5Teaching context here Huge influx of new graduate teachers Have to operate within constraints of ministryWe have to use new textbooksWe don’t get enough supportWe have heavy teaching timetablesWe don’t get paid enough!It’s hard to teach learners who are “x” ageI don’t want to spend lots of time preparing materials
6Learning context hereIn your groups, think about the learners’ experience of being taught English by you.What are their pressures, concerns, issues?How can these best be addressed?
7Learning journal entry What are three key things I have learned today from our discussions?What are three things I can do differently - whether in my teaching, how I work with colleagues or how I deal with challenges
8Ministry standards What are the key areas to be incorporated? How do we ensure we are keeping up-to-date and that these standards are met?What practical tools can we create ourselves i.e check lists, plans, internal support?
10What does it mean to “know” a word? To be able to use it accurately in all possible usages.Stress/Sounds etc in all formsSpellingMost commonly accepted meaningsIts grammarIts range or diversity of meaningIts collocationsElicit from group first, write their ideas on flipchart and then affirm/confirm/plug gaps with this slide
11Do we learn vocabulary in the same way? The Acquisition of Vocabulary is…Branching not linearPersonal not impersonalSocial not solitaryExperiential not purely intellectualYou could split group into threes, give each trio one of these to discuss and feed back to whole group
12Which words should we teach? High frequency words:in general English (from corpora) e.g. unemploymentin the classroom e.g. white boardin future situations for the sts e.g. interviewGeneral wordswords that can be used in many situations e.g. stuff, thing etc.Easy wordsradio, computer, + other cognatesWords that temporarily make a reading/listening easier to understanda reading about politics in the UK Prime Minister might be a useful word to pre-teach, but they are not likely to use it after the lesson.Words chosen by sts themselves.If they have a need/ desire for a word they´re more likely to use/remember it.You can turn this into an exercise by letting teachers answer this or give them the headings and get them to come up with the content. Or just present the slide, depending on how much time you have
13Some tipsTeach words in context rather than isolation, e.g. NOT window, but a window, Open the window, a window seat, etc. : contextualisePrioritise spoken forms over written (unless that´s what sts need): be selective based on utilityHelp sts see what's passive/active: don't practice everything equally: (help sts to) prioritize & limit learning loadAvoid over-complex language where possible: K.I.S.S!
14Some things to consider… what words to teachhow many words to teach at a timewhat order to teach them inhow to teach themhow to get sts to use themhow to test themDiscuss in groups how you do this at the moment. What works, what doesn’t and why?
15Practical ideas Visuals Lexical sets flashcards wall charts realia diagramsLexical setsword websclines (scale)co-ordinate (groups of words e.g. red, blue, green)synonym (similar word)antonym (opposite)prefix /suffix e.g. like, dislike, likeableIf you have time you may want teachers to try this out for themselves or get them to do this as homework and bring in examples
16And more Physical action mime act gesture demonstration Matching activitiesabc, 1,2,3ExplanationUsing L1Create a storyPeer teachingWords I know, words I think I know, words I don’t knowDeduce from context (from a reading/listening)Using a dictionary
17What’s the problem here? Discuss One st knows the word so T moves on.Sts often take notes while you´re teaching vocabWhat are other problems you have encountered?Each pair/group present your “problem” and solution
18Work with a new partnerYou have 5 mins to decide how to teach some words to the rest of the groupYou will be given one word + you should make up another word
19Learning journal entry What are the three most important things I have learned about teaching vocabulary?What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?
