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2014 Marek Vácha There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy. Hamlet, Act 1, Scene V.

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Presentation on theme: "2014 Marek Vácha There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy. Hamlet, Act 1, Scene V."— Presentation transcript:

1 2014 Marek Vácha There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy. Hamlet, Act 1, Scene V.

2 Gyges´ ring  Plato in The Republic has one of his characters ask us to engage in a though experiment. He tells the story of Gyges´ring, whose effect was to make its wearer invisible. What would prevent the possessor of the ring from commiting any crime he felt like committing? He could never be caught. Would we not all be tempted, if we had such a ring, to do whatever our heart desired, knowing we would not, could not, be found out?

3  there are two ways how to create order:  by use of power  by use of self- restraint  when only police or army stand between order nad riots, freedom itself is at risk Tottenham, august 2011

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5 Science  The composition of mammalian blood is plasma 55% and cellular elements 45 %  leukocytes are: basophils, eosinophyls, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes  IgE antibodies are produced in response to initial exposure to an alergen bind to receptors an mast cells  blood glucose level is about 90mg/100ml

6 Ethics  when, if ever, is possible to take a gift or gratuity from a patient?  Is it permissible to lie to a patient if it is for his or her good?  what obligations do I have to a colleague and fellow practitioner when I suspect that the colleague I am working with is abusing alcohol or appears chemically impaired while on duty?

7 Science x Ethics  science investigates what is  ethics investigates what ought to be

8 Ethics  …and what about the Bodies exhibition?  Is this show ethically neutral?  …or good?  …or bad?

9 "Friendly embryos"

10 There are more complicated questions...  Is there any sort of pursuit of knowledge that might be forbidden?  is there a category of a "forbidden knowledge"?  Is there any sort of research that should not be publicly funded?  Is there any sort of genetic knowledge that it might be better not to know?  Is any basic research ethically mandatory in some way? 

11 There are more complicated questions...  should the use of cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (the technique used to produce Dolly) be allowed in order to help as infertile couple have a child?  should the entire UK population and all visitors to Britain be compelled to provide DNA samples as a means of enabling the police to detect the perpetrators of criminal acts?  (Mepham, B., (2008) Bioethics. An Introduction for the Biosciences. 2nd ed- Oxford University Press, Oxford. p. 3)

12 There are more complicated questions...  Is it possible to say that  future benefits justify the present practices?  future abuses do not disqualify present uses?

13 There are more complicated questions...  Is a goal of the medicine painless, suffering-free and, finally, immortal existence?

14 Ethics, too, are nothing but reverence for life. This is what gives me the fundamental principle of morality, namely, that good consists in maintaining, promoting, and enhancing life, and that destroying, injuring, and limiting life is evil. Albert Schweitzer

15 Science x Ethics Science MMethodological Naturalism: wwhat natural world contains hhow it arrived at its current state llaws that regulate its behavior OOntological Naturalism: nnothing else exists

16  Martin Heidegger: science is the theory of the real.  what does real really mean and to what degree that scientific reality presents a comprehensive worldview?  what is included, and, more importantly, what is left out?  and considering that which is omitted, what is the cost of its lost?  Tauber, A.I., (2009) Science and the Quest for Meaning. Baylor University Press, Waco, Texas. p.34

17  From how the world is, we cannot infer how it ought to be. For that we need another kind of knowledge entirely.

18  For science can only ascertain what is, but not what should be, and outside of its domain value judgments of all kinds remain necessary... (Albert Einstein)

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20 Philosophy  Ontology = a theory of what is real  Epistemology = a theory of how we perceive and organize data  Ethics = a theory how to live a righteous life

21 Science and Philosophy Philosophy Science

22  The materialism of science asserts its limits, not its universality. The methods and scope of science remain within the world of matter. It cannot make assertions beyond that world. (Francisco Ayala)

23 Science is only half the story  Science can analyse the chemical composition of a great painting but it cannot tell us what makes it great painting.  (Sacks, J., (2011) Letters to the next generations 2. Office of the Chief Rabbi. p. 29) Rembrandt van Rijn ( )

24  The world as we live it is not the world as science explains it, any more than the smile of the Mona Lisa is a smear of pigments on a canvas. But this lived world is as real as the Mona Lisa´s smile.  Scruton, R., (2012) The Face of God. The Gifford Lecturers Continuum. London, New York.

