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Pregnancy-specific diseases Chao Gu M.D., Ph.D. Dept of Ob/Gyn OB/GYN Hospital, Fudan University.

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Presentation on theme: "Pregnancy-specific diseases Chao Gu M.D., Ph.D. Dept of Ob/Gyn OB/GYN Hospital, Fudan University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pregnancy-specific diseases Chao Gu M.D., Ph.D. Dept of Ob/Gyn OB/GYN Hospital, Fudan University

2 CASE 1 What is your next step? Repeat another blood pressure measurement to ascertain the diagnosis of hypertension complicating pregnancy. A 35 year old lady at 32 weeks of gestation in her first pregnancy goes to your office for a minor upper respiratory tract infection. Incidentally, her blood pressure is found to be 155/90 mmHg with a pulse rate of 85/min. The cardiovascular examination and chest examinations are otherwise unremarkable. The size of uterus is appropriate for gestational age.

3 What are the classification of hypertension in pregnancy? Gestational hypertension Preeclampsia Eclampsia Superimposed preeclampsia on chronic hypertension Chronic hypertension in pregnancy CASE 1

4 What is the definition of various types of hypertension ? Chronic hypertension in pregnancy BP 140/90 mm Hg before pregnancy or diagnosed before 20 weeks' gestation not attributable to gestational trophoblastic disease or Hypertension first diagnosed after 20 weeks' gestation and persistent after 12 weeks postpartum Gestational hypertension Systolic BP 140 or diastolic BP 90 mm Hg for first time during pregnancy No proteinuria BP returns to normal before 12 weeks postpartum Final diagnosis made only postpartum.

5 CASE 1 What is the definition of various types of hypertension ? Preeclampsia BP 140/90 mm Hg after 20 weeks' gestation Proteinuria 300 mg/24 hours or 1+ dipstick Increased certainty of preeclampsia BP 160/110 mm Hg Proteinuria 2.0 g/24 hours or 2+ dipstick Serum creatinine >1.2 mg/dL unless known to be previously elevated Platelets < 100,000/ L Microangiopathic hemolysis—increased LDH Elevated serum transaminase levels—ALT or AST Persistent headache or other cerebral or visual disturbance

6 CASE 1 What is the definition of various types of hypertension ? Eclampsia Seizures that cannot be attributed to other causes in a woman with preeclampsia Superimposed Preeclampsia On Chronic Hypertension New-onset proteinuria 300 mg/24 hours in hypertensive women but no proteinuria before 20 weeks' gestation A sudden increase in proteinuria or blood pressure or platelet count < 100,000/ L in women with hypertension and proteinuria before 20 weeks' gestation

7 What is the management? Evaluation Severity Gestational age Presence of preeclampsia Outpatient Hospitalization Termination of pregnancy is the only cure for preeclampsia CASE 1

8 What is the management? High-risk chronic hypertension iassociated maternal and peri-natal complications, superimposed pre-eclampsia abruptio placentae Careful monitoring for proteinuria and renal function. Hospitalization should be considered if the blood pressure is not under control. Anti-hypertensive drugs should be considered. Once pre-eclampsia is diagnosed, hospitalization is indicated, progress rapidly to multi-system involvement, including eclampsia CASE 1

9 INDICATION OF MAGNESIUM SULFATE Control eclampsia convulsions Prevent preeclampsia develop into eclampsia CASE 1

10 THE USES OF MAGNESIUM SULFATE DAY 1 : loading dose : 25% MgSO4 20ml + 10% GS 20ml IV in 5-10min Maintenance dose: 25% MgSO4 60ml + 5%GS 1000ml IV in 10h Day 2 to 24h Postpartum 25% MgSO4 60ml + 5% GS 1000ml IV in 10 h CASE 1

11 absent or very sluggish knee jerk a respiratory rate below 16/min a urinary output of less than 100ml in the preceding 4 hours (25ml/hr) Contraindication as follow :

12 Indications of Antihypertensive drugs BP ≥150/100mmhg, <160/110mmhg , Oral 。 BP ≥ 160/ 或 /110mmhg,IV 。 Control to / mmhg 。 CASE 1

13 What are the antihypertensive drugs commonly use in pregnancy? Labetalol combined alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor blocker. Nifedipine Calcium Channel Blockers Nifedipine Beta-blockers Methyldopa Sodium nitroprusside Hydralazine ACEI ( 血管紧张素转换酶抑制剂 ) can’t use!!! 胎儿生长受限( fetal growth restriction , FGR ARDS CASE 1

