do this at the moment. What works, what doesn’t and why?

15 Practical ideas Visuals Lexical sets flashcards wall charts realia
diagrams Lexical sets word webs clines (scale) co-ordinate (groups of words e.g. red, blue, green) synonym (similar word) antonym (opposite) prefix /suffix e.g. like, dislike, likeable If you have time you may want teachers to try this out for themselves or get them to do this as homework and bring in examples

16 And more Physical action mime act gesture demonstration
Matching activities abc, 1,2,3 Explanation Using L1 Create a story Peer teaching Words I know, words I think I know, words I don’t know Deduce from context (from a reading/listening) Using a dictionary

17 What’s the problem here? Discuss
One st knows the word so T moves on. Sts often take notes while you´re teaching vocab What are other problems you have encountered? Each pair/group present your “problem” and solution

18 Work with a new partner You have 5 mins to decide how to teach some words to the rest of the group You will be given one word + you should make up another word

19 Learning journal entry
What are the three most important things I have learned about teaching vocabulary? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

20 Teaching Functions Session 4
Understanding, knowledge and awareness of language 20

21 What is a function? Functions refer to what items of language actually do in a real context, as opposed to what they might mean literally. Show this slide and then ask for some examples before moving on to next slide 21

22 Work with a partner Think of some examples of functions: Suggesting
Criticising Refusing Agreeing and Disagreeing Enquiring Talking about the past Giving advice 22

23 What does the following phrase mean?
'What time do you call this?‘ The person wants to know the time But what’s the function? 'Why are you late? I'm very angry!‘ So… One form may have a number of functions depending on…. CONTEXT 23

24 3-way role-play Taxi driver and passenger + observer Winter day
Taxi driver: impatient, in a hurry, bad traffic, no metre, no heating Passenger: cold, worried about how much to pay, wants to get to work Try it out! Trainer: set role play with three teachers. Get them to try out and reverse roles. Purpose is to just see what kind of language comes up. Note down some of the more interesting language used! Then take them through the review activity overleaf

25 Think back to the 3-way roleplay
What functions did you use? What functions did the passenger use in the taxi? Some more polite ones…. I'm sorry to have to say this but... I'm sorry to bother you, but... Maybe you forgot to... I think you might have forgotten to... Excuse me if I'm out of line, but... There may have been a misunderstanding about... Don't get me wrong, but I think we should... 25

26 How would you teach a function?
The same way as you teach vocab and grammar PPP or ARC Authentic Restrictive Clarification Trainer - refresh these with teachers if unfamiliar or new! Get them to show you how they would do this!! 26

27 What’s the link between PPP/ARC
Authentic is the same as…. Production Restrictive is the same as ….. Practice Clarification is the same as ….. Presentation Discuss examples of exercises that incorporate these principles Split into groups and let them come up with some examples of exercises - keep the focus on teaching functions though! 27

28 So what’s the difference?
You can use them in any order CRRA ARCC ARRCCA More examples! 28

29 Let’s look at this example and rank according to ARC
The T presents information about an item of language The sts then work on oral practice of these items The sts do a written exercise to practise these items The sts are given the opportunity to use these items along with other language they know, in communicative activities. Let teachers come up with this. 29

30 Here’s another one… The T reviews the vocab from the previous class by getting sts in pairs and checking each other´s understanding. The T elicits what sts know about adverbs of frequency. The T then extends the sts knowledge by giving further examples. The T gets sts to rank the adverbs of frequency in pairs and feeds back to the B. The sts then mingle in the class and try to discover the daily routine of as many sts as possible. 30

31 Here’s another one – what’s wrong with these?
The teacher explained at length, and at random, a number of different grammar points for the whole of the lesson. The teacher was not prepared and decided only once s/he was in the class to go through the workbook to revise what sts had been doing for the previous week - exercise 1,2,3…. A teacher at the end of semester wants to liven things up, so he sets a range of communicative activities and then gets the sts to write an essay. Again, to raise awareness. Note, some teachers may actually do this so it’s good to show third party examples and get them to discuss so as to raise awareness! 31

32 Now have a look at your next lesson plan and decide whether there is a good range of ARC + P
Encourage teachers to bring examples of their own lesson plans or use some from the British Council resources in the trainers’ pack 32

33 Learning Journal Entry
What are the three most important things I have learned about teaching functions? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