20Teaching Functions Session 4 Understanding, knowledge and awareness of language20
21What is a function?Functions refer to what items of language actually do in a real context, as opposed to what they might mean literally.Show this slide and then ask for some examples before moving on to next slide21
22Work with a partner Think of some examples of functions: Suggesting CriticisingRefusingAgreeing and DisagreeingEnquiringTalking about the pastGiving advice22
23What does the following phrase mean? 'What time do you call this?‘The person wants to know the timeBut what’s the function?'Why are you late? I'm very angry!‘So…One form may have a number of functions depending on….CONTEXT23
243-way role-play Taxi driver and passenger + observer Winter day Taxi driver: impatient, in a hurry, bad traffic, no metre, no heatingPassenger: cold, worried about how much to pay, wants to get to workTry it out!Trainer: set role play with three teachers. Get them to try out and reverse roles. Purpose is to just see what kind of language comes up. Note down some of the more interesting language used! Then take them through the review activity overleaf
25Think back to the 3-way roleplay What functions did you use?What functions did the passenger use in the taxi?Some more polite ones….I'm sorry to have to say this but...I'm sorry to bother you, but...Maybe you forgot to...I think you might have forgotten to...Excuse me if I'm out of line, but...There may have been a misunderstanding about...Don't get me wrong, but I think we should...25
26How would you teach a function? The same way as you teach vocab and grammarPPPorARCAuthenticRestrictiveClarificationTrainer - refresh these with teachers if unfamiliar or new! Get them to show you how they would do this!!26
27What’s the link between PPP/ARC Authentic is the same as….ProductionRestrictive is the same as …..PracticeClarification is the same as …..PresentationDiscuss examples of exercises that incorporate these principlesSplit into groups and let them come up with some examples of exercises - keep the focus on teaching functions though!27
28So what’s the difference? You can use them in any orderCRRAARCCARRCCAMore examples!28
29Let’s look at this example and rank according to ARC The T presents information about an item of languageThe sts then work on oral practice of these itemsThe sts do a written exercise to practise these itemsThe sts are given the opportunity to use these items along with other language they know, in communicative activities.Let teachers come up with this.29
30Here’s another one…The T reviews the vocab from the previous class by getting sts in pairs and checking each other´s understanding.The T elicits what sts know about adverbs of frequency.The T then extends the sts knowledge by giving further examples.The T gets sts to rank the adverbs of frequency in pairs and feeds back to the B.The sts then mingle in the class and try to discover the daily routine of as many sts as possible.30
31Here’s another one – what’s wrong with these? The teacher explained at length, and at random, a number of different grammar points for the whole of the lesson.The teacher was not prepared and decided only once s/he was in the class to go through the workbook to revise what sts had been doing for the previous week - exercise 1,2,3….A teacher at the end of semester wants to liven things up, so he sets a range of communicative activities and then gets the sts to write an essay.Again, to raise awareness. Note, some teachers may actually do this so it’s good to show third party examples and get them to discuss so as to raise awareness!31
32Now have a look at your next lesson plan and decide whether there is a good range of ARC + P Encourage teachers to bring examples of their own lesson plans or use some from the British Council resources in the trainers’ pack32
33Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about teaching functions?What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?
35What is literacy? Teaching learners to read/write. where does reading and writing finish and literacy start? Is speaking and listening literacy?There is a danger in the assumption that all learners are good readers and writers in their L1 when in fact many aren’t.Elicit definitions from teachers - perhaps split them into pairs and they come up with their own definition. Then you can get them to discuss the views on the slide
36What type of problems do you think your learners have? Differences in form of….Lower/upper caseLetters/numbersPunctuationPage layoutCultural IssuesGet them to tell you first. They may have plenty of examples and if not, you can encourage ideas through this slide
37How can we help them learn? Copy/trace letters numbersDifferentiation exercisesLooking at language in contextGet teachers to come up with the solutions to each other’s problems!
38What type of materials can we use? Commonly seen languageSignsAdvertsForms + form fillingMaterial for children to learn L1 (if appropriate)Need to match some of these things to the target learners teachers are working with
39Work in groups and decide how to deal with the following: A man from Baku studying and working for a multi-national firm (literate)A young girl from X coming to live in Baku (illiterate)An older illiterate refugeeThese scenarios need to be contextualized for different target groups so these are just examples
40Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about teaching literacy?What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?