25 Guernica  On April 28, 1937, early in the Spanish Civil War, Nazi airplanes under Franco´s command bombed the small Basque town of Guernica, the spiritual home of the Basques, killing 1654 of its 7000 inhabitants: the first time that a civilian population had been determinedly destroyed from the air.  In a frenzy of manic energy, the enraged Picasso sketched in two days and fully outlined in ten more days his famous Guernica, an immense painting measuring 25 feet, 8 inches by 11 feet, 6 inches.  Ayala, F.J., (2007) Darwin´s Gift: To Science and Religion. Joseph Henry Press. Washington, D.C.

26 Guernica

27  Every musical person can distinguish melodies from a mere sequences of notes. Melodies have a beginning, a middle and an end; they begin and they continue until they stop; they have an individual identity and atmosphere, can be combined and developed according to their inner logic; (...) But no science of sound has use for the concept of a melody. Scruton, R., (2012) The Face of God. The Gifford Lecturers Continuum. London, New York.

28 Science is only half the story  It can tell us how our instinctual drives were formed but it cannot tell us which of those drives to yield to and which to resist.  (Sacks, J., (2011) Letters to the next generations 2. Office of the Chief Rabbi. p. 29)

29 Science is only half the story  Science can tell us how our instinctual drives were formed but it cannot tell us which of those drives to yield and which to resist.  (Sacks, J., (2011) Letters to the next generations 2. Office of the Chief Rabbi. p. 29)

30 The Idea of Science  Science becomes instrumental in several senses, as an authoritative instrument for describing nature, as a powerful instrument for the technical mastery of nature, and as a personal instrument for understanding the world and navigating it. (Tauber, A.I., (2009) Science and the Quest for Meaning. Baylor University Press. Waco, Texas. p )

31 The Idea of Science  science as a tool to promote human well-being, namely an intellectual and technological enterprise to understand and control nature  objective knowledge is appplied to make things or propose generalizations (laws, hypotheses) about nature.  science as a framework for building existential and metaphysical formulations  facts, laws and scientific inferences are translated into personal knowledge to place humans in nature.  interpretation of Darwin´s theory etc.  (Tauber, A.I., (2009) Science and the Quest for Meaning. Baylor University Press. Waco, Texas. p )

32  For science can only ascertain what is, but not what should be, and outside of its domain value judgments of all kinds remain necessary... (Albert Einstein)

33  „Scientists are well aware of how much they don´t know, but this is a different kind of problem – not just of acknowledging the limits of what is actually understood but of trying to recognize what can and cannot in principle be understood by certain methods.“  Nagel, T., (2012) Mind and Cosmos. Why the Materialist Neo-Darwinian Conception of Nature Is Almost Certainly False. Oxford University Press, Oxford. p. 3

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35  There is no way of getting from „is“ to „ought“, from description to prescription, from fact to values, from science to ethics  Pokud by dobré jednání bylo jen otázkou správného poznání, daly by se omyly odstraňovat a dobrý život také naučit  Sokol, J., (2010) Etika a život. Vyšehrad, Praha. str.11

36  since the majority people believe this (or since the majority people do this) there ought to be normative, acceptable.  The "naturalistic fallacy": attempting to derive "ought" from "is“

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38 Ethics and Morality  Ethics is primarily a matter of knowing  Morality is a matter of doing  morality is what people believe to be right and good  ethics is the critical reflections about morality and the rational analysis of it.

39 Ethics and Morality  Ethics is primarily a matter of knowing  Morality is a matter of doing  Éthos/Ethics = Place for pasture of animals, or indications for a stable, the behavior of animals (ethology).  Metaphorically: place for living and all habits common to it. The ways of behaving, thinking

40 Ethics Ethics = Place for pasture of animals, or indications for a stable, the behavior of animals (ethology). Metaphorically: place for living and all habits common to it. The ways of behaving, thinking

41 Good ethics start with good facts! 1. Defining the problem 2. Descriptive – defining what is going on, description of who the patient is, who the family is, what is their moral world; what the options are in terms of diagnosis, therapy, prognosis, goals, what can be done, weighting the risks and benefits. 3. Normative – ethics arises from value conflict – concerns itself with the „should“ questions

42 Descriptive Ethics and Normative Ethics  Descriptive Ethics  What do people think is right?  philosophical schools, religions etc.  Description of the problem according to different attitudes and approaches  all the „pros“ and „cons“  Normative Ethics  identification of values  what behavior is good and why  supported by arguments  what should I do and why?

43  Whereas descriptive ethics attempts to describe and explain those moral views that in fact are accepted,  normative ethics attempts to establish which moral views are justifiable and thus ought to be accepted.

44 Normative Ethics  Normative ethics is the attempt to determine what moral standards should be followed so that human behaviour and conduct may be morally right.  Normative ethics is concerned with establishing standards for conduct and is commonly associated with theories about how one ought to live.