34 Teaching Literacy Session 5

35 What is literacy? Teaching learners to read/write.
where does reading and writing finish and literacy start?  Is speaking and listening literacy? There is a danger in the assumption that all learners are good readers and writers in their L1 when in fact many aren’t. Elicit definitions from teachers - perhaps split them into pairs and they come up with their own definition. Then you can get them to discuss the views on the slide

36 What type of problems do you think your learners have?
Differences in form of…. Lower/upper case Letters/numbers Punctuation Page layout Cultural Issues Get them to tell you first. They may have plenty of examples and if not, you can encourage ideas through this slide

37 How can we help them learn?
Copy/trace letters numbers Differentiation exercises Looking at language in context Get teachers to come up with the solutions to each other’s problems!

38 What type of materials can we use?
Commonly seen language Signs Adverts Forms + form filling Material for children to learn L1 (if appropriate) Need to match some of these things to the target learners teachers are working with

39 Work in groups and decide how to deal with the following:
A man from Baku studying and working for a multi-national firm (literate) A young girl from X coming to live in Baku (illiterate) An older illiterate refugee These scenarios need to be contextualized for different target groups so these are just examples

40 Learning Journal Entry
What are the three most important things I have learned about teaching literacy? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

41 Teaching Reading Session 6
41

42 How long does it take you to read?
X P T A Q E W T jam hot pin call did tap son tick How quickly can you read and understand this? Get teachers to tell you 42

43 What does this tell us? Words in isolation don’t mean much
Our brains read faster than we do! Elicit first! Then show slide to confirm/affirm 43

44 READ QUICKLY ( 5 seconds)
The handsome knight mounted his horse, and galloped off to save the beautiful princess. On and on, over mountains and valleys, until his galloping house was exhausted. At last he dismounted….. Where was the dragon? Get teachers to do this! 44

45 What was wrong? Why did/didn’t you notice the problem?
Because your brains were reading ahead of you and didn’t notice the error What does this teach us? Faster reading helps comprehension Elicit first, then show slide to confirm/affirm 45

46 1. What was the flester doing and where?
Yesterday I saw the palgish flester gollining begrunt the bruck. He seemed very chanderbil, so I did not jorter him, just deapled to him quistly. Perhaps later he will besand cander, and I will be able to rangel him. 1. What was the flester doing and where? 2. What sort of flester was he? 3. Why did the writer decide not to jorter him? 4. How did she deaple? 5. What did she hope would happen later? This is deliberate use of “play language” to drive home a point of understanding something in context even if you do not know the individual words! 46

47 What did the reading text teach us?
We have strategies for working out words – even if we don’t know the majority of the vocab. So? Teach strategies – they are more important than getting text answers right You might want to encourage teachers to discuss this. Or provide them with texts where they could work on some reading strategies they could teach their learners. This approach may also generate a lot of discussion and teachers may need to do some or would benefit from doing some of their own research in this area 47

48 So can we use an authentic text with a low level group?
Yes The important thing is to grade the task not the text What is important about the first task that we do with a receptive skill? What types of reading can we do? Might be good here to show an example, perhaps from one of the text books they use or will have to use 48

49 1. Skimming. 2. Scanning. 3. Receptive Reading. 4. Intensive Reading
A) You read a poem by a poet you particularly like. You enjoy paying close attention to the poet's use of language. B) You visit a library in the course of researching a particular topic. You quickly look through books and articles in order to ascertain whether they contain information on this topic and are therefore worth borrowing. C) You are on holiday and sit down to read the latest thriller by your favourite writer. There is no pressure on you to finish it quickly. D) While waiting for an appointment you pick up a magazine and discover it contains an article of great interest to you. You do not have time to read the article in detail, but you want to extract as much information from it as you can in the few minutes you have. Get teachers to allocate the type of reading with the activity 49

50 Questions Which reading skill do you use most?
Which reading skill do you teach most in class? Can you use more than one skill with a text, if so which order would you get your students to use the skills? True or False? Faster reading aids comprehension. Get them to do this in pairs/small groups and feed back to you 50