42How long does it take you to read? X P T A Q E W Tjam hot pin call did tap son tickHow quickly can you read and understand this?Get teachers to tell you42
43What does this tell us? Words in isolation don’t mean much Our brains read faster than we do!Elicit first! Then show slide to confirm/affirm43
44READ QUICKLY ( 5 seconds) The handsome knight mounted his horse, and galloped off to save the beautiful princess. On and on, over mountains and valleys, until his galloping house was exhausted. At last he dismounted…..Where was the dragon?Get teachers to do this!44
45What was wrong? Why did/didn’t you notice the problem? Because your brains were reading ahead of you and didn’t notice the errorWhat does this teach us?Faster reading helps comprehensionElicit first, then show slide to confirm/affirm45
461. What was the flester doing and where? Yesterday I saw the palgish flester gollining begrunt the bruck. He seemed very chanderbil, so I did not jorter him, just deapled to him quistly. Perhaps later he will besand cander, and I will be able to rangel him.1. What was the flester doing and where?2. What sort of flester was he?3. Why did the writer decide not to jorter him?4. How did she deaple?5. What did she hope would happen later?This is deliberate use of “play language” to drive home a point of understanding something in context even if you do not know the individual words!46
47What did the reading text teach us? We have strategies for working out words – even if we don’t know the majority of the vocab.So?Teach strategies – they are more important than getting text answers rightYou might want to encourage teachers to discuss this. Or provide them with texts where they could work on some reading strategies they could teach their learners. This approach may also generate a lot of discussion and teachers may need to do some or would benefit from doing some of their own research in this area47
48So can we use an authentic text with a low level group? YesThe important thing is to grade the task not the textWhat is important about the first task that we do with a receptive skill?What types of reading can we do?Might be good here to show an example, perhaps from one of the text books they use or will have to use48
491. Skimming. 2. Scanning. 3. Receptive Reading. 4. Intensive Reading A) You read a poem by a poet you particularly like. You enjoy paying close attention to the poet's use of language.B) You visit a library in the course of researching a particular topic. You quickly look through books and articles in order to ascertain whether they contain information on this topic and are therefore worth borrowing.C) You are on holiday and sit down to read the latest thriller by your favourite writer. There is no pressure on you to finish it quickly.D) While waiting for an appointment you pick up a magazine and discover it contains an article of great interest to you. You do not have time to read the article in detail, but you want to extract as much information from it as you can in the few minutes you have.Get teachers to allocate the type of reading with the activity49
50Questions Which reading skill do you use most? Which reading skill do you teach most in class?Can you use more than one skill with a text, if so which order would you get your students to use the skills?True or False? Faster reading aids comprehension.Get them to do this in pairs/small groups and feed back to you50
51What are the stages of a reading lesson? Generate interest / set the sceneElicit / pre-teach key lexis.Set question(s)/task(s) for skimming comprehensionReadPair up students to compare their answers.Monitor the studentsHave students report back to the whole classCheck and confirm answers.Set new question(s)/tasks(s) for more detailed comprehension (scanning)Do another pair/group check, then report open class againSplit teachers into groups and get them to produce what they think the stages are before you show them this slide. You could also encourage some peer teaching exercises if time allows by getting teachers to practice this sequence through provision of a reading text which they peer teach others. Very effective!51
52RecommendationsMake sure your students get a lot of successful reading experience: through encouraging them to choose their own graded readers, for example, and giving them time to read.Make sure that most of the vocabulary in reading texts is familiar to your students, and that words that are unknown can either be easily guessed or safely ignored.Give interesting tasks before asking students to read, so that they have a clear purpose and motivating challenge - get them to read the first paragraph, and get them to write their own questions - the answers that they want to get from the text.You could ask for their ideas first depending on level/experience of your teachers52
53And more…Make sure that the tasks encourage selective, intelligent reading for the main meaning, and do not just test understanding of trivial details.Allow, and even encourage students to manage without understanding every word: by the use of scanning tasks, for example, that require them to focus on limited items of information.Provide as wide a variety of texts and tasks as you can, to give learners practice in different types of reading. Grade the task not the textDepending on time available and experience of your teachers, you may want to set them a task to do as homework to bring in next session to show examples of this53
54Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about teaching reading?What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?
