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Teaching, Learning, and Assessing Peggy Maki Senior Scholar, Assessing for Learning AAHE

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1 Teaching, Learning, and Assessing Peggy Maki Senior Scholar, Assessing for Learning AAHE

2 Areas of Focus Origin of commitment to learn about student learning Focus of our assessment efforts Approaches to Learning Alignment of Teaching, Learning, and Assessment Guide for an assessment plan Tell the story / answer the question

3 Assessment? It’s simple: you figure out what they want; find the quickest, least damaging way to respond; send off a report; and then forget it.

4 Origin of Our Commitment to Learn about Student Learning ExternalInternal

5 Focus of Our Assessment Efforts What do you expect your students to know and be able to do by the end of their education at your institution? What do the curricula and other educational experiences “add up to”? What do you do in your classes or in your programs to promote the kinds of learning or development that the institution seeks?

6 Focus of Our Assessment Efforts Which students benefit from which classroom teaching strategies or educational experiences? What educational processes are responsible for the intended student outcomes the institution seeks?

7 Focus of Our Assessment Efforts How can you help make connections between classroom learning and experiences outside of the classroom? What pedagogies / educational experiences develop knowledge, abilities, habits of mind, ways of knowing / problem solving?

8 Focus of Our Assessment Efforts How are curricula and pedagogy designed to develop knowledge, abilities, habits of mind, ways of knowing? What methods of assessment capture desired student learning – methods that align with pedagogy, content, and curricular design?

9 Focus of Our Assessment Efforts How do you intentionally build upon what each of you teaches or fosters to achieve programmatic and institutional outcomes?

10 Approaches to Learning Surface Learning Deep Learning

11 Advising Study Abroad Internship Experiential Learning Courses Learning Committees Services Dorm Life Work Life Service Learning Technology Collaborator Learner

12 When a Student Becomes a Biologist, Psychologist, Engineer … Knowledge/Understanding Abilities/BehaviorsDispositions

13 “Every assessment is also based on a set of beliefs about the kinds of tasks or situations that will prompt students to say, do, or create something that demonstrates important knowledge and skills. The tasks to which students are asked to respond on an assessment are not arbitrary. They must be carefully designed to provide evidence that is linked to the cognitive model of learning and to support the kinds of inferences and decisions that will be based on the assessment results.” National Research Council. Knowing what students know: The science and design of educational assessment. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1002, p.47.

14 Aligning Teaching, Learning and Assessment Outcome statements Methods of teaching/ learning Assumptions about teaching/ learning Methods of assessment Assumptions about methods What do you expects students to know, understand, be able to do as a result of your teaching? What methods develop/ foster your primary outcomes? What assumptions underlie your methods What methods do you believe provide evidence of desired student outcomes? What assumptions underlie your belief that each method will elicit students’ demonstration of your desired outcomes?

15 Assessing for Learning Students’ Learning Styles and Histories Pedagogy/ Instructional Design Curricular Design Content Assessment Task Designed to Ascertain How Well Students Achieve Expected Outcomes

16 What Tasks Elicit Learning Your Desire? Tasks that require students to select among possible answers (multiple choice test)? Tasks that require students to construct answers (students’ problem-solving and thinking abilities)?

17 When Do You Seek Evidence? Formative – along the way? For example, to ascertain progress or development Summative – at the end? For example, to ascertain mastery level of achievement

18 Part I: Determining Your Expectations State Expected Outcomes Map Where Expected Outcomes are Addressed For example, in courses, programs, projects, services, work experience Determine Methods and Criteria to Assess Outcomes For example, portfolios, performances, essays, tests

19 Write Outcome Statement Develop statements that describe what students should know, understand and can do with what they have learned: Student examines and compares information from various sources in order to evaluate validity, reliability, accuracy, timeliness, and point of view or bias. Source: ACRL

20 Alignment of our Outcomes Institutional Outcomes Program Outcomes Course Outcomes

21 State Institution’s or Program’s Level of Expected Performance For example, mastery level score on culminating project

22 Develop Rubrics to Assess Work based on Desired Methods: Levels of achievement Criteria that distinguish good work from poor work Descriptions of criteria at each level of achievement

23 Identify and Collect Baseline Information For example, by means of locally designed instrument

24 Part II: Identifying Cohorts, Determining Schedule, Assigning Responsibility Determine Whom You Will Assess All students Categories of students representative of your population

25 Establish a Schedule Upon matriculation, upon acceptance into a program At the end of a specific semester At the completion of a required set of courses Upon graduation Upon employment In graduate school Other times?

26 Part II: Continued Determine Who will Interpret Results Outside evaluators (agencies, faculty, employers) Inside evaluators (interdisciplinary teams, Assessment Committee, center or offices at the institution)

27 Part III: Interpreting and Sharing Results to Enhance Institutional Effectiveness Determine How Results Will Inform Teaching/Learning and Decision Making For example, revise pedagogy, curriculum, sequence of courses, advising; ensure collective reinforcement of knowledge, competencies, habits of mind; address faculty and staff development, resources, support services, etc.

28 Determine How and With Whom Results Will Be Shared For example, General Education Sub- Committee, departments, planning and budgeting groups, other decision-making bodies?

29 Part III - continued Decide How Your Institution will Follow- up on Implementation Changes and Repeat the Assessment Cycle

30 Tell the Story/Answer the Question Disaggregate the data. Report results using graphics and comparative formats. (Show trends over time, differences based on your demographics)

31 Publish short, issue-specific reports or research briefs. (Organize presentation of results around issues of interest not the format of the data.) Combine outcomes information with other data. (When relevant, incorporate statistics about course-taking patterns, participation in services, credit hours earned, majors)

32 Interpret your data for decision makers so that it informs pedagogy, budgeting, planning, decision-making, or policies

33 Principles of Assessment Assessment is not a one-time activity; rather, it is evolutionary, ongoing, and incremental. Over time assessment efforts should become more comprehensive, systematic, integrative, and organic. Successful assessment efforts are compatible with the institution’s mission and its available resources.

34 o Assessment’s primary focus is on the teaching/learning experience o Institutional autonomy should be preserved and innovation encouraged to provide the highest quality education.

35 “What and how students learn depends to a major extent on how that think they will be assessed.” John Biggs, Teaching for Quality Learning at University: What the Student Does. Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press, 1999, p. 141.

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