51 What are the stages of a reading lesson?
Generate interest / set the scene Elicit / pre-teach key lexis. Set question(s)/task(s) for skimming comprehension Read Pair up students to compare their answers. Monitor the students Have students report back to the whole class Check and confirm answers. Set new question(s)/tasks(s) for more detailed comprehension (scanning) Do another pair/group check, then report open class again Split teachers into groups and get them to produce what they think the stages are before you show them this slide. You could also encourage some peer teaching exercises if time allows by getting teachers to practice this sequence through provision of a reading text which they peer teach others. Very effective! 51

52 Recommendations Make sure your students get a lot of successful reading experience: through encouraging them to choose their own graded readers, for example, and giving them time to read. Make sure that most of the vocabulary in reading texts is familiar to your students, and that words that are unknown can either be easily guessed or safely ignored. Give interesting tasks before asking students to read, so that they have a clear purpose and motivating challenge - get them to read the first paragraph, and get them to write their own questions - the answers that they want to get from the text. You could ask for their ideas first depending on level/experience of your teachers 52

53 And more… Make sure that the tasks encourage selective, intelligent reading for the main meaning, and do not just test understanding of trivial details. Allow, and even encourage students to manage without understanding every word: by the use of scanning tasks, for example, that require them to focus on limited items of information. Provide as wide a variety of texts and tasks as you can, to give learners practice in different types of reading. Grade the task not the text Depending on time available and experience of your teachers, you may want to set them a task to do as homework to bring in next session to show examples of this 53

54 Learning Journal Entry
What are the three most important things I have learned about teaching reading? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

55 Teaching Listening Session 7

56 4 skills Divide the time adults spend on the 4 skills to make 100%
Listening % Speaking 25 – 30% Reading 11 – 16% Writing 9% Rivers in Gilman and Moody 1984:331, quoted in Vandergrift, L. Facilitating second language listening comprehension: acquiring successful strategies, ELTJ 53/3 July 1999 First get teachers to decide on the time spent before showing them this slide. The results are quite revealing and may make them question how much time they focus on which skills!

57 Live listening Many students whose general abilities in English are quite good – or so they thought - report a traumatic period after their first arrival in an English-speaking country. For quite some time - days, weeks or months, depending on the student, they can understand little or nothing of what is said to them’. (Rixon, S. Developing Listening Skills p36) Ask teachers what they think of this or,even, if they can identify with this and if so, how?

58 Reasons why listening is important
Listening is vital in the language classroom because it provides input for the learner. Without understandable input at the right level, any learning simply cannot begin. Spoken language provides a means of interaction for the learner. Since learners must interact to achieve understanding, access to speakers of the language is essential. Moreover, learners’ failure to understand the language they hear is an impetus, not an obstacle, to interaction and learning. Authentic spoken language presents a challenge for the learner to attempt to understand language as it is actually used by native speakers. Listening exercises provide teachers with a means for drawing learners’ attention to new forms (vocabulary, grammar, interaction patterns) in the language. In addition to creating the right conditions for language development, listening can also provide enjoyment and stimulate cultural interests, participation in the target culture (via movies, radio, TV, songs, plays), appreciation of the beauty of the language (figures of speech, sayings, colloquial expressions) and fulfilment of social needs (development of relationships, confidence, gathering information for every day survival needs)’. (Rost, M. Introducing Listening chapter 10 section 3.2) Elicit first and see what they come up with

59 2 listening roles Interactive Non-interactive
What type of listening do you do in a normal day? Ask them to give you examples

60 Do the following encourage top-down processing or bottom-up processing?
Ask students to guess content of a dialogue from accompanying picture Listen to a dialogue and guess where the speakers are Raise your hand when you hear words with the sound Predict which of these topics will be covered in this TV documentary Listen to and watch a video and assess the speaker’s attitude Listen and fill in the gaps Listen and repeat Dictation of a text Get them to think about this. If you want to, and time permits, try this out with them so they can put themselves into the shoes of their learners

61 What’s involved in listening and understanding?
Schematic knowledge e.g. news reader Knowledge of context Knowledge of language Top-down / Bottom-up processing

62 What problems do your sts have with listening?
The Speaker The Text The Listener Split into groups and get them to feed back typical problems they experience within each of these

63 The Speaker Low volume, poor voice quality, monotonous, speed of delivery too fast Uses unfamiliar language Doesn’t organise discourse coherently Lack of appreciation of listener’s difficulties The situation Background noise No or few visual/environmental clues to aid comprehension Let groups feed back first and then show this slide to confirm/affirm what they have come up with