564 skills Divide the time adults spend on the 4 skills to make 100% Listening %Speaking 25 – 30%Reading 11 – 16%Writing 9%Rivers in Gilman and Moody 1984:331, quoted in Vandergrift, L. Facilitating second language listening comprehension: acquiring successful strategies, ELTJ 53/3 July 1999First get teachers to decide on the time spent before showing them this slide. The results are quite revealing and may make them question how much time they focus on which skills!
57Live listeningMany students whose general abilities in English are quite good – or so they thought - report a traumatic period after their first arrival in an English-speaking country. For quite some time - days, weeks or months, depending on the student, they can understand little or nothing of what is said to them’.(Rixon, S. Developing Listening Skills p36)Ask teachers what they think of this or,even, if they can identify with this and if so, how?
58Reasons why listening is important Listening is vital in the language classroom because it provides input for the learner. Without understandable input at the right level, any learning simply cannot begin.Spoken language provides a means of interaction for the learner. Since learners must interact to achieve understanding, access to speakers of the language is essential. Moreover, learners’ failure to understand the language they hear is an impetus, not an obstacle, to interaction and learning.Authentic spoken language presents a challenge for the learner to attempt to understand language as it is actually used by native speakers.Listening exercises provide teachers with a means for drawing learners’ attention to new forms (vocabulary, grammar, interaction patterns) in the language.In addition to creating the right conditions for language development, listening can also provide enjoyment and stimulate cultural interests, participation in the target culture (via movies, radio, TV, songs, plays), appreciation of the beauty of the language (figures of speech, sayings, colloquial expressions) and fulfilment of social needs (development of relationships, confidence, gathering information for every day survival needs)’.(Rost, M. Introducing Listening chapter 10 section 3.2)Elicit first and see what they come up with
592 listening roles Interactive Non-interactive What type of listening do you do in a normal day?Ask them to give you examples
60Do the following encourage top-down processing or bottom-up processing? Ask students to guess content of a dialogue from accompanying pictureListen to a dialogue and guess where the speakers areRaise your hand when you hear words with the soundPredict which of these topics will be covered in this TV documentaryListen to and watch a video and assess the speaker’s attitudeListen and fill in the gapsListen and repeatDictation of a textGet them to think about this. If you want to, and time permits, try this out with them so they can put themselves into the shoes of their learners
61What’s involved in listening and understanding? Schematic knowledge e.g. news readerKnowledge of contextKnowledge of languageTop-down / Bottom-up processing
62What problems do your sts have with listening? The SpeakerThe TextThe ListenerSplit into groups and get them to feed back typical problems they experience within each of these
63The SpeakerLow volume, poor voice quality, monotonous, speed of delivery too fastUses unfamiliar languageDoesn’t organise discourse coherentlyLack of appreciation of listener’s difficultiesThe situationBackground noiseNo or few visual/environmental clues to aid comprehensionLet groups feed back first and then show this slide to confirm/affirm what they have come up with
64The Text Unfamiliar topic Unfamiliar language (lexis, phonological patterns etc.)See previous slide trainer notes
65The listener Lack of knowledge of the topic Failure to exploit visual or environmental cluesUnrealistic expectationsLack of concentration or interestLack of familiarity with the language and phonological featuresSee previous slide trainer notes
66Thinking about your Teaching of Listening Why do you do listening in the classroom? Is it for teaching and practising language or for teaching and developing listening skills?Do you believe we learn to listen by listening?What’s the difference between testing and teaching listening skills?Can we teach listening in a systematic way?What kind of listening tasks do you use? What are the aims?Do you think you should use authentic materials?Do you think you should use graded materials?What sources of listening material are available to you?Split into groups and give each group one or two of these to discuss and then present back to whole group
67‘Practice is the most important thing ‘Practice is the most important thing. The more listening the better, and the sub skills will take care of themselves as they become atomised’.Ridgway T. Listening Strategies- I beg your pardon? ELTJ 54/2 April 2000Do you agree?They may well agree with this. You are about to contradict this with the next slide which should encourage some discussion
68Problems with the traditional approach Not much time is spent on actually listening to the tape.Not much time is spent on analysing what went wrong.The teacher takes on the sole responsibility for building up an understanding of the listening text on the part of the students.It assumes that there is only one way of listening to something.Classroom listening very often puts students in the position of passive overhearers.The tasks do not stress the links between listening and speaking.We often expect 100% comprehension.
