Presentation on theme: "Impact Assessment of Learnerships and Apprenticeships Perspectives on Impact Evaluation Cairo Conference Date: 31 st March – 2 nd April 2009 Presenter:Dr."— Presentation transcript:
Impact Assessment of Learnerships and Apprenticeships Perspectives on Impact Evaluation Cairo Conference Date: 31 st March – 2 nd April 2009 Presenter:Dr Jeffy Mukora South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA)
The study was commissioned by the MERSETA. Ascertaining the efficiency and effectiveness of the learnership and apprenticeship systems. Assess their impact on the demand and supply of skills of the industry. Limited understanding of the potential impact of learnerships and apprenticeships on the labour market outcomes of beneficiaries. INTRODUCTION AND AIMS
INTRODUCTION & AIMS CONT Critical lack of data on the scale, number and career progression of qualified apprentices and learners. Employability of newly qualified learners exiting at different NQF levels. Status and motives of many participants not known. Such information is needed as reliably and accurately as possible in order to enhance the Merseta’s ability to strategically intervene in training initiatives geared towards addressing the supply of and demand of skilled labour within the sector.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY Specifically the objectives of the study were specified in the research brief as follows: (a) To ascertain the effectiveness of the learnership and apprenticeship systems in terms of: career progression of qualified apprentices and learners who were employed before undertaking apprenticeship and learnership programmes employability of newly qualified learners exiting at various NQF levels number of qualified apprentices and learners produced against intake and specify their trades or qualifications administration of learnership and apprenticeships (b) To ascertain whether industry demands are being met effectively through either the learnership or apprenticeship systems.
Research design In-depth interviews Total population database Large scale telephonic survey For both Learnerships and Apprenticeships: Since inception until 14 March 2008 Sampling frame Learnerships: NSDS II Apprenticeships: NSDS I and II Conducted: Apr - Jun 2008 Deepen analysis of the pathways identified in the survey
APPRENTICESHIP ENROLMENTS BY YEAR OF REGISTRATION Total population of apprenticeships: 23 530 The database contains data that goes beyond the start of NSDS I 21% of all registrations were made before the first NSDS Phase 34% were made during NSDS I 30% were made during NSDS II
APPRENTICESHIP ENROLMENT BY GENDER, RACE AND DISABILITY The overall participation in the apprenticeship system fall short of all three national targets with 54% Black, 4% female and 1% disabled participants. The data shows clearly that apprenticeship participants are dominated by men with only 4% of the population being women. The trend manifests across all the year periods. Year period 2002/04/01 to 2003/03/31 shows the highest female enrolments with 109 females (6%).
ANALYSIS OF THE APPRENTICESHIP POPULATION DATABASE Black apprenticeship participation in the majority from the year 2003/04
POPULATION OF APPRENTICES BY YEAR AND COMPLETION STATUS
APPRENTICESHIP REGISTRATIONS BY CHAMBER The highest proportion (40%) falls within the Metal Chamber The second highest (35%) is with the Motor Chamber 3% falls within the Automotive Chamber
A SURVEY OF EMPLOYMENT AND LEARNING PATHWAYS The contact database described earlier, provided the basis for the sampling frame. The sampling frame included all learnership participants with contact details who enrolled within the first year period of NSDS II (1 April 2005 to 31 March 2006). The number of learners that registered for a learnership with NSDS Phase II was 10665. The 10665 learnership registration account for a head count of 10112 learners. The aim was to use this sample frame to obtain 2000 responses. A total number of 2336 valid surveys were returned. This represents a total return rate of 23.1%.
LEARNERSHIP PARTICIPANTS 83% of the learners who were employed after graduation or termination of their learnership indicated that the employment was related to the learnership they completed. In terms of the nature of their employment, 66% were permanently employed, 29% in positions that are temporary and contract and 4% were casual workers. About 32% earn a salary between R2001 to R5000 per month and 12% earn between R1001 and R2000. Only 3% earn less than R1001 per month and another 3% earn more than R10000 per month. Almost all (92%) of those who completed their studies are working in the private sector with only 5% employed in government and 2% self employed.
LABOUR MARKET OUTCOME: LEARNERSHIPS Note: Figures exclude learners who were registered at the time of the survey
SURVEY RESULTS CONT.. Most of the completed learners were employed between one and six month of completion of the learnership programme. Of these, 24% were employed within one month or less, 31% between one and three months and another 24% between three and six months. This shows a commitment employers are putting into the learnership programme by making employment opportunities available to the learnership participants. It shows that employers have a positive perception about learnerships and their applicability to industry demands.
CONCLUSION: Learnerships Almost all learners who completed or terminated their learnership reported positive about how participation in the learnership impacted on their lives. 97% indicated that the learnerships have made an improvement of their technical skills, their career opportunities and enhancement of their self confidence. Overall, both employers and learners were satisfied with the organization and objectives of the learnership system, reflecting well on the MERSETA and other stakeholders
CHALLENGES Some of the challenges still facing the learnership system The main challenges that are still facing the programme are as follows The current skills shortage has been exacerbated by the fact that a large number of the learnerships that are being undertaken are at the lower (NQF Level 1 and 2) rather than intermediary skills levels. This might partly be a result of a drive by government to meet specific targets to employ unemployed youths and for redress. The NQF level 1 learnerships were bridging learnerships, which is critical if workers, previously denied access to training, could have the opportunioty of moving up the skills ladder. This did not however, address scarce and critical skills needs. A balance needs to be achieved between redress learnerships and skills interventions at the intermediary and higher end of the skills spectrum. It should however, be noted, that according to this research, the introduction of learnerships, for example, at the higher end of the skills spectrum has proved to be problematic because of the costs involved and other related problems.
CHALLENGES The pipeline for the development of skilled personnel is partly a responsibility of education and labour. Hence, it is not with the sole domain of Setas to deliver skills into the economy. The effectiveness of the educational system is critical in achieving this objective. This not only raises the question of the linkage between education and labour and the lack of co-ordination between the two ministries but also highlights the fact that a number of blockages have occurred, some of which are systemic and have nothing to do with the functioning of merseta. For example, the disconnection between industry (and Setas) and FET colleges is highly problematic.