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Brief Review & Qual Assignment James Collins Centre for Executive Learning and Leadership.

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Presentation on theme: "Brief Review & Qual Assignment James Collins Centre for Executive Learning and Leadership."— Presentation transcript:

1 Brief Review & Qual Assignment James Collins Centre for Executive Learning and Leadership

2 Page 2 Qual research The practices of management and organisations, processes, structures, systems, functions, beliefs, theories of… Unit of analysis: the what or whom under the lens Perspective of: Individual(s) Group(s)/ team(s) Organisation(s) Case(s) Personal - Interpersonal – Group to Group Relationships

3 Page 3 Standard distinguishing features QuantitativeQualitative Form of datanumberswords Form of analysisstatisticalillustrative 'Feel' of analysiscold, barewarm, rich Radical distinguishing features Nature of analysispositivist, realistrelativist, constructionist Goals of analysis nomothetic (oriented to discovery of universal causal laws) ideographic (oriented to understanding behaviour in its local context) Products of analysis reliable, stable relationships between variables potentially variable meanings and rules Stance assumed by researchersdetachedinvolved Assumed status of analytical products objectivesubjective Source: Haslam and McGarty (2003)

4 Page 4 Return to Ontology & Epistemology Ontology: The nature of being, reality, truth Epistemology: Theory of knowledge: How is knowledge acquired?; what is it possible to know? objective knowledge [truths, facts] about human interaction, = a positivist epistemology Research evidence (e.g. about human behaviour) should be ‘scientific’ [natural sciences] Acquire objective facts Develop/ Establish Laws about human behaviour

5 Page 5 Return to Ontology & Epistemology A subjective approach assumes an interpretivist epistemology The Positivist approach is not appropriate to uncover meanings & emotions and how individuals perceive and make sense of their environment – these are the concerns that provide context to human behaviour Reality is socially constructed by people rather than by mechanical, external, and objective factors - shared versions of knowledge are socially constructed during social processes - continuous negotiation between people in the goings on of ordinary life. Reality is historically and culturally specific - dependent on the particular social and economic arrangements of the time

6 Page 6 Qualitative research: Some Methods (overlaps!) Interviews [various types] Focus Groups Qualitative Questionnaires Archive Data: [Artefacts, Records - can be written or visual] Case Studies [various types] Action Research [& sub-types i.e. Appreciative Inquiry; Collaborative Enquiry] Observation Ethnography [various types inc auto-ethnography] Stories

7 Page 7 Data Collection - What do we do with the data? Usually we convert it and create a proxy document. We interpret the interview tape (N.B. voice is not the only aspect of communication), or the visual image, the artefact, or whatever the source of data and create a written document that permits analysis

8 Page 8 A positivist approach (a priori) Set up unique categories derived from literature DATA Discarded Data Discard/ Separate what doesn’t fit Put the data into the categories as planned DATA CAT 1 CAT 2 CAT 3 Separated Data

9 Page 9 DATA An interpretive approach 1. Let the categories emerge from the data “PARK” DATA NOT FITTING 1. HIGHER LEVEL CATEGORY 2. HIGHER LEVEL CATEGORY CAT 1.1 CAT 1.2 CAT 2.1 FREE 2. Collect similar instances into higher level “bins” 3. Take account of what doesn’t fit, as appropriate

10 Page 10 Other Forms of Analysis Discourse Analysis –language, underlying power relationships, ideologies Content Analysis –frequency counts, positions of words, synonyms Conversation Analysis –short spans, mundane, natural. –interactions, topic changes, pauses, –semiotics (signs, metaphors, humour) Narratives –stories, often sequential, plots, transitions. –cultural expectations, contingencies, background A Caution here: Authors use these and other philosophical & ontological terms in different ways and interchangeably A Caution here: Authors use these and other philosophical & ontological terms in different ways and interchangeably – there are also overlaps

11 Page 11 Validity - Different Language Again there are many terms which are often used in different ways: POSITIVISTINTERPRETIVE Validity=Trustworthiness Internal validity=Truth Value/ Credibility Reliability=Consistency/ Dependability Generalisability=Transferability External validity=Applicability Objectivity=Confirmability Mere semantic differences? Probably no… But what both share is a concern for robustness, rigour, trustworthiness and standing up to scrutiny

12 Page 12 Methodological Issues - Bias At all stages from selection of cases to final theory Bias with methods such as card-sorting, etc. Conscious and unconscious impact Bias if you use computer-assisted software (CAS/ CAQDAS) From management of interviews to facilitate coding, indexing, searching and theorising From creation of codes, and groupings of codes. Also creation of mini-theories The main thing is to ACKNOWLEDGE BIAS CAQDAS allows researchers to make more effective use of time, and more reliable analysis of bulk data