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46 The position of the teacher  the teacher is not in „God-like position“  the teacher is not  a harbinger of an ultimate truth  a opinion-maker  the teacher doesn´t say „how things are“  his/her task is more complicated  to tell to the students what is known about the problem  and then he/she try to moderate the discussion

47 The Scandal of Philososphy  We have moved forward in medicine during the past years  we now know much better the human body than Hippocrates knew ..but have we move forward in philosophy?  is our contemporary philosophy better than the philosophy of Aristote?  maybe not!  the philosophy might be somewhere between art and science

48 The Problems of teaching Philosophy  the notions are generally not so clear as in science  there is no such thing like „hard data“  different people could have different opinions  „there is only one science but many philosophies“  everyone has his/her own philosophy  a philosophy is joint to the person of the philosopher and his/her epoch  …but is it true?

49 Why to start with Philosophy?  In the history of the human spirit I distinguish between epochs of habitation and epochs of homelessness. In the former, man lives in the world as in the house, as in a home. In the latter, man lives in the world as in an open field and at times does not even have four pegs with which to set up a tent.  In the former epochs anthropological thought exist only as a part of cosmological thought. In the latter, anthropological thought gains depth and with it, independence.  (Martin Buber: Between Man and Man)

50 Philosophy x Science  Unlike science, it doesn´t rely on experiments or observation, but only on thought.  And unlike mathematics it has no formal methods of proof.  Nagel, T., (1987) What Does It All Mean?: A Very Short Introduction to Philosophy. Oxford University Press. New York, Oxford. p. 4

51 Philosophy  A historian may ask what happened at some time in the past, but a philosopher will ask, „What is time?“  A mathematician may investigate the relations among numbers, but a philosopher will ask, „What is a number?“  A physicist will ask what atoms are made of or what explains gravity, but a philosopher wil ask how we can know there is anything outside of our minds.  A psychologist may investigate how children learn a languagem but a philosopher will ask, „What amkes a word mean anything?“ Anyone can ask whether it´s wrong to sneak into a movie without paying, but a philosopher will ask, „What makes an action right or wrong?“  Nagel, T., (1987) What Does It All Mean?: A Very Short Introduction to Philosophy. Oxford University Press. New York, Oxford. p. 4

52 ...taught us the paradoxical truth that nations survive not by wealth but by the help they give to the poor, not by power but by the care they extend to the weak. Civilisation become invulnerable only when they care for the vulnerable.  Sacks, J., (2011) The Great Partnership. God, Science and the Search for Meaning. Hodder & Stoughton, London. p.290

53 2014

54  there are two way how to create order:  by use of power  by use of self-restraint  when only police or army stand between order nad riots, freedom itself is at risk

55 Rights  Someone else´s rights are my responsibility  rights are noble things, essential to human dignity, but without the widespread diffusion of responsibility they are undeliverable  Bentham called them „nonsence on stilts“

56  The argument was stated most clearly by Thomas Hobbes in the 17th century in his political classic, Leviathan. Without the use of force, Hobbes said, we would be in a state of nature, a war of all against all in which life would be "nasty, brutish and short."

57  Thomas Hobbes:  without strong government, there is a chaos  politics = the use of power  Judaism  politics = use of self-restraint  politics = the voice of God in human heart  politics in Thora is not about a fear of government, it is about a fear of God  dva tisíce let Židé neměli zemi, vládu, policii ani armádu - ale přesto měli Zákon  (podle Jonathana Sackse)

58  The argument was stated most clearly by Thomas Hobbes in the 17th century in his political classic, Leviathan. Without the use of force, Hobbes said, we would be in a state of nature, a war of all against all in which life would be "nasty, brutish and short."

59 Rights  rights are claimed to defend the safety and dignity of the individual against the dominion of tyrant, king or prelate, and against those high- minded moralizers and zealous meddlers who seek to save man´s soul or preserve his honor at the cost of his life and liberty.  to these more classical, negative rights against interference with our liberties, modern thought has sought to add ceatin so-called welfare rights, entitling us to certain opportunities or goods which we have a rightful claim on others - usually government - to provide.

60 …opravdu ?

61 Rights and Responsibilities  rights are passive, responsibilities active  rights are demands we make on others  responsiblities are demands others make on us  A responsiblity-based culture exists in the active mode. It emphasize giving over receiving, doing, not complaining

62 What is the difference between a postmodernist and a member of the Mafia? The Mafia makes you an offer you can´t refuse. A posmodernist makes you an offer you can´t understand.


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