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ECE 553: TESTING AND TESTABLE DESIGN OF DIGITAL SYSTES Logic Simulation

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5/3/20152 Overview Motivation What is simulation? Design verification Circuit modeling Determining signal values True-value simulation algorithms Compiled-code simulation Event-driven simulation Summary

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5/3/20153 Motivation Logic simulation is used to verify or ascertain assertions (design, device, …)Logic simulation is used to verify or ascertain assertions (design, device, …) It avoids building costly hardware Can help debug a design in many more ways than the real hardware couldCan help debug a design in many more ways than the real hardware could Understanding simulation will help understand the limitations of the simulation process and the simulator(s) in questionUnderstanding simulation will help understand the limitations of the simulation process and the simulator(s) in question

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5/3/20154 Simulation Defined Definition: Simulation refers to modeling of a design, its function and performance. A software simulator is a computer program; an emulator is a hardware simulator. Simulation is used for design verification: Validate assumptions Verify logic Verify performance (timing) Types of simulation: Logic or switch level Timing Circuit Fault

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5/3/20155 Simulation for Verification True-value simulation Specification Design (netlist) Input stimuli Computed responses Response analysis Synthesis Design changes

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5/3/20156 Modeling for Simulation Modules, blocks or components described by Input/output (I/O) function Delays associated with I/O signals Examples: binary adder, Boolean gates, FET, resistors and capacitors Interconnects represent ideal signal carriers, or ideal electrical conductors Netlist: a format (or language) that describes a design as an interconnection of modules. Netlist may use hierarchy.

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5/3/20157 CaCa Logic Model of MOS Circuit CcCc CbCb V DD a b c pMOS FETs nMOS FETs C a, C b and C c are parasitic capacitances DcDc DaDa c a b D a and D b are interconnect or propagation delays D c is inertial delay of gate DbDb

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5/3/20158 Options for Inertial Delay (simulation of a NAND gate) b a c (CMOS) Time units 0 5 c (zero delay) c (unit delay) c (multiple delay) c (minmax delay) Inputs Logic simulation min =2, max =5 rise=5, fall=3 Transient region Unknown (X)

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5/3/20159 Signal States Two-states (0, 1) can be used for purely combinational logic with zero-delay. Three-states (0, 1, X) are essential for timing hazards and for sequential logic initialization. Four-states (0, 1, X, Z) are essential for MOS devices. See example below. Analog signals are used for exact timing of digital logic and for analog circuits. 0 0 Z (hold previous value)

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5/3/201510 Determining Gate Values Use of software logic primitives such as AND, OR, NOT instructions Search the truth table Use cubes and cube intersection rules for processing Use of X value and its processing –Example: x value simulation, problems associated with it, possible fixes and conservative processing

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5/3/201511 True-Value Simulation Algorithms Compiled-code simulation Applicable to zero-delay combinational logic Also used for cycle-accurate synchronous sequential circuits for logic verification Efficient for highly active circuits, but inefficient for low-activity circuits High-level (e.g., C language) models can be used Event-driven simulation Only gates or modules with input events are evaluated (event means a signal change) Delays can be accurately simulated for timing verification Efficient for low-activity circuits Can be extended for fault simulation

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5/3/201512 Compiled-Code Algorithm Step 1: Levelize combinational logic and encode in a compilable programming language Step 2: Initialize internal state variables (flip-flops) Step 3: For each input vector –Set primary input variables –Repeat (until steady-state or max. iterations) Execute compiled code –Report or save computed variables

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5/3/201513 Event-Driven Algorithm (Example) 2 2 4 2 a =1 b =1 c =1 0 d = 0 e =1 f =0 g =1 Time, t 0 4 8 g t = 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Scheduled events c = 0 d = 1, e = 0 g = 0 f = 1 g = 1 Activity list d, e f, g g Time stack

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5/3/201514 Time Wheel (Circular Stack) t=0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 max Current time pointer Event link-list

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5/3/201515 Efficiency of Event-driven Simulator Simulates events (value changes) only Speed up over compiled-code can be ten times or more; in large logic circuits about 0.1 to 10% gates become active for an input change Large logic block without activity Steady 0 0 to 1 event Steady 0 (no event)

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5/3/201516 Summary Logic or true-value simulators are essential tools for design verification. Verification vectors and expected responses are generated (often manually) from specifications. A logic simulator can be implemented using either compiled-code or event-driven method. Per vector complexity of a logic simulator is approximately linear in circuit size. Modeling level determines the evaluation procedures used in the simulator.

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Switching circuits Composed of switching elements called “gates” that implement logical blocks or switching expressions Positive logic convention (active.

Switching circuits Composed of switching elements called “gates” that implement logical blocks or switching expressions Positive logic convention (active.

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