64 The Text Unfamiliar topic
Unfamiliar language (lexis, phonological patterns etc.) See previous slide trainer notes

65 The listener Lack of knowledge of the topic
Failure to exploit visual or environmental clues Unrealistic expectations Lack of concentration or interest Lack of familiarity with the language and phonological features See previous slide trainer notes

66 Thinking about your Teaching of Listening
Why do you do listening in the classroom? Is it for teaching and practising language or for teaching and developing listening skills? Do you believe we learn to listen by listening? What’s the difference between testing and teaching listening skills? Can we teach listening in a systematic way? What kind of listening tasks do you use? What are the aims? Do you think you should use authentic materials? Do you think you should use graded materials? What sources of listening material are available to you? Split into groups and give each group one or two of these to discuss and then present back to whole group

67 ‘Practice is the most important thing
‘Practice is the most important thing. The more listening the better, and the sub skills will take care of themselves as they become atomised’. Ridgway T. Listening Strategies- I beg your pardon? ELTJ 54/2 April 2000 Do you agree? They may well agree with this. You are about to contradict this with the next slide which should encourage some discussion

68 Problems with the traditional approach
Not much time is spent on actually listening to the tape. Not much time is spent on analysing what went wrong. The teacher takes on the sole responsibility for building up an understanding of the listening text on the part of the students. It assumes that there is only one way of listening to something. Classroom listening very often puts students in the position of passive overhearers. The tasks do not stress the links between listening and speaking. We often expect 100% comprehension.

69 Finding Solutions to Problems
The following problems arise in your class. What ‘remedial action’ might you decide to take? Students miss the main point because they didn’t pick out key lexical items. In a roleplay one of the speakers falls silent as a result of not understanding what their partner said. Confusion arises over a misunderstood word (can/can’t) in a dialogue. Students fail to recognise the speaker’s attitude through intonation. Students get the wrong end of the stick because of misunderstanding a cultural reference. Difficulties in understanding the news on the radio. Not recognising links between different parts of what is said. Students say they can’t understand a word of a short conversation because it’s too fast. Let them come up with solutions in pairs

70 Other ideas….? Authentic texts Graded texts The teacher
Other live speakers of English The students Video Audio Homemade See handout for answers…..

71 Learning Journal Entry
What are the three most important things I have learned about teaching listening? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

72 Spoken Discourse Session 8

73 Defining discourse 1. What is ‘discourse’? Write your own definition
2. ‘Coherence’ is a key feature of all discourse. What is it? 3. Make a list of features of written discourse you remember: Let them do this individually first and then compare in small groups

74 Differences between spoken and written discourse
shorter sentences simpler vocabulary and conjunctions Speaking is normally a dialogue while writing is normally a monologue; We adjust our message according to the immediate feedback Little or no planning time It may not be absolutely grammatically correct People may interrupt us or may finish our thoughts for us. We use sentence stress and intonation to convey meaning and we can use paralinguistic features such as gesture, facial expression and other body language if we are not on the phone. Elicit first with whole group, write up and then show slide to affirm/confirm or fill gaps

75 Features of Spoken Discourse
Spoken language occurs within cultural and social contexts. Spoken language is used to achieve different cultural and social purposes. There is a systematic relationship between spoken language and the context in which it is used. Spoken language is used to construct and maintain interpersonal and pragmatic social relationships. Spoken texts are dynamic and are sites for the negotiation of meaning and power. Spoken discourse needs to be analysed from the socio-cultural perspective and the analysis needs to give a socially situated account of the text. Spoken language needs to be taught as connected text and not as sequences of single utterances, phrases or words. (Burns et al, p. 28)

76 Purposes and Functions of Conversation
Conversation can be defined as purposeful spoken interaction between two or more people. Think about conversations you had yesterday; identify the purpose(s) of three of them. Get examples of these

77 What’s the relationship between the speakers?
a) Got the time? b) I guess it must be quite late now – is it? c) What’s the time? d) Do you have the time? e) Would you know what time it is? f) Could I trouble you for the time? What are the implications of this for the classroom?