69Finding Solutions to Problems The following problems arise in your class. What ‘remedial action’ might you decide to take?Students miss the main point because they didn’t pick out key lexical items.In a roleplay one of the speakers falls silent as a result of not understandingwhat their partner said.Confusion arises over a misunderstood word (can/can’t) in a dialogue.Students fail to recognise the speaker’s attitude through intonation.Students get the wrong end of the stick because of misunderstanding a cultural reference.Difficulties in understanding the news on the radio.Not recognising links between different parts of what is said.Students say they can’t understand a word of a short conversation because it’s too fast.Let them come up with solutions in pairs
70Other ideas….? Authentic texts Graded texts The teacher Other live speakers of EnglishThe studentsVideoAudioHomemadeSee handout for answers…..
71Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about teaching listening?What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?
73Defining discourse 1. What is ‘discourse’? Write your own definition 2. ‘Coherence’ is a key feature of all discourse. What is it?3. Make a list of features of written discourse you remember:Let them do this individually first and then compare in small groups
74Differences between spoken and written discourse shorter sentencessimpler vocabulary and conjunctionsSpeaking is normally a dialogue while writing is normally a monologue;We adjust our message according to the immediate feedbackLittle or no planning timeIt may not be absolutely grammatically correctPeople may interrupt us or may finish our thoughts for us.We use sentence stress and intonation to convey meaning and we can use paralinguistic features such as gesture, facial expression and other body language if we are not on the phone.Elicit first with whole group, write up and then show slide to affirm/confirm or fill gaps
75Features of Spoken Discourse Spoken language occurs within cultural and social contexts.Spoken language is used to achieve different cultural and social purposes.There is a systematic relationship between spoken language and the context in which it is used.Spoken language is used to construct and maintain interpersonal and pragmatic social relationships.Spoken texts are dynamic and are sites for the negotiation of meaning and power.Spoken discourse needs to be analysed from the socio-cultural perspective and the analysis needs to give a socially situated account of the text.Spoken language needs to be taught as connected text and not as sequences of single utterances, phrases or words. (Burns et al, p. 28)
76Purposes and Functions of Conversation Conversation can be defined as purposeful spoken interaction between two or more people.Think about conversations you had yesterday; identify the purpose(s) of three of them.Get examples of these
77What’s the relationship between the speakers? a) Got the time?b) I guess it must be quite late now – is it?c) What’s the time?d) Do you have the time?e) Would you know what time it is?f) Could I trouble you for the time?What are the implications of this for the classroom?
78What lexical, phonological or grammatical changes have taken place in these exchanges? what does the change tell us?a) Have you seen the manager? vs Have you seen the boss?b) Whachadoin’? vs What are you doing?c) Shove over mate. vs Could you let me through please?d) Seen Joe lately? vs Have you seen Joe lately?e) Could you lend me a fiver? vs Could you lend me £5?f) We were out at the cinema, innit? vs We were out at the cinema, weren’t we?g) What do you mean? Vs Whaddaya mean?Fun to do in pairs/small groups - they may need help with this
79What are the similarities between spoken and written discourse? cohesion (both grammatical and lexical),reference,conjunction,ellipsis,and substitutionAsk teachers what these mean - they should know!