13 Page 13 What is Qualitative Research? Recap A variety of techniques –Interviews; Observation; Diaries; Texts & Symbols –With a variety of tools, different emphases, different timeframes, often in combination (e.g. ethnography) For a variety of purposes –To uncover meaning –To reveal processes, structures, behaviours, histories –To explore, to suggest explanations; to describe, to compare, to add richness to understanding Because Qualitative Research can provide –Flexibility; Accessibility; Sensitivity; In-depth Understandings; Deal with Complexity

14 Page 14 INTERVIEWING

15 Page 15 Interviewing: Text-books Fontana, A., & Frey, J.H. (1994) Interviewing; The art of science. In: N.K Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds) Handbook of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks: Sage Kvale, S (1996) InterViews: An introduction to qualitative research interviewing. Thousand oaks: Sage

16 Page 16 What is Qualitative Research? Recap A variety of techniques –Interviews; Observation; Diaries; Texts & Symbols –With a variety of tools, different emphases, different timeframes, often in combination (e.g. ethnography) For a variety of purposes –To uncover meaning –To reveal processes, structures, behaviours, histories –To explore, to suggest explanations; to describe, to compare, to add richness to understanding Because Qualitative Research can provide –Flexibility; Accessibility; Sensitivity; In-depth Understandings; Deal with Complexity

17 Page 17 Qual Textbooks Spend time in the library!!! The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research – Denzin & Lincoln Collecting & Interpreting Qualitative Materials - Denzin & Lincoln A Companion to Qualitative Research – Flick, von Kardorff & Steinke Qualitative data analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook – Miles & Huberman

18 Page 18 Assignment The Assignment

19 Page 19 Aim of the Qualitative Assignment To give you experience of qualitative work even if you do not use this approach later. Learning, by designing and undertaking a very small project Practical experience on a small scale Helps to clarify your research questions/issue Demonstrate qualitative research skills –design –coding & use of an analytical framework –use of NVivo –Mapping & writing up results Practical experience of reporting empirical work

20 Page 20 Choice of Topic and Research Question A topic relevant to your research issue/problem Check out individually-held meanings Ascertain practitioners’ views on definitions Ascertain practitioners’ views on parts of a process Try out a ‘hot topic’ in two focus groups What are people/ organisations actually doing? Observe behaviour/structures/ culture

21 Page 21 Choice of Topic and Research Question Interviews [see sheet] Explore how your issue is presented publicly – e.g. Annual reports Consider how your issue/phenomenon is dealt with in academic articles – Text analysis (discourse) across a number of documents (e.g. press cuttings or policy documents) Focus Groups

22 Page 22 What methods to use? Interviews (four face to face) Telephone interviews (4-8; depending on length) interviews (at least 8 of substance) Focus groups (at least 2) Observation of culture Texts – practitioner Texts – Annual reports Texts – academic journal articles

23 Page 23 Writing the case for research issue Introduction/Context/ RQ Overview of the issue Rationale for your mini-study Brief literature review [a theoretical perspective] Your exploratory research question for this mini-study

24 Page 24 Writing of proposed methodology Methodology Rationale for choice of specific method Type of data to be collected Sample selection and access Initial views on limitations of the chosen approach. –method-induced bias –sample-induced bias –researcher-induced bias Perhaps this is better in the limitations section of the conclusion

25 Page 25 Instrument Design Set out the Sections of: Interview protocol or… Observation protocol or… Protocol for discourse analysis

26 Page 26 Data Capture Descriptions of: Tape recording & transcription Note taking Documents –On-line / paper etc… Videos Photos Memo writing –journal keeping process –theoretical

27 Page 27 A Typical Empirical Report Title Abstract Background/ Rationale/ Context/ Literature review: leading to: Research question(s) or hypotheses Method - Detail of Participants / Sources of data Detail of Measures Interview protocol (if applicable) Description of Method of Data Collection Description of Method of Data Analysis (including a priori coding framework if appropriate- or detail of how an emerging model was developed) Findings (results) - Findings for each Hypothesis if appropriate (incl stats) Perhaps a Model (quant and quals) In Qual perhaps report the findings under subheadings for each theme/construct Discussion – Reference back to the Literature Limitations – briefly discuss quality of findings Implications for Practice Suggestions for Further Research Conclusions

28 Page 28 Execution Discuss suggested topics – with DD/ DL/ KTJ A completed ethics form is required Report 5,000 words Add a section on personal learning in the conclusion Submission date:


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