78 What lexical, phonological or grammatical changes have taken place in these exchanges? what does the change tell us? a) Have you seen the manager? vs Have you seen the boss? b) Whachadoin’? vs What are you doing? c) Shove over mate. vs Could you let me through please? d) Seen Joe lately? vs Have you seen Joe lately? e) Could you lend me a fiver? vs Could you lend me £5? f) We were out at the cinema, innit? vs We were out at the cinema, weren’t we? g) What do you mean? Vs Whaddaya mean? Fun to do in pairs/small groups - they may need help with this

79 What are the similarities between spoken and written discourse?
cohesion (both grammatical and lexical), reference, conjunction, ellipsis, and substitution Ask teachers what these mean - they should know!

80 Tell your partner the function of the language in bold
A. We had hired this car because it was cheaper than all of us trying to take the train to the wedding… B. uhuh A. And we were no sooner on the M4 when suddenly the engine just stopped and we drifted onto the hard shoulder with all the traffic whizzing past and then we had to wait forever for AA to come B. I know A. Can you believe no one had filled the tank before we left the car rental place? The tank was completely empty and we’d been driving on fumes! So in the end we missed the ceremony itself and just made it to the reception. B. That sounds awful but at least you made it, eventually. Look would you guys be interested in seeing the film at the Odeon Friday night? In pairs

81 Take the part of ‘B’ in each of the following speech acts – adjacency pairs
1. a) (A telephonist for a small company): Good morning, Waters Plumbing. Can I help you? b) (Calling re a drain problem) a) Can I come in? b) a) It’s just gorgeous today, isn’t it? a) Thank you very much. a) How are you? You may want to first review adjacency pairs with them

82 Review Adjacency Pairs
Teachers are normally good at working with them Students don’t know how to use them They end up using the adj pair that they learned – even if it doesn’t reflect their true answer

83 Tell your partners what you know about turn taking
Listen in on other people’s conversations and work out the strategies that they are using – to hold the floor – or to use adjacency pairs

84 Cultural Appropriacy Tell your partner what strategies you use to start conversations with British native speakers That you know/ That you don’t know How is this different in your language? Which topics are taboo?

85 Conversational Repair
What is it? What are the effects for our teaching?

86 Stress and Intonation – have a look at a couple of examples:
Your sandwich’s on the table next to your glasses. Where’re you going on holiday? This can be fun to try out to see where stress and intonation changes and what that can mean

87 Gesture and Body Language
What are the differences between X and X? How does it effect communication? Use local examples

88 Tell your partner what you have learned in today’s session.

89 Learning Journal Entry
What are the three most important things I have learned about teaching spoken discourse? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

90 Presenting New Language Session 9

91 What are the three types of language that you can present?
grammar points functions lexical points Ask how they do this at the moment. What works, what does not work

92 Present through Context:
To create the situation you can use pictures, descriptions, mime etc A generative situation – so that students get several examples of the language situation: e.g. He was burgled while he was on holiday He should’ve locked the back door He shouldn’t have left the window open. It can be more economical than creating lots of different situations and is less confusing. Get their views - have they ever done this? How would they do this - get them to try it out and peer teach it if it’s unfamiliar

93 More ideas Make sure that there is some form of personalisation to make the language more memorable Use real objects (realia) to aid comprehension and memory. Use a text (listening or reading) for examples of the TL. If you think it would help them, get them to try this out and show examples next session

94 What next? Once the students have seen/heard the TL then there are two main ways in which you can work with it:

95 through some form of guided discovery (problem solving)
Students are given samples of the TL to work with and they try to work out “the rule”. The Teacher then makes the rule clear and then the students practice the language item. e.g. Students look at several sentences containing nouns and try to work out why the definite article has been included or omitted. He wanted to go to the party. How many parties have you been to this month? Again, if this is a new concept for your teachers get them to try it out and peer teach. They can use these principles to create an exercise at home which they peer teach to the whole group - the more they can try this the better

96 Through a teacher guided explanation
The teacher explains what the rule is (what the language item means and how it works grammatically) and the students study examples to see the rule in operation: e.g. On the board (visual explanation)

97 Qu: Where does he study? A: He studies at Baku university.
T: So to make the question for the present simple you…? use a question word at the front place the auxiliary verb before the subject…. Etc. Example of teacher guided explanation

98 Other ideas For vocabulary specifically – contrast or similarity are good tools to use Translation - this can be quick and easy, so don’t discount it as an idea. you, the teacher, need to know the language well for grammar translation – not necessarily for vocab translation. Not always possible for multi-lingual classes Students start to rely on it Get them to tell you what they think of these ideas

99 How do you decide which way to present the language?
the nature of the target item is it a grammar item? is it a functional expression? is the meaning easy/difficult to understand? is the form easy/difficult to manipulate? Is the student able to transfer relevant knowledge from their own language? Get them to try this out

100 A couple of other ideas the level, age, and preferred learning style of you students what the students already know about the target item – is it similar to already known items?