80Tell your partner the function of the language in bold A. We had hired this car because it was cheaper than all of us trying to take the train to the wedding…B. uhuhA. And we were no sooner on the M4 when suddenly the engine just stopped and we drifted onto the hard shoulder with all the traffic whizzing past and then we had to wait forever for AA to comeB. I knowA. Can you believe no one had filled the tank before we left the car rental place? The tank was completely empty and we’d been driving on fumes! So in the end we missed the ceremony itself and just made it to the reception.B. That sounds awful but at least you made it, eventually. Look would you guys be interested in seeing the film at the Odeon Friday night?In pairs
81Take the part of ‘B’ in each of the following speech acts – adjacency pairs 1. a) (A telephonist for a small company): Good morning, Waters Plumbing. Can Ihelp you?b) (Calling re a drain problem)a) Can I come in?b)a) It’s just gorgeous today, isn’t it?a) Thank you very much.a) How are you?You may want to first review adjacency pairs with them
82Review Adjacency Pairs Teachers are normally good at working with themStudents don’t know how to use themThey end up using the adj pair that they learned – even if it doesn’t reflect their true answer
83Tell your partners what you know about turn taking Listen in on other people’s conversations and work out the strategies that they are using – to hold the floor – or to use adjacency pairs
84Cultural AppropriacyTell your partner what strategies you use to start conversations with British native speakers That you know/ That you don’t knowHow is this different in your language?Which topics are taboo?
85Conversational Repair What is it?What are the effects for our teaching?
86Stress and Intonation – have a look at a couple of examples: Your sandwich’s on the table next to your glasses.Where’re you going on holiday?This can be fun to try out to see where stress and intonation changes and what that can mean
87Gesture and Body Language What are the differences between X and X?How does it effect communication?Use local examples
88Tell your partner what you have learned in today’s session.
89Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about teaching spoken discourse?What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?
91What are the three types of language that you can present? grammar pointsfunctionslexical pointsAsk how they do this at the moment. What works, what does not work
92Present through Context: To create the situation you can use pictures, descriptions, mime etcA generative situation – so that students get several examples of the language situation:e.g. He was burgled while he was on holidayHe should’ve locked the back doorHe shouldn’t have left the window open.It can be more economical than creating lots of different situations and is less confusing.Get their views - have they ever done this? How would they do this - get them to try it out and peer teach it if it’s unfamiliar
93More ideasMake sure that there is some form of personalisation to make the language more memorableUse real objects (realia) to aid comprehension and memory.Use a text (listening or reading) for examples of the TL.If you think it would help them, get them to try this out and show examples next session
94What next?Once the students have seen/heard the TL then there are two main ways in which you can work with it:
95through some form of guided discovery (problem solving) Students are given samples of the TL to work with and they try to work out “the rule”.The Teacher then makes the rule clear and then the students practice the language item.e.g. Students look at several sentences containing nouns and try to work out why the definite article has been included or omitted.He wanted to go to the party.How many parties have you been to this month?Again, if this is a new concept for your teachers get them to try it out and peer teach. They can use these principles to create an exercise at home which they peer teach to the whole group - the more they can try this the better
96Through a teacher guided explanation The teacher explains what the rule is (what the language item means and how it works grammatically) and the students study examples to see the rule in operation:e.g. On the board (visual explanation)
97Qu: Where does he study? A: He studies at Baku university. T: So to make the question for the present simple you…?use a question word at the frontplace the auxiliary verb before the subject….Etc.Example of teacher guided explanation
98Other ideasFor vocabulary specifically – contrast or similarity are good tools to useTranslation - this can be quick and easy, so don’t discount it as an idea.you, the teacher, need to know the language well for grammar translation – not necessarily for vocab translation.Not always possible for multi-lingual classesStudents start to rely on itGet them to tell you what they think of these ideas
99How do you decide which way to present the language? the nature of the target itemis it a grammar item?is it a functional expression?is the meaning easy/difficult to understand?is the form easy/difficult to manipulate?Is the student able to transfer relevant knowledge from their own language?Get them to try this out
100A couple of other ideasthe level, age, and preferred learning style of you studentswhat the students already know about the target item – is it similar to already known items?
