Presentation on theme: "Providence University College of Management Method and Materials Wu-Lin Chen Department of Computer Science and Information Management."— Presentation transcript:
Providence University College of Management Method and Materials Wu-Lin Chen (email@example.com) Department of Computer Science and Information Management
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 2 Review Introduction - Stage II Most individuals seem to agree that the microcomputer will continue to hold an important role in education. Gubser (1980) and Hinton (1980) suggested phenomenal increases in the numbers of computers both in the school and the home in the near future. There are always problems with a sudden onslaught of new technology. Like any new tool that has not been fully tried and tested, the role of the computer is in question. How should the computer be used in the classroom? Should the computer be the teacher or used as a tool in the classroom in the same way as an overhead projector? Can teachers do a better job of teaching certain types of material with the microcomputer than with conventional teaching methods? Will the microcomputer have different effects on students with varying levels of experience? Schmidt (1982) identified three types of microcomputer use in classrooms: the object of a course, a support tool, and a means of providing instruction. Foster and Kleene (1982) cite four uses of microcomputers in vocational agriculture: drill and practice, tutorial, simulation and problem solving.
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 3 Review Introduction - Stages II and III The findings of studies examining the use of various forms of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) have been mixed. Studies by Hickey (1968) and Honeycutt (1974) indicated superior results with CAI while studies by Ellis (1978), Caldwell (1980) and Belzer (1976) indicated little or no significant effect. Although much work has been done to date, more studies need to be conducted to ascertain the effects of microcomputer-assisted instruction in teaching various subjects in a variety of learning situations.
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 4 Review Introduction - Stages IV and V The purpose of this study was to ascertain the effect of using microcomputer-assisted instruction as compared to a lecture-discussion technique in teaching principles and methods of cost recovery and investment credit on agricultural assets to graduate students in agricultural education (Rohrbach, 1983). This topic was identified as being of importance to teachers in providing them the necessary background to teach lessons in farm records.
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 5 Method The main part of the method section is a description of –the procedural steps used in your study –the materials employed at each step
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 6 Information Elements Included in Method Overview of the Experiment Population/Sample Location Restrictions/Listing Conditions Sampling Technique Procedures* Materials* Variables Statistical Treatment (* always included)
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 7 Writing the Procedural Description The description of the steps you followed in conducting your study should be written clearly. How clear? –It should be clear enough for a reader in your field could accurately replicate your procedure and get the same results.
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 8 Describe the Procedure The best way to describe a procedure is –Step-by-step –Chronologically
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 9 Correct Verb Tense in Procedural Descriptions The procedures you used in carrying out your study should usually be described in the simple past tense. Sentences included under method that are not written in the past tense usually do not refer to the procedures used in the study being reported.
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 10 Procedural Descriptions: Past Tense For examples: –Surveys were sent to student health services at 180 colleges. –The study was carried out on a marine laboratory research vessel. –The generators supplied about 14,000 amps when fully operational.
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 11 Appropriate Verb Voice – Active or Passive Either the active or the passive voice can be used. Subject Main verb (passive) AgentComplement + ++ Stresswas applied(by the investigators)to the rubber segments … Agent Main verb (active) ObjectComplement + ++ Weapplied stress to the rubber segments in gradually increasing increments.
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 12 Conditions for Deciding Verb Voice – Active or Passive The passive voice is conventionally used to describe procedure in order to depersonalize the information. The passive construction allows you to omit the agent (usually “I” or “we”), placing the emphasis on the procedure and how it was done. –EX A: For reasons related to personal safety, the test facility was constructed (by us) in a remote area 4 miles from the main road. –EX B: Tests were conducted (by me) with four different types of reactors. Note: You advisor may ask you not to use the passive voice since he or she prefers a more personal style with frequently use of the pronouns “I” or “we.”
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 13 Conditions for Deciding Verb Voice – Active or Passive Intermix the active and passive voices Place old information near the beginning of the sentence and new information at the end. –EX: The four reactors we tested in the work reported here are all contained a platinum catalyst (ACTIVE). Each reactor-catalyst configuration will be described separately (PASSIVE). The quartz reactors were manufactured by the Wm. A. Sales Company of Wheeling, Illinois (PASSIVE).
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 14 Materials Any item used to carry out a research project. Beside method, you also have to describe any equipment or other materials used with each step in your procedure.
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 15 Information Conventions Materials –laboratory equipment –field equipment –human or animal subjects –natural substances –fabricated materials –surveys, questionnaires and tests –computer models –mathematical models
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 16 What To Describe If the materials you used are well known to researchers in your field, it is conventional to identify them only. If you used specially designed or unconventional materials in your research, it is common to write a detailed description of them in your paper.
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 17 Verb Tense and Voice in Describing Materials Sentence describing the subjects or materials used in a study require either the past or the present tense. When we describe the sample used in a study we commonly use the past tense.
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 18 Describing Samples: Past Tense Verbs Sample Main verb (past) Description The subjectswere18 Arabic-speaking students attending classes at the American University in Cairo. The men interviewedwereprimarily from St. Louis, Mo. The boyswerebetween the ages of 7 and 13.
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 19 Describing Populations: Present Tense Verbs Sample Main verb (present) Description Theyenterthe English Language Institute where they follow an intensive program of English language training. All students who apply for admission to the American University of Cairo take the Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency. When describing the general population from which the sample subjects were selected, the present tense is normally used.
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 20 Verb Tenses in Describing Specially Designed Materials If you use equipment in your study which is standard or conventional in your field and probably familiar to most other researchers, you should describe it using the present tense. If you describe specially designed materials with which other researchers in your field may not be familiar, the descriptions are usually written in the past tense. Common devices that you modified in some special way for use in your study are also sometimes described in the past tense.
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 21 Describing Conventional Material: Present Tense Verb Conventional material Main verb (present) Description A typical chemical reactor includesa helical, tube-in-tube heat exchanger. The Auditory Test for Language Comprehension (Carrow 1968) permits the assessment of oral language comprehension of English and Spanish.
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 22 Describing Specially Designed Or Modified Materials: Past Tense Verbs Modified material Main verb (past) Description For the testing program this collector was protected from weather by an outer window of.10 mm tedlar.
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 23 Active and Passive Voice in Describing Materials Both active and passive voice verb constructions are used in describing experimental materials. Your decision to use active or passive voice depends on partly on whether the verb is transitive or intransitive. –Only transitive verbs can be used in the passive voice.
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 24 Active and Passive Voice in Describing Materials The passive voice is usually used when a human agent (the experimenter) is manipulating the materials. The active voice is usually used when no human is directly responsible for manipulating the materials – that is, when the materials operate “by themselves.” The passive voice may be used to describe an action involving a nonhuman agent, but a phrase must be included to indicate the agent.
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 25 Human Agent Involved: Passive Voice Example: The temperature inside the chamber was increased from 0° to 20 °C. –The researcher increased the temperature. Example: Four thermocouples were monitored hourly. –A researcher monitored them.
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 26 No Human Agent Involved: Active Voice Example: A 200 hp generator provided power to the piezometers. Example: Control gauges monitored air pressure inside the chamber. –In above two examples, the use of active voice indicates that the experimenters were not directly involved in the functioning of the equipment.
Technical Writing S03 Providence University 27 No Human Agent Involved: Passive Voice Example: Power was supplied by 14 generators with capacities ranging from 90 to 300 KW.