101 Easy or complex? If the item is easy to understand and use, it could be presented through a problem solving activity or an explanation. If it is a more complex grammar rule, it should be presented through some form of situational context in which the meaning is clear – it can then be dealt with through teacher presentation later on.

102 What stages should any presentation lesson include?
the meaning is made clear. the form is made clear. students’ understanding of the meaning is checked students’ initial ability to pronounce and manipulate the form is checked students are able to personalise (even if only in a limited way) the TL. the language is consolidated on the board. Get them to peer teach if needed and time permits - remember, the more they can try this stuff out for themselves the better, and the more confident they will be to actually do it day-to-day

103 Learning Journal Entry
What are the three most important things I have learned about presenting new language to students? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

104 Controlled Practice + Drilling
Session 10 104

105 What are the stages of a presentation lesson?
What stage does Controlled Practice fit into a presentation lesson? Present (Controlled) Practice (Freer Practice) / Production Elicit stages first to refresh and then ask where controlled practice fits in to this pattern 105

106 When presenting new language what is important + in what order?
Meaning is clear Pronunciation is clear Form is clear (grammar and spelling) How do we make sure that each stage is clear? Get them to decide this in groups first. You could also model this quite easily. It’also review from session 9 106

107 When does drilling come into the lesson?
Either in: The controlled practice… The presentation ….. At any stage Which is more likely? This may nor may not be new to them so ask first if they do this already. 107

108 Which should come first…?
Meaning or Drilling? Why? 108

109 With a partner think of as many ways of drilling as possible
109

110 Here are some suggestions:
Choral Individual or random drills Male or female Half or half As or Bs Open pairs Closed pairs Student lead drill Whisper, loud, shout, sing, mouth silently Fast, slow Flat intonation, exaggerated intonation Change stress Scottish accent Substitution drill Next step drill (x1) Multiple step drill Jazz chants Find someone who… These can be fun to try out in class - especially if new. You could assign two or three suggestions to each pair/group and let them teach the whole group the drill 110

111 What are fingers useful for?
Drilling to show missing or separate/joined words. E.g. I’m tired Drilling to show difficult sounds To show syllables and stress. 111

112 Some questions about drills:
What should be the first drill of a new word? What are the instructions for a drill? When do we (usually) decide to drill? What should come first drill or written? Why? Should we drill individual words? Should we use standard intonation/stress when drilling? Is drilling more common with upper or lower levels? Banana, banana, banana! Split into groups and get them to discuss this 112

113 What is controlled practice?
What is the aim of it? What is the teacher’s role in controlled practice? What usually follows controlled practice? Elicit first 113

114 What are some types of controlled practice activities?
Matching (abc,123) Gap Fills Multiple Choice Sentence transformations Listing / Ranking / Ordering True / False Get teachers to find examples of these 114

115 What stage have we missed out?
Presentation Practice Production …..and? Personalisation / Personalization Ask why this is important 115

116 What do you think we are going to do next?
Yes, you guessed it…. We are going to try it out You will have a word or phrase Come to the front and drill in at least 2 ways + create a written record Remember be careful with your board writing! 116

117 Learning Journal Entry
What are the three most important things I have learned about drilling and controlled practice? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

118 Session 11 118

119 Ways of working with Connected Speech
Weak forms Intrusion and Linking Elision Ways of working with Connected Speech This is what you will be covering in this session 119

120 Fluent speech flows with a rhythm and the words bump into each other.
When we speak naturally we do not pronounce a word, stop, then say the next word in the sentence. Fluent speech flows with a rhythm and the words bump into each other. To make speech flow smoothly the way we pronounce the end and beginning of some words can change depending on the sounds at the beginning and end of those words. Elicit first to see if they can come up with a good definition 120

121 He can play the piano really well A pint of milk
Fish and chips  A dog and a cat He can play the piano really well A pint of milk A: Have you been to Paris? B: Yes, I have.  You should have come to the party. A fun exercise! 121

