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GENERALIZING RESULTS © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Discuss the issues created by generalizing research results to other populations, including potential problems using college students as research participants Discuss issues to consider regarding generalization of research results to other cultures and ethnic groups © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Describe the potential problem of generalizing to other experimenters, and suggest possible solutions Discuss the importance of replications, distinguishing between exact replications and conceptual replications Distinguish between narrative literature reviews and meta-analysis © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Participants typically not selected from the general population, and their samples may affect external validity College Students Young, with social and political attitudes in flux Well-developed cognitive skills More homogeneous than the general population Volunteers Gender Considerations Locale Generalization as a Statistical Interaction In Defense of College Students and Rats © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Until recently experiments conducted with college students in the U.S. were primarily white, which reflected college student population at the time Today most samples of college students are ethnically diverse, matching the more modern diverse population in college © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Important to be aware of the ways in which the operational definitions of the constructs that we study are grounded in a particular cultural meaning © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The experimenter’s influence on subjects needs to be constant throughout the experiment Personality Gender Experience A solution is to use two or more experimenters © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Should a Pretest Be Given? Helps assess mortality effects There may be an interaction between the IV and the pretest variable © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Exact Replications An attempt to replicate precisely the procedures of a study Ascertain whether the same results are obtained with replication Conceptual Replications The use of different procedures to replicate a research finding The IV from previous study is manipulated in different ways © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Literature Review Provides Information that: Summarizes what has been found Tells the reader: What findings are strongly supported What findings are weakly supported Exposes inconsistent findings and areas lacking proper research Discusses future directions for research © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Meta-analysis: method for determining the reliability of a finding by examining the results from many different studies Researcher combines actual results © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Goal of psychology is to promote human welfare Impact of psychological research Health Law and Criminal Justice Education Work Environments © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
GENERALIZING RESULTS. Participants typically not selected from the general population, and their samples may affect external validity College Students.
METHODS IN BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH NINTH EDITION PAUL C. COZBY.
Notes Grading Scale now posted on website. Generalizing Results.
GENERALIZING RESULTS: the role of external validity.
13. External Validity What is meant by the external validity of a research design? How is research limited in regard to generalization to other groups.
© 2001 Laura Snodgrass, Ph.D.1 Generalizing Results Generalizing to –other populations –the “real world” Generalizing from –replications –comparisons of.
CHAPTER 2 Research Methods in Industrial/Organizational Psychology Introduction to Industrial/Organizational Psychology by Ronald Riggio.
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STUDYING BEHAVIOR © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Evaluating the Experiment from the Inside: Internal Validity Taking a Broader Perspective: The Problem of External Validity Handling a Nonsignificant Outcome.
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McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 1 Sociological Research SOCIOLOGY Richard T. Schaefer 2.
Variables – Create an operational definition of the things you will measure in your research (How will you observe and measure your variables?)
@ 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning Chapter 11 The Ecology of the Experiment: The Scientist and Research Participant in Relation to Their
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RESEARCH IN MATH EDUCATION-3 CONTINUE…. 2 QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE APPROACHES So far we learned that research consists of the six steps. So far we.
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© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Chapter 5 Making Systematic Observations.
FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH ISSUES © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Research Design Quantitative Study Design - B. Back to Class 9.
12 Experimental Control and Internal Validity What are the potential threats to the validity of research? What is experimental control? What effect do.
Fig Theory construction. A good theory will generate a host of testable hypotheses. In a typical study, only one or a few of these hypotheses can.
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© 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Research Methods in Psychology Observation.
The Scientific Method Key Issues in Human Development 1- Heredity and Environment Heredity-oriented theories assume an important role of underlying.
METHODS IN BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH NINTH EDITION PAUL C. COZBY Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1 The Theoretical Framework. A theoretical framework is similar to the frame of the house. Just as the foundation supports a house, a theoretical framework.
Research Methods. Conducting Research in the Social Sciences The purposes of the social sciences are: – To describe and explain the behaviour of individuals.
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Research Methods in Psychology (Pp ). IB Internal Assessment The IB Psychology Guide states that SL students are required to replicate a simple.
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Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 3 The Research Endeavor.
Chapter 2: The Research Enterprise in Psychology.
Chapter 2 Research Methods in Social Psychology. Chapter Outline Characteristics of Empirical Research Research Methods Research in Diverse Populations.
Criminal Justice and Criminology Research Methods, Second Edition Kraska / Neuman © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 4e © 2012, 2008, 2005, 2002 Pearson Education,
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