101Easy or complex?If the item is easy to understand and use, it could be presented through a problem solving activity or an explanation.If it is a more complex grammar rule, it should be presented through some form of situational context in which the meaning is clear – it can then be dealt with through teacher presentation later on.
102What stages should any presentation lesson include? the meaning is made clear.the form is made clear.students’ understanding of the meaning is checkedstudents’ initial ability to pronounce and manipulate the form is checkedstudents are able to personalise (even if only in a limited way) the TL.the language is consolidated on the board.Get them to peer teach if needed and time permits - remember, the more they can try this stuff out for themselves the better, and the more confident they will be to actually do it day-to-day
103Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about presenting new language to students?What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?
105What are the stages of a presentation lesson? What stage does Controlled Practice fit into a presentation lesson?Present(Controlled) Practice(Freer Practice) / ProductionElicit stages first to refresh and then ask where controlled practice fits in to this pattern105
106When presenting new language what is important + in what order? Meaning is clearPronunciation is clearForm is clear (grammar and spelling)How do we make sure that each stage is clear?Get them to decide this in groups first. You could also model this quite easily. It’also review from session 9106
107When does drilling come into the lesson? Either in:The controlled practice…The presentation …..At any stageWhich is more likely?This may nor may not be new to them so ask first if they do this already.107
108Which should come first…? Meaning or Drilling?Why?108
109With a partner think of as many ways of drilling as possible 109
110Here are some suggestions: ChoralIndividual or random drillsMale or femaleHalf or halfAs or BsOpen pairsClosed pairsStudent lead drillWhisper, loud, shout, sing, mouth silentlyFast, slowFlat intonation, exaggerated intonationChange stressScottish accentSubstitution drillNext step drill (x1)Multiple step drillJazz chantsFind someone who…These can be fun to try out in class - especially if new. You could assign two or three suggestions to each pair/group and let them teach the whole group the drill110
111What are fingers useful for? Drilling to show missing or separate/joined words.E.g. I’m tiredDrilling to show difficult soundsTo show syllables and stress.111
112Some questions about drills: What should be the first drill of a new word?What are the instructions for a drill?When do we (usually) decide to drill?What should come first drill or written? Why?Should we drill individual words?Should we use standard intonation/stress when drilling?Is drilling more common with upper or lower levels?Banana, banana, banana!Split into groups and get them to discuss this112
113What is controlled practice? What is the aim of it?What is the teacher’s role in controlled practice?What usually follows controlled practice?Elicit first113
114What are some types of controlled practice activities? Matching (abc,123)Gap FillsMultiple ChoiceSentence transformationsListing / Ranking / OrderingTrue / FalseGet teachers to find examples of these114
115What stage have we missed out? PresentationPracticeProduction…..and?Personalisation / PersonalizationAsk why this is important115
116What do you think we are going to do next? Yes, you guessed it….We are going to try it outYou will have a word or phraseCome to the front and drill in at least 2 ways + create a written recordRemember be careful with your board writing!116
117Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about drilling and controlled practice?What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?
119Ways of working with Connected Speech Weak formsIntrusion and LinkingElisionWays of working with Connected SpeechThis is what you will be covering in this session119
120Fluent speech flows with a rhythm and the words bump into each other. When we speak naturally we do not pronounce a word, stop, then say the next word in the sentence.Fluent speech flows with a rhythm and the words bump into each other.To make speech flow smoothly the way we pronounce the end and beginning of some words can change depending on the sounds at the beginning and end of those words.Elicit first to see if they can come up with a good definition120
121He can play the piano really well A pint of milk Fish and chips A dog and a catHe can play the piano really wellA pint of milkA: Have you been to Paris?B: Yes, I have. You should have come to the party.A fun exercise!121
122They need to understand them to aid comprehension and they need to use them so that their language sounds more natural.122
123Teach it along with new language – going to, a can of coke. How many words do you hear? A mini dictation to see what they can pick upUnnatural speech – record yourself saying a sentence as if it was just a list of words – sts then try to improve.Teach it along with new language – going to, a can of coke.Get teachers to try this123
124When two vowel sounds meet, we tend to insert an extra sound which resembles either a / j /, / w / or / r / , to mark the transition sound between the two vowels, a device referred to as intrusion.Get them to come up with examples first before showing next slide. If they can’t come up with any, go straight to next slide124
125Intruding / r/ The media / r /are to blame. Intruding / j / I / j / agree. They / j /are here!Intruding / w/ I want to/ w/eat. Please do/ w/it.125
126Do/ w /up Lay / j / up Go/ w /away Go / w / out Get more examples and write them up126
127The media are covering the trial. I agree. Don’t do it. They are here. I want to eat a sandwich.It’s no joke. Law and order.The media are covering the trial.I agree.Don’t do it.They are here.See if they can do this127
128In minimizing our efforts, we weaken our articulation. A native speaker's aim in connecting words is for maximum ease and efficiency of tongue movement when getting our message across.In minimizing our efforts, we weaken our articulation.If articulation is weakened too much, the sound may disappear altogether, a process known as elision.It is the vowels from unstressed syllables which are the first to be elided in non-precise pronunciation.128
129A syllable containing the unstressed "schwa" is often lost A syllable containing the unstressed "schwa" is often lost. For example:sim(i)lar,lib(ra)ry,diff(e)rent,t(o)night.129
130The same process can occur across word boundaries, for example, san(d)wichThe same process can occur across word boundaries, for example,mus(t) be130
131For example: you shouldn´t (h)ave tell (h)im. Get them to try this out 131
132Interest Library Christmas You and me The first three You must tell himDifferentTell himYou shouldn’t have.We stopped for lunchGet them to try this in pairs.132
133Work with phonemes and write phrases out phonetically Teach it when you teach new language e.g. superlatives.Drill the students with connected speech.Work with phrasal verbs e.g. get out, put on, come out.With listenings get them to say the number of words + maybe work on dictationIf time permits, get teachers to try this out and peer teach!133
135Have a look at what you are teaching over the next couple of days and see if you can find some examples of connected speechTP is teaching practice group - may not be relevant but they should be able to relate this to a group they are teaching135
136Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about teaching connected speech?What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?
138What is collocation?“The way words combine to make phrases and expressions”Michael Lewis 2001 LTPSee if they know first
139Which of the following is correct? A strong windA great windA gentle windDoes the same thing happen in your language?“Collocation is one of the most powerful forces in making language coherent, fluent, comprehensible and predictable”Michael Lewis 2001 LTP
140Step game Plain Dark White Bitter Milk Bar of See if they can work this out
142Step game – expressions upstairsin luxuryalonebeyond your meansto a ripe old age
143Cause homeworka jobyour bestMake panica problemembarrassmentDo for a walkshoppingcrazyGo friendslovea cake
1441. This coffee is very weak. I like it a bit ……………. 2. The hotel was surprisingly big. I expected it to be …………….3. The hotel was surprisingly cheap. I expected it to be …………….4. The weather is too cold in this country. I’d like to live somewhere …………….5. My job is a bit boring sometimes. I’d like to do something …………………..6. I was surprised how easy it was to use the computer. I thought it would be……………………………….7. Your work isn’t very good. I’m sure you can do ……………..8. Don’t worry. The situation isn’t so bad. It could be ……………….9. I was surprised we got here so quickly. I expected the journey to take ……………………..10. It’s too noisy here. Can we go somewhere ………….?
145What does this mean for teaching? Teach word patternsGet students to find patterns in receptive textsGet sts to predict moreDon’t give – make them work for itAsk why!Ask teachers to come up with examples
146Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about collocation?What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?