14 Too early --- Can fetus survive ? Complication ? Too late ---Can mother survive ? Complication ? preeclampsia patient has no response following medical management for hours. preeclampsia patient after 34 weeks of gestation preeclampsia patient before 34 weeks of gestation with impaired fetoplacental unit function and matured fetus. preeclampsia patient before 34 weeks of gestation with impaired fetoplacental unit function and immatured fetus, use Dexamethasone to promote fetal lung maturity before the termination of pregnancy. Eclampsia control over 2h. CASE 1 Termination of pregnancy

15 A 26-year-old female at 32 weeks of gestation presented to the clinic with complaints of generalized itching. Patient reported no rash or skin changes. She denied any change in detergent, soaps, or perfumes. She denied nausea and vomiting.There was no history of any drug intake or previous allergies. There was no fever or any other medical illness. On physical examination, there were no rashes apparent on her skin and only some excoriations were there from itching. Laboratory investigations revealed slightly elevated serum transaminases and bilirubin levels, Alkaline phosphatase levels were much higher than normal. CASE 2

16 What is the patient’s likely diagnosis? Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy. (ICP) What is the cause of the patient’s generalized itching? Increased serum bile salts and accumulation of bile salts in the dermis of the skin are responsible for generalized itching. Generalized pruritus in pregnancy and a characteristic enzymeprofile High alkaline phosphatase is a marker of cholestasis Slightly high transaminases (AST, ALT) differentiate it from viral hepatitis Bilirubin is high due to intrahepatic obstruction as a result of cholestasis. CASE 2

17 Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) benign disorder that occurs in the second or third trimester and resolves spontaneously after delivery. Cholestasis of pregnancy is a condition in which the normal flow of bile from the gall bladder is impeded, leading to accumulation of bile salts in the body. CASE 2

18 Compa ny Logo Bed rest, left lateral position Drug Adenosylmethionine 腺苷蛋氨酸 Ursodeoxycholic acid 熊去氧胆酸 Dexamethasone 地塞米松 Phenobarbital 苯巴比妥 NST (Nonstress Test) CASE 2 Therapeutic Principle

19 Compa ny Logo Jaundice (+) 36 weeks of gestation Jaundice (-) 37 weeks of gestation Significantly decreased placental function or Fetal distress Immediately Cesarean section Termination of pregnancy CASE 2

20 CASE 3 30 years old First pregnancy 8 weeks gestation by LMP Persistent vomiting for past week Unable to tolerate food or fluids for past 24 hours Passing little urine Urien ketones 3+

21 Nausea (70%) and vomiting (60%) common in 1st trimester, Hyperemesis = fluid and electrolyte imbalance and nutritional deficiency Persistent and severe vomiting More severe in: Multiple gestation Hydatidiform mole Without treatment can lead to CNS disturbance, liver and renal failure CASE 3 What is the patient’s likely diagnosis? Hyperemesis Gravidarum

22 PRESENTATION Severe nausea and vomiting Dehydration Weight loss Ketosis Ptyalism (unable to swallow saliva) CASE 3

23 DIAGNOSIS Consider other causes e.g. UTI, gastritis, ketoacidosis, peptic ulceration, Addison’s disease, pancreatitis Investigations: FBC (raised haematocrit) U&E (hyponatraemia, hypokalemia, hypouraemia) LBP (raised transaminases, found in up to 50% cases) TFTs (thyrotoxicosis) Urinalysis and MSU for culture and sensitivity USS (if not done yet) Weight CASE 3

24 Compa ny Logo Serious Complications Wernicke syndrome ( Wernicke 脑病): Vit B1 deficiency A type of brain damage in which the initial symptoms appear. Abnormal gait and eye movements. Psychiatric disorder, includes dementia and psychosis. coagulation disorder (凝血功能障碍): Vit K deficiency CASE 3

25 INDICATIONS FOR TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY Continuing jaundice Continuing proteinuria Fever continuing over 38 ° C Tachycardia (≥ 120 beats / min) Wernicke syndrome appears CASE 3

26 19 year old G1 P weeks - antenatal care outside your area Contractions 3-4 in 10 minutes Excessive weight gain during pregnancy Recent generalized oedema CASE 4

27 ON EXAMINATION Facial & generalised oedema +++ Admission BP = 164/102 (repeat 160/100) Urine = +++ protein VE : Cervix = 4 cm dilated, 100% effaced, station ‘0’, membranes intact - contractions 3-4 in 10 mins, - baseline FHR = 140bpm - normal variability, - no decelerations CASE 4

28 What concerns you about with this situation? likely to have severe pre-eclampsia  both fetal & maternal risks such as risk of ECLAMPSIA intracranial haemorrhage risk of pulmonary oedema (iatrogenic fluid overload) hepatorenal failure CASE 4

29 What lab investigations would you order? Full Blood Count (Coagulation) Group & Save for X-match Urea, Creatinine & Electrolytes Liver Function Tests Urate MSU (inc Gram Stain) CASE 2