122 They need to understand them to aid comprehension and they need to use them so that their language sounds more natural. 122

123 Teach it along with new language – going to, a can of coke.
How many words do you hear? A mini dictation to see what they can pick up Unnatural speech – record yourself saying a sentence as if it was just a list of words – sts then try to improve. Teach it along with new language – going to, a can of coke. Get teachers to try this 123

124 When two vowel sounds meet, we tend to insert an extra sound which resembles either a / j /, / w / or / r / , to mark the transition sound between the two vowels, a device referred to as intrusion. Get them to come up with examples first before showing next slide. If they can’t come up with any, go straight to next slide 124

125 Intruding / r/ The media / r /are to blame.
Intruding / j / I / j / agree. They / j /are here! Intruding / w/ I want to/ w/eat. Please do/ w/it. 125

126 Do/ w /up Lay / j / up Go/ w /away Go / w / out
Get more examples and write them up 126

127 The media are covering the trial. I agree. Don’t do it. They are here.
I want to eat a sandwich. It’s no joke.  Law and order. The media are covering the trial. I agree. Don’t do it. They are here. See if they can do this 127

128 In minimizing our efforts, we weaken our articulation.
A native speaker's aim in connecting words is for maximum ease and efficiency of tongue movement when getting our message across. In minimizing our efforts, we weaken our articulation. If articulation is weakened too much, the sound may disappear altogether, a process known as elision. It is the vowels from unstressed syllables which are the first to be elided in non-precise pronunciation. 128

129 A syllable containing the unstressed "schwa" is often lost
A syllable containing the unstressed "schwa" is often lost. For example: sim(i)lar, lib(ra)ry, diff(e)rent, t(o)night. 129

130 The same process can occur across word boundaries, for example,
san(d)wich The same process can occur across word boundaries, for example, mus(t) be 130

131 For example: you shouldn´t (h)ave tell (h)im. Get them to try this out
131

132 Interest Library Christmas You and me The first three
You must tell him Different Tell him You shouldn’t have. We stopped for lunch Get them to try this in pairs. 132

133 Work with phonemes and write phrases out phonetically
Teach it when you teach new language e.g. superlatives. Drill the students with connected speech. Work with phrasal verbs e.g. get out, put on, come out. With listenings get them to say the number of words + maybe work on dictation If time permits, get teachers to try this out and peer teach! 133

134 Have you tried to listen to the BBC News?
134

135 Have a look at what you are teaching over the next couple of days and see if you can find some examples of connected speech TP is teaching practice group - may not be relevant but they should be able to relate this to a group they are teaching 135

136 Learning Journal Entry
What are the three most important things I have learned about teaching connected speech? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

137 Collocation Session 12

138 What is collocation? “The way words combine to make phrases and expressions” Michael Lewis 2001 LTP See if they know first

139 Which of the following is correct?
A strong wind A great wind A gentle wind Does the same thing happen in your language? “Collocation is one of the most powerful forces in making language coherent, fluent, comprehensible and predictable”Michael Lewis 2001 LTP

140 Step game Plain Dark White Bitter Milk Bar of
See if they can work this out

141 Step game Collect Provide Volunteer Conceal Gather Withhold

142 Step game – expressions
upstairs in luxury alone beyond your means to a ripe old age

143 Cause homework a job your best Make panic a problem embarrassment Do for a walk shopping crazy Go friends love a cake

144 1. This coffee is very weak. I like it a bit …………….
2. The hotel was surprisingly big. I expected it to be ……………. 3. The hotel was surprisingly cheap. I expected it to be ……………. 4. The weather is too cold in this country. I’d like to live somewhere ……………. 5. My job is a bit boring sometimes. I’d like to do something ………………….. 6. I was surprised how easy it was to use the computer. I thought it would be ………………………………. 7. Your work isn’t very good. I’m sure you can do …………….. 8. Don’t worry. The situation isn’t so bad. It could be ………………. 9. I was surprised we got here so quickly. I expected the journey to take …………………….. 10. It’s too noisy here. Can we go somewhere ………….?

145 What does this mean for teaching?
Teach word patterns Get students to find patterns in receptive texts Get sts to predict more Don’t give – make them work for it Ask why! Ask teachers to come up with examples

146 Learning Journal Entry
What are the three most important things I have learned about collocation? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?


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