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Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 031 Evidence and Argumentation Frameworks Simone Stumpf Computer Science x33039

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Presentation on theme: "Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 031 Evidence and Argumentation Frameworks Simone Stumpf Computer Science x33039"— Presentation transcript:

1 Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 031 Evidence and Argumentation Frameworks Simone Stumpf Computer Science x33039

2 Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 032 Structure of talk zWhat is evidence? zThe problem of evidence - an example zArgumentation Theory zFields of argumentation yAnalytic yDialectic yRhetoric zPerelman’s New Rhetoric zCurrent areas of interest

3 Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 033 What is evidence? zsomething that furnishes proof zsomething submitted to a tribunal to ascertain the truth of a matter (Merriam-Webster)

4 Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 034 The problem of evidence - the Damilola Taylor case The jury The star witnesses The police The CPS The expert witnesses

5 Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 035 Argumentation Theory zArgumentation yReasoned discourse to reach a standpoint zArgument yA discourse involving statements yA statement/premise proffered in a discourse zArgumentation Theory yStudy of how people argue (or should argue)

6 Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 036 Use of argumentation zDesign process yTeams yIndivdiuals zDecision Support/ Expert Systems yCapture human reasoning yEnhance reasoning zRole of evidence in these instances yProof? yTruth?

7 Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 037 Fields of argumentation Proof Validity True premises lead to a true conclusion Analytic Critical assessment Uncertainty Premises that cannot be proven true lead to a conclusion which is probably true Dialectic Persuasion Acceptance by audience A conclusion is reached if acceptable premises are supplied Rhetoric

8 Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 038 Analytic zEvidence is a true statement used with inference rules y“rational” y“objective” y“measurable” y“timeless”

9 Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 039 Analytic application zFallacies - realisation that the way humans argue is not like formal logic zInformal Logic yExtensions to formal models (modal, non-monotonic, etc.) yAdopted in knowledge-based systems to simulate/automate reasoning

10 Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 0310 Dialectic zEvidence is a probable statement in support of a conclusion yEvidence testing - proponent and opponent yNeed to discharge opponent’s challenges to “win” argument xRelevance xWeight xLinks yAgree to play by certain ground rules of argument xField-independent structure xField-dependent acceptable content xPhases and roles within argument

11 Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 0311 Dialectic application yToulmin structure yArgumentation-based (visual) tools xDesign Rationale (IBIS, Questmap, DRL, DRAMA, etc.) xCritical thinking (Araucaria, Belvedere, AAA, etc.) xLogic of Argumentation (medical decision support) yImprove and support testing process DataQualifier, Conclusion Warrant Backing Rebuttal

12 Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 0312 Rhetoric zEvidence is a statement that an arguer uses to persuade an audience to accept a conclusion yEvidence is deliberately used (or not used) yImportant how and in what order it is presented ySuccess vs. truth!

13 Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 0313 Perelman’s New Rhetoric zPresence and interpretation zPremises yFacts, presumptions, truths yValues and loci zArgumentation schemes yAssociation x Quasi-logical schemes (transitivity, whole-parts, by sacrifice, probabilities, etc.) x Schemes based on the structure of reality (causal, coexistence, etc.) x Schemes establishing the structure of reality (example, analogy, metaphor, etc.) yDissociation

14 Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 0314 Perelman’ New Rhetoric zArguer needs to adapt argument to audience zBeliefs of audiences of both premises and arg schemes important zDifferent audiences - different arguments yParticular audience ySpecialised audience yUniversal audience

15 Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 0315 Rhetoric application zDescriptive framework yDifferent conception of fallacies yProcess of persuasion yAnalysis of audience(s) z“persuasion machines” yNatural language generation

16 Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 0316 Current areas of interest zDesign process yUsing rhetoric to analyse communication in design teams yDesign rationale and extensions yIdentification of problems in argumentation process zAudiences and what persuades them yLearning between organisations zKnowledge acquisition/management yComparison of expert and database “evidence” yKnowledge-Based Systems

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