30 What other data do you need at this point? her handheld antenatal records CASE 4

31 Would you give antihypertensive and/or magnesium sulphate at this point? 1.Antihypertensives –persistent systolic BP >160mmHg should be treated 2.Magnesium Sulphate – most units would start MgSO 4 at this stage (ref MAGPIE study) …. IN THIS CASE, NEITHER IS GIVEN….. CASE 4

32 30 MINUTES LATER… While awaiting laboratory results, you are called urgently to delivery suite The patient has a grand mal seizure that lasts about 1 minute CTG shows a fetal bradycardia of 80 bpm after the seizure CASE 4

33 WHAT WOULD YOU DO AT THIS POINT? CALL FOR HELP INITIATE BASIC ABCs remember left lateral tilt!! ‘A’ – airway can’t be inserted during a fit ‘C’ – includes x2 large bore cannulae Initiate unit ‘Eclampsia protocol’ DO NOT NURSE IN THE DARK!! Give loading dose MgSO 4 (…what dose?) Foley catheter/fluid balance Keep NBM – review need to treat BP CASE 4

34 How would you deliver when stable - LSCS versus induction with vaginal delivery? Labour induction can usually be considered if: gestation >32 weeks cervix reasonably favourable (i.e. delivery likely within 12 hours) – cervix is often favourable in pre-eclampsia fetal condition stable (i.e. no severe IUGR) CASE 4

35 AFTER THE SEIZURE... Meticulous attention to fluid balance - intake / output assessed hourly 4g loading dose MgSO 4 then infusion at 1-2 g/hr Total IV fluids limited to 80-85ml/hr or 1 ml/kg/hr Foley catheter CASE 4

36 Fetal bradycardia recovers with control of seizures, oxygen and left lateral positioning Contracting 4-5 in 10; lasting seconds ARM - meconium-staining FHR = 160bpm with decreased variability Consultant Anaesthetist / Obstetrician and theatre aware of situation BP = 180/110 CASE 4

37 What would you do next? Control Blood Pressure Analgesia as appropriate CASE 4

38 Are you worried about her blood pressure? YES – in this case, BP>180/110 puts maternal CNS at risk (intracranial haemorrhage) CASE 4

39 How would you control the blood pressure? can you name 2 drugs you could consider using? SL Nifedepine IV hydralazine (bolus +/- infusion) CASE 4

40 What are the signs of magnesium toxicity? IN ORDER loss of reflexes somnolence respiratory depression paralysis finally cardiac arrest CASE 2

41 What is the antidote for magnesium toxicity? Calcium gluconate 1g IV over 3 minutes (10mls 10% calcium gluconate) CASE 4

42 What action should be taken for absent reflexes? Stop MgSO 4 until reflexes return CASE4

43 What action should be taken for respiratory depression / somnolence? Stop MgSO 4 Give O 2 Recovery position (as reduced level of consciousness) Monitor closely CASE 4

44 THE BLOOD RESULTS RETURN… Observations BP 140/95 Pulse - 90bpm Resp rate - 12/min Temp °C Urine output 30ml over past hour Blood results Hb 12.0g/dl WBC 21x10 9 Platelets 185x10 9 Coagulation normal / LFTs Normal Magnesium level is therapeutic CASE 4

45 The patient has another grand mal seizure What would you do next? general supportive measures (ABCs) second bolus MgSO 4 (2g) should be given even if levels are therapeutic, as long as no signs of toxicity consider another neuroleptic if seizures continue despite second bolus Case Presentation BP CASE 4

46 Would you deliver – if so how? once stable, delivery by urgent LSCS may be appropriate after this 2nd fit (assuming vaginal delivery is not imminent) CASE 2

47 Is she septic ? (T = 37.8°C WCC = 21 x 10 9 ) NO -  WCC and pyrexia are more likely related to the grand mal fit Should antibiotics be started ? NO - unless there are other overt signs of infection CASE 4

48 Does she have HELLP syndrome? NO – HELLP typically presents with: Haemolysis Elevated Liver enzymes (ALT/AST) Low Platelets CASE 4

49 THE DELIVERY… AND THEN? VE confirms cervix 7cm dilated Oxytocin augmentation Normal delivery within 1 hour Healthy 3.8kg baby boy Apgars = 6 (1 min) + 9 (5 min) Placenta delivered & appears intact No uterine atony or perineal trauma Case Presentation BP CASE 4

50 When would you discontinue MgSO4? continue for minimum 24 hours post-delivery (possibly 48 hours if recovery is protracted) More than 40% of all eclampsia occurs post-delivery POST-DELIVERY